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otherwise adversely affect the public welfare. Such regulations may vary according to geographic and other circumstances.

(3) The term “maximum contaminant level” means the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system.

(4) The term “public water system” means a system for the provision to the public of piped water for human consumption, if such system has at least fifteen service connections or regularly serves at least twenty-five individuals. Such term includes (A) any collection, treatment, storage, and distribution facilities under control of the operator of such system and used primarily in connection with such system, and (B) any collection or pretreatment storage facilities not under such control which are used primarily in connection with such system.

(5) The term “supplier of water” means any person who owns or operates a public water system.

(6) The term "contaminant" means any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water.

(7) The term “Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(8) The term “Agency” means the Environmental Protection Agency.

(9) The term “Council” means the National Drinking Water Advisory Council established under section 1446.

(10) The term “municipality” means a city, town, or other public body created by or pursuant to State law, or an Indian tribe.

(11) The term "Federal agency" means any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States.

(12) The term “person” means an individual, corporation, company, association, partnership, State, municipality, or Federal agency (and includes officers, employees, and agents of any corporation, company, association, State, municipality, or Federal agency).

(13) The term "State” includes, in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(14) The term "Indian Tribe” means any Indian tribe having a Federally recognized governing body carrying out sub

stantial governmental duties and powers over any area. (42 U.S.C. 300f)

PART B-PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS

COVERAGE

SEC. 1411. Subject to sections 1415 and 1416, national primary drinking water regulations under this part shall apply to each public water system in each State; except that such regulations shall not apply to a public water system

(1) which consists only of distribution and storage facilities (and does not have any collection and treatment facilities);

(2) which obtains all of its water from, but is not owned or operated by, a public water system to which such regulations apply;

(3) which does not sell water to any person; and

(4) which is not a carrier which conveys passengers in interstate commerce. (42 U.S.C. 300g)

NATIONAL DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS

SEC. 1412. (a)(1) Effective on the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, each national interim or revised primary drinking water regulation promulgated under this section before such enactment shall be deemed to be a national primary drinking water regulation under subsection (b). No such regulation shall be required to comply with the standards set forth in subsection (b)(4) unless such regulation is amended to establish a different maximum contaminant level after the enactment of such amendments.

(2) After the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986 each recommended maximum contaminant level published before the enactment of such amendments shall be treated as a maximum contaminant level goal.

(3) Whenever a national primary drinking water regulation is proposed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (b) for any contaminant, the maximum contaminant level goal for such contaminant shall be proposed simultaneously. Whenever a national primary drinking water regulation is promulgated under paragraph (1) (2), or (3) of subsection (b) for any contaminant, the maximum contaminant level goal for such contaminant shall be published simultaneously.

(4) Paragraph (3) shall not apply to any recommended maximum contaminant level published before the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986.

(b)(i) In the case of those contaminants listed in the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published in volume 47, Federal Register, page 9352, and in volume 48, Federal Register, page 45502, the Administrator shall publish maximum contaminant level goals and promulgate national primary drinking water regulations

(A) not later than 12 months after the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986 for not less than 9 of those listed contaminants;

(B) not later than 24 months after such enactment for not less than 40 of those listed contaminants; and

(C) not later than 36 months after such enactment for the remainder of such listed contaminants.

(2)(A) If the Administrator identifies a drinking water contaminant the regulation of which, in the judgment of the Administrator, is more likely to be protective of public health (taking into account the schedule for regulation under paragraph (1)) than a contaminant referred to in paragraph (1), the Administrator may publish a maximum contaminant level goal and promulgate a national primary drinking water regulation for such identified contaminant in lieu of regulating the contaminant referred to in such paragraph. There may be no more than 7 contaminants in paragraph (1) for which substitutions may be made. Regulation of a contaminant identified under this paragraph shall be in accordance with the schedule applicable to the contaminant for which the substitution is made.

(B) If the Administrator identifies one or more contaminants for substitution under this paragraph, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register not later than one year after the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986 a list of contaminants proposed for substitution, the contaminants referred to in paragraph (1) for which substitutions are to be made, and the basis for the judgment that regulation of such proposed substitute contaminants is more likely to be protective of public health (taking into account the schedule for regulation under such paragraph). Following a period of 60 days for public comment, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register a final list of contaminants to be substituted and contaminants referred to in paragraph (1) for which substitutions are to be made, together with responses to significant comments.

(C) Any contaminant referred to in paragraph (1) for which a substitution is made, pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall be included on the priority list to be published by the Administrator not later than January 1, 1988, pursuant to paragraph (3)(a).

(D) The Administrator's decision to regulate a contaminant identified pursuant to this paragraph in lieu of a contaminant referred to in paragraph (1) shall not be subject to judicial review.

(3)(A) The Administrator shall publish maximum contaminant level goals and promulgate national primary drinking water regulations for each contaminant (other than a contaminant referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) for which a national primary drinking water regulation was promulgated) which, in the judgment of the Administrator, may have any adverse effect on the health of persons and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. Not later than January 1, 1988, and at 3-year intervals thereafter, the Administrator shall publish a list of contaminants which are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems and which may require regulation under this Act.

