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formulated under subsections (b)(2), (c)(2), and (d)(2) in the most promising cases, giving special attention to structural and administrative problems. In formulating any such measure which provides for a charge, the appropriate level of the charge should be determined, if possible, and the environmental and economic impacts should be identified.

(f) Within one year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall complete a study and report to the Congress on the advantages and disadvantages (including an analysis of the feasibility) of establishing a system of penalties for stationary sources on emissions of oxides of nitrogen and make recommendations regarding the establishment of such a system. Such study shall determine if such a system will effectively encourage the development of more effective systems and technologies for control of emissions of oxides of nitrogen for new major emitting facilities, or existing major emitting facilities, or both. In any case in which a proposed penalty system is recommended by the Administrator, the report should include

(1) a recommendation respecting the appropriate period during which such system of penalties should apply, and the appropriate termination date or dates for such system, if

any, taking into account

(A) the time at which adequate technology may reasonably be anticipated to be available to control oxides of nitrogen for that category of facilities,

(B) the degree to which such technology can be expected to be used on such facilities, and

(C) the Administrator's authorities to require the use of such technology, and

(2) recommendations respecting the compilation of records by facilities subject to such penalties for purposes of determining the applicability and amount of such penalty.

(g) Not later than two years after the date of the enactment of this section, the Administrator and the Council shall conclude the study and assessment under this section and submit a report containing the results thereof to the President and to the Congress. Interim reports on specific pollution problems and solutions recommended shall be made available to the President and the Congress by the Administrator whenever available.

SAVING PROVISION; EFFECTIVE DATES SEC. 406. (a) No suit, action, or other proceeding lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act shall abate by reason of the taking effect of the amendments made by this Act. The court may, on its own motion or that of any party made at any time within twelve months after such taking effect, allow the same to be maintained by or against the Administrator or such officer or employee.

(b) All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, (b) AUTHORIZATION.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section, to remain available until expended.

SEC. 603. METHANE STUDIES.

(a) ECONOMICALLY JUSTIFIED ACTIONS.—Not later than 2 years after enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall prepare and submit a report to the Congress that identifies activities, substances, processes, or combinations thereof that could reduce methane emissions and that are economically and technologically justified with and without consideration of environmental benefit.

(b) DOMESTIC METHANE SOURCE INVENTORY AND CONTROL.Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act, the Administrator, in consultation and coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall prepare and submit to the Congress reports on each of the following:

(1) Methane emissions associated with natural gas extraction, transportation, distribution, storage, and use. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with such activities within the United States. Such emissions include, but are not limited to, accidental and intentional releases from natural gas and oil wells, pipelines, processing facilities, and gas burners. The report shall also include an inventory of methane generation with such activities.

(2) Methane emissions associated with coal extraction, transportation, distribution, storage, and use. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with such activities within the United States. Such emissions include, but are not limited to, accidental and intentional releases from mining shafts, degasification wells, gas recovery wells and equipment, and from the processing and use of coal. The report shall also include an inventory of methane generation with such activities.

(3) Methane emissions associated with management of solid waste. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with all forms of waste management in the United States, including storage, treatment, and disposal.

(4) Methane emissions associated with agriculture. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with rice and livestock production in the United States.

(5) Methane emissions associated with biomass burning. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with the intentional burning of agricultural wastes, wood, grasslands, and forests.

(6) Other methane emissions associated with human activities. Such report shall identify and inventory other domestic sources of methane emissions that are deemed by the Administrator and other such agencies to be significant. (c) INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. –

(1) METHANE EMISSIONS.—Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report on methane emissions from countries other than the United States. Such report shall in(5) could adversely affect public health and welfare; and

(6) could affect areas distant from sources and thus involve issues of national and international policy.

(b) The Congress declares that it is the purpose of this subtitle

(1) to identify the causes and sources of acid precipitation;

(2) to evaluate the environmental, social, and economic effects of acid precipitation; and

(3) based on the results of the research program established by this subtitle and to the extent consistent with existing law, to take action to the extent necessary and practicable (A) to limit or eliminate the identified emissions which are sources of acid precipitation, and (B) to remedy or otherwise ameliorate the harmful effects which may result from acid precipitation.

(c) For purposes of this subtitle the term “acid precipitation” means the wet or dry deposition from the atmosphere of acid chemical compounds.

