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ber of persons exposed at various levels of risk, the incidence of cancer, and other public health factors;
(3) methods to reflect uncertainties in measurement and estimation techniques, the existence of synergistic or antagonistic effects among hazardous substances, the accuracy of extrapolating human health risks from animal exposure data, and the existence of unquantified direct or indirect effects on human health in risk assessment studies;
(4) risk management policy issues including the use of lifetime cancer risks to individuals most exposed, incidence of cancer, the cost and technical feasibility of exposure reduction measures and the use of site-specific actual exposure information in setting emissions standards and other limitations applicable to sources of exposure to hazardous substances; and
(5) and comment on the degree to which it is possible or desirable to develop a consistent risk assessment methodology, or a consistent standard of acceptable risk, among various Federal programs.
(c) MEMBERSHIP.-Such Commission shall be composed of ten members who shall have knowledge or experience in fields of risk assessment or risk management, including three members to be appointed by the President, two members to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, one member to be appointed by the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, two members to be appointed by the Majority Leader of the Senate, one member to be appointed by the Minority Leader of the Senate, and one member to be appointed by the President of the National Academy of Sciences. Appointments shall be made not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
(d) ASSISTANCE FROM AGENCIES.—The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the heads of all other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the executive branch of the Federal Government shall, to the maximum extent practicable, assist the Commission in gathering such information as the Commission deems necessary to carry out this section subject to other provisions of law. (e) STAFF AND CONTRACTS.
(1) In the conduct of the study required by this section, the Commission is authorized to contract (in accordance with Federal contract law) with nongovernmental entities that are competent to perform research or investigations within the Commission's mandate, and to hold public hearings, forums, and workshops to enable full public participation.
(2) The Commission may appoint and fix the pay of such staff as it deems necessary in accordance with the provisions of title 5, United States Code. The Commission may request the temporary assignment of personnel from the Environmental Protection Agency or other Federal agencies.
(3) The members of the Commission who are not officers or employees of the United States, while attending conferences or meetings of the Commission or while otherwise serving at the request of the Chair, shall be entitled to receive compensation at a rate not in excess of the maximum rate of pay for (B) shall make available permanent research support facilities owned by the nonprofit entities.
(3) The nonprofit entities described in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be authorized to make grants, accept contributions, and enter into agreements with other entities to carry out the provisions of this subsection.
(4) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Energy $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1991 and such sums as may be necessary for each fiscal year thereafter to carry out the provisions of paragraph (1). Such amounts shall remain available until expended.
TITLE X-DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS
Sec. 1001. Disadvantaged business concerns.
(a) IN GENERAL.-In providing for any research relating to the requirements of the amendments made by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 which uses funds of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall, to the extent practicable, require that not less than 10 percent of total Federal funding for such research will be made available to disadvantaged business concerns. (b) DEFINITION.
(1)(A) For purposes of subsection (a), the term "disadvantaged business concern” means a concern
(i) which is at least 51 percent owned by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals or, in the case of a publicly traded company, at least 51 percent of the stock of which is owned by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals; and
(ii) the management and daily business operations of which are controlled by such individuals.
(B)(i) A for-profit business concern is presumed to be a disadvantaged business concern for purposes of subsection (a) if it is at least 51 percent owned by, or in the case of a concern which is a publicly traded company at least 51 percent of the stock of the company is owned by, one or more individuals who are members of the following groups:
(1) Black Americans.
(VI) Disabled Americans.
sequences in the workplace, estimation of workplace effects of a range of releases, estimation of the health and safety effects of such range on employees;
(3) consult with employees and their representatives on the development and conduct of hazard assessments and the development of chemical accident prevention plans and provide access to these and other records required under the standard;
(4) establish a system to respond to the workplace hazard assessment findings, which shall address prevention, mitigation, and emergency responses;
(5) periodically review the workplace hazard assessment and response system;
(6) develop and implement written operating procedures for the chemical process including procedures for each operating phase, operating limitations, and safety and health considerations;
(7) provide written safety and operating information to employees and train employees in operating procedures, emphasizing hazards and safe practices;
(8) ensure contractors and contract employees are provided appropriate information and training;
(9) train and educate employees and contractors in emergency response in a manner as comprehensive and effective as that required by the regulation promulgated pursuant to section 126(d) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act;
(10) establish a quality assurance program to ensure that initial process related equipment, maintenance materials, and spare parts are fabricated and installed consistent with design specifications;
(11) establish maintenance systems for critical process related equipment including written procedures, employee training, appropriate inspections, and testing of such equipment to ensure ongoing mechanical integrity;
(12) conduct pre-start-up safety reviews of all newly installed or modified equipment;
(13) establish and implement written procedures to manage change to process chemicals, technology, equipment and facilities; and
(14) investigate every incident which results in or could have resulted in a major accident in the workplace, with any findings to be reviewed by operating personnel and modifications made if appropriate.