(B) For the purpose of establishing the list under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall form an advisory working group including members from the National Toxicology Program and the Environmental Protection Agency's Offices of Ďrinking Water, Pesticides, Toxic Substances, Ground Water, Solid Waste and Emergency Response and any others the Administrator deems appropriate. The Administrator's consideration of priorities shall include, but not be limited to, substances referred to in section 101(14) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, and substances registered as pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.

(C) Not later than 24 months after the listing of contaminants under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall publish proposed maximum contaminant level goals and national primary drinking

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water regulations for not less than 25 contaminants for the list established under subparagraph (A).

(D) Not later than 36 months after the listing of contaminants under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall publish a maximum contaminant goal and promulgate a national primary drinking water regulation for those contaminants for which proposed maximum contaminant level goals and proposed national primary drinking water regulations were published under subparagraph (C).

(4) Each maximum contaminant level goal established under this subsection shall be set at the level at which no known or antici- pated adverse effects on the health of persons occur and which allows an adequate margin of safety. Each national primary drinking water regulation for a contaminant for which a maximum contaminant level goal is established under this subsection shall specify a maximum level for such contaminant which is as close to the maximum contaminant level goal as is feasible.

(5) For the purposes of this subsection, the term “feasible” means feasible with the use of the best technology, treatment techniques and other means which the Administrator finds, after examination for efficacy under field conditions and not solely under laboratory conditions, are available (taking cost into consideration). For the purpose of paragraph (4), granular activated carbon is feasible for the control of synthetic organic chemicals, and any technology, treatment technique, or other means found to be the best available for the control of synthetic organic chemicals must be at least as effective in controlling synthetic organic chemicals as granular activated carbon.

(6) Each national primary drinking water regulation which establishes a maximum contaminant level shall list the technology, treatment techniques, and other means which the Administrator finds to be feasible for purposes of meeting such maximum contaminant level, but a regulation under this paragraph shall not require that any specified technology, treatment technique, or other means be used for purposes of meeting such maximum contaminant level.

(7)(A) The Administrator is authorized to promulgate a national primary drinking water regulation that requires the use of a treatment technique in lieu of establishing a maximum contaminant level, if the Administrator makes a finding that it is not economically or technologically feasible to ascertain the level of the contaminant. In such case, the Administrator shall identify those treatment techniques which, in the Administrator's judgment, would prevent known or anticipated adverse effects on the health of persons to the extent feasible. Such regulations shall specify each treatment technique known to the Administrator which meets the requirements of this paragraph, but the Administrator may grant a variance from any specified treatment technique in accordance with section 1415(a 3).

(B) Any schedule referred to in this subsection for the promulgation of a national primary drinking water regulation for any contaminant shall apply in the same manner if the regulation requires a treatment technique in lieu of establishing a maximum contaminant level.

(CXi) Not later than 18 months after the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, the Administrator shall propose and promulgate national primary drinking water regulations specifying criteria under which filtration (including coagulation and sedimentation, as appropriate) is required as a treatment technique for public water systems supplied by surface water sources. In promulgating such rules, the Administrator shall consider the quality of source waters, protection afforded by watershed management, treatment practices (such as disinfection and length of water storage) and other factors relevant to protection of health.

(ii) In lieu of the provisions of section 1415 the Administrator shall specify procedures by which the State determines which public water systems within its jurisdiction shall adopt filtration under the criteria of clause (i). The State may require the public water system to provide studies or other information to assist in this determination. The procedures shall provide notice and opportunity for public hearing on this determination. If the State determines that filtration is required, the State shall prescribe a schedule for compliance by the public water system with the filtration requirement. A schedule shall require compliance within 18 months of a determination made under clause (ii).

(iii) Within 18 months from the time that the Administrator establishes the criteria and procedures under this subparagraph, a State with primary enforcement responsibility shall adopt any necessary regulations to implement this subparagraph. Within 12 months of adoption of such regulations the State shall make determinations regarding filtration for all the public water systems within its jurisdiction supplied by surface waters.

(iv) If a State does not have primary enforcement responsibility for public water systems, the Administrator shall have the same authority to make the determination in clause (i) in such State as the State would have under that clause. Any filtration requirement or schedule under this subparagraph shall be treated as if it were a requirement of a national primary drinking water regulation.

(8) Not later than 36 months after the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, the Administrator shall propose and promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection as a treatment technique for all public water systems. The Administrator shall simultaneously promulgate a rule specifying criteria that will be used by the Administrator (or delegated State authorities) to grant variances from this require ment according to the provisions of sections 1415(a)(1)(B) and 1415(a)(3). In implementing section 1442(g) the Administrator or the delegated State authority shall, where appropriate, give special consideration to providing technical assistance to small public water systems in complying with the regulations promulgated under this paragraph.

(9) National primary drinking water regulations shall be amended whenever changes in technology, treatment techniques, and other means permit greater protection of the health of persons, but in any event such regulations shall be reviewed at least once every 3 years. Such review shall include an analysis of innovations or changes in technology, treatment techniques or other activities that have occurred over the previous 3-year period and that may

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