INTERAGENCY TASK FORCE; COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM SEC. 703. (a) There is hereby established a comprehensive tenyear program to carry out the provisions of this subtitle; and to implement this program there shall be formed an Acid Precipitation Task Force (hereafter in this subtitle referred to as the "Task Force"), of which the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall be joint chairmen. The remaining membership of the Task Force shall consist of

(1) one representative each from the Department of the Interior, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Council on Environmental Quality, the National Science Foundation, and the Tennessee Valley Authority;

(2) the director of the Argonne National Laboratory, the director of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the director of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; and

(3) four additional members to be appointed by the President.

(b) The four National Laboratories (referred to in subsection (a)(2)) shall constitute a research management consortium having the responsibilities described in section 704(b)(13) as well as the general responsibilities required by their representation on the Task Force. In carrying out these responsibilities the consortium shall report to, and act pursuant to direction from, the joint chairmen of the Task Force.

(c) The Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall serve as the director of the research program established by this subtitle.

evant Federal agencies and departments. In the case of the studies under subsections (a), (b), and (e), such consultation and coordination shall include the Secretary of Agriculture.

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SEC. 711. SAVINGS PROVISIONS AND EFFECTIVE DATES.

(a) SAVINGS PROVISIONS.—Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, no suit, action, or other proceeding lawfully commenced by the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act, shall abate by reason of the taking effect of the amendments made by this Act.

(b) EFFECTIVE DATES.(1) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the amendments made by this Act shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act.

(2) The Administrator's authority to assess civil penalties under section 205(c) of the Clean Air Act, as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur or continue on or after the date of enactment of this Act. Civil penalties for violations that occur prior to such date and do not continue after such date shall be assessed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Air Act in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act.

(3) The civil penalties prescribed under sections 205(a) and 211(d)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur on or after the date of enactment of this Act. Violations that occur prior to such date shall be subject to the civil penalty provisions prescribed in sections 205(a) and 211(d) of the Clean Air Act in effect immediately prior to the enactment of this Act. The injunctive authority prescribed under section 211(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act, as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur or continue on or after the date of enactment of this Act.

(4) For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), where the date of a violation cannot be determined it will be assumed to be the date on which the violation is discovered.

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SEC. 807. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLE STUDY AND TEST PRO.

GRAM. The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy, shall conduct a study and test program on the development of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle. The study and test program shall determine how best to transfer existing NASA hydrogen fuel cell technology into the form of a mass-producible, cost effective hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. Such study and test program shall include at a minimum a feasibilitydesign study, the construction of a prototype, and a demonstration. This study and test program should be completed and a report submitted to Congress within 3 years after the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This study and test program should peer review procedures to assure the quality of research and development programs and their products; and

(14) analyzing the information available regarding acid precipitation in order to formulate and present periodic recommendations to the Congress and the appropriate agencies about actions to be taken by these bodies to alleviate acid precipitation and its effects. (c) The comprehensive plan

(1) shall be submitted in draft form to the Congress, and for public review, within six months after the date of the enactment of this Act;

(2) shall be available for public comment for a period of sixty days after its submission in draft form under paragraph (1);

(3) shall be submitted in final form, incorporating such needed revisions as arise from comments received during the review period, to the President and the Congress within fortyfive days after the close of the period allowed for comments on the draft comprehensive plan under paragraph (2); and

(4) shall constitute the basis on which requests for authorizations and appropriations are to be made for the nine fiscal years following the fiscal year in which the comprehensive plan is submitted in final form under paragraph (3).

(d) The Task Force shall convene as necessary, but no less than twice during each fiscal year of the ten-year period covered by the comprehensive plan.

(e) The Task Force shall submit to the President and the Congress by January 15 of each year an annual report which shall detail the progress of the research program under this subtitle and which shall contain such recommendations as are developed under subsection (b)(14).

(f)(1) Subsection (b)(12) shall not be construed as modifying, or as authorizing the Task Force or the comprehensive plan to modify, any provision of an appropriation Act (or any other provision of law relating to the use of appropriated funds) which specifies (A) the department or agency to which funds are appropriated, or (B) the obligations of such department or agency with respect to the use of such funds.

(2) Subsection (b)(13) shall not be construed as modifying, or as authorizing the Task Force or the comprehensive plan to modify, any provision of law (relating to or involving a department or agency) which specifies (A) procurement practices for the selection, award, or management of contracts or grants by such department or agency, or (B) program activities, limitations, obligations, or responsibilities of such department or agency.

IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPREHENSIVE PLAN

SEC. 705. (a) The comprehensive plan shall be carried out during the nine fiscal years following the fiscal year in which the comprehensive plan is submitted in its final form under section 704(c)(3); and

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