(d) STATE AUTHORITY.—Nothing in this section may be construed to diminish the authority of the States and political subdivisions thereof as described in section 112(r)(11) of the Clean Air Act.
(c) REVIEW OF ACID GAS SCRUBBING REQUIREMENTS.—Prior to the promulgation of any performance standard for solid waste incineration units combusting municipal waste under section 111 or
section 129 of the Clean Air Act, the Administrator shall review
For a period of 2 years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, ash from solid waste incineration units burning municipal waste shall not be regulated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to section 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act. Such reference and limitation shall not be construed to prejudice, endorse or otherwise affect any activity by the Administrator following the 2-year period from the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
SEC. 402. FOSSIL FUEL USE.
(a) CONTRACTS FOR HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY.-Any person who, after the date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enters into a contract under which such person receives hydroelectric energy in return for the provision of electric energy by such person shall use allowances held by such person as necessary to satisfy such person's obligations under such contract.
(b) FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATION.-A Federal Power Marketing Administration shall not be subject to the provisions and requirements of this title with respect to electric energy generated by hydroelectric facilities and marketed by such Power Marketing Administration. Any person who sells or provides electric energy to a Federal Power Marketing Administration shall comply with the provisions and requirements of this title. SEC. 403. REPEAL OF PERCENT REDUCTION.
(a) * * *
(b) REVISED REGULATIONS.—Not later than three years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate revised regulations for standards of performance for new fossil fuel fired electric utility units commencing construction after the date on which such regulations are proposed that, at a minimum, require any source subject to such revised standards to emit sulfur dioxide at a rate not greater than would have resulted from compliance by such source with the applicable standards of performance under this section prior to such revision.
(c) APPLICABILITY.-The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) apply only so long as the provisions of section 403(e) of the Clean Air Act remain in effect.
SEC. 404. ACID DEPOSITION STANDARDS.
Not later than 36 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall transmit to the Committee on Environment and Public Works
of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report on the feasibility and effectiveness of an acid deposition standard or standards to protect sensitive and critically sensitive aquatic and terrestrial resources. The study required by this section shall include, but not be limited to, consideration of the following matters:
(1) identification of the sensitive and critically sensitive aquatic and terrestrial resources in the United States and Canada which may be affected by the deposition of acidic compounds;
(2) description of the nature and numerical value of a deposition standard or standards that would be sufficient to protect such resources;
(3) description of the use of such standard or standards in other Nations or by any of the several States in acid deposition control programs;
(4) description of the measures that would need to be taken to integrate such standard or standards with the control program required by title IV of the Clean Air Act;
(5) description of the state of knowledge with respect to source-receptor relationships necessary to develop a control program on such standard or standards and the additional research that is on-going or would be needed to make such a control program feasible; and
(6) description of the impediments to implementation of such control program and the cost-effectiveness of deposition standards compared to other control strategies including ambient air quality standards, new source performance standards
and the requirements of title IV of the Clean Air Act. SEC. 405. NATIONAL ACID LAKES REGISTRY.
The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall create a National Acid Lakes Registry that shall list, to the extent practical, all lakes that are known to be acidified due to acid deposition, and shall publish such list within one year of the enactment of this Act. Lakes shall be added to the registry as they become acidic or as data becomes available to show they are acidic. Lakes shall be deleted from the registry as they become nonacidic. SEC. 406. INDUSTRIAL SO2 EMISSIONS.
(a) REPORT.-Not later than January 1, 1995 and every 5 years thereafter, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall transmit to the Congress a report containing an inventory of national annual sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources (as defined in title IV of the Act), including units subject to section 405(g)(6) of the Clean Air Act, for all years for which data are available, as well as the likely trend in such emissions over the following twenty-year period. The reports shall also contain estimates of the actual emission reduction in each year resulting from promulgation of the diesel fuel desulfurization regulations under section 214.
(b) 5.60 MILLION TON CAP.—Whenever the inventory required by this section indicates that sulfur dioxide emissions from indus