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or stock these spaces but to inform householders and local officials of the identity of such space for their use in family planning and/or community plans.

To determine the extent to which homes and small structures throughout the Nation have inherent shelter qualities and capabilities, the techniques and criteria developed and used for the national shelter survey have been adapted to a rapid computer oriented system. Single family home fallout protection surrey

To set this survey method in motion, the householder needs only to fill out and mail a preprinted, addressed data collection card contained in a booklet provided by OCD for this service. All of the information and instructions necessary to assist the householder to properly complete the card will be included in the booklet. Any structure within limits of the criteria established for this survey method may be quickly and economically analyzed through the use of existing computer capability. The number of single family homes having basements, as reported by the Bureau of Census, is approximately 25 million. Based on a large scale pilot test conducted during fiscal year 1964, it is anticipated that there will be a 25-percent return on the 25 million cards provided the public. Survey of small structures other than single family homes

The collection of data on small structures other than single family homes would be accomplished by the Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Yards and Docks. It will be necessary that a personal visit be made and a relatively simple data collection form completed on each structure. The collected data is then processed through the use of existing computer capability. It is considered that 73,400 such structures could be analyzed in fiscal year 1965.

CHART 20
Identification of existing fallout protection in smaller structures
Single family home fallout protection survey --

$3, 847, 000 Production ---

2, 011, 000 Distribution of cards and supporting booklet.

50,000 Programing processing and kit assembly

1, 200, 000 Direct postal fees.

406, 000 Technical review---

180,000 Survey of small structures other than single-family homes-

3, 353, 000 Production -

30,000 Data gathering-

3, 303, 000 Processing of data.

20, 000

DESIGNING SHELTER SYSTEMS

An essential step in developing an operational civil defense system is to build upon the investment represented by the shelter survey by determining what each citizen should do in time of emergency and by getting that information to the individual, in other words, to create a working shelter system. The largest part of this job involves assigning people to the best shelter now available and making these assignments known. These initial assignments will also define with precision, areas of shelter deficit, in which low-cost opportunities to create more shelter should be exploited.

The funds requested will be used to provide professional community-planning services to local governments, in most cases by having the work done by local government agencies with professional community planning competence, on a reimbursement basis. Full application will be made of automatic data-processing methods where most economical, as was done in the shelter survey. The supporting services of the Corps of Engineers will be essential to this program. Also, full use will be made of data and experience gained in other federally assisted urban planning programs, e.g., those administered by HHFA.

Full Federal funding of the initial shelter use effort by professional city planners in communities throughout the country will create a local ability to update shelter assignments by training local experts and by providing a base of data. It will also establish civil defense preparations as a function of government on a permanent and continuing base. Thus the updating effort, estimated to require up to $1 million annually as new shelter space is created, would not be federally funded.

8.0

18.0 25, 6 30.0

1.0

8

3

84.0

040)

104, 1 180.0

1.6

3.0

800 0

(HART 21 Designing shelter systems

Number of

cities in
United
States

Number of Years per
professionals professional

Size of city

Professional
man years

fessional

prowon

Number of

nonpro
forsional!
per profes

slona

Nonprofew
sional man

States

5
16
30
79
180

Over 1,000,000
500,000 to 1,000,000
250,000 to 500,000
100,000 to 250,000
60,000 to 100,000

Total.
Plus State-level effort (for areas under 50,000)

Total.

310
50

Millions

1 Draftsmen, etc., but not clerical services.
NOTE.-Total of professional plus nonprofessional man-years equals 314.1 plus 620,8 equals 943.9, rounded to 950 man-years,

At an average salary of $8,000, cost for salaries equals 960 by $8,000..
Add fixed costs (clerical, administrative, supply, printing, and travel)

Total

sHELTER development Program.

The shelter survey has defined opportunities to add a large amount of low-cost shelter space to the national inventory by identifying both the location of existing shelter space and potential improvements to add shelter. Most of the municipalities and counties in the country are now in a position to know where new shelter space is needed and how to create it at relatively low cost. Federal financial help is needed to take full advantage of the survey results. This is the next logical step in the progressive development of a moderate civil defense program. It is proposed to authorize and make available Federal financial contributions not exceeding $103.3 million during fiscal year 1965 to stimulate communities to add to locally available fallout shelter space in the buildings of schools, hospitals, State and local governments and other nonprofit institutions. It is estimated that this amount would be fully used up by the lowest cost opportunities to create new shelter space. Federal financing would be limited to an average of $2.50 per square foot or actual cost, whichever is lowest ($25 per person sheltered). Payment up to $4 per square foot would be allowed for facilities included in a combined project when the average of the combined facilities is $2.50 per square foot or less. Only costs allocable to the creation of new shelter space would be allowed. Virtually all of the shelter space thus created would be primarily used for peacetime purposes and only incidentally as public shelters. Shelter for over 4.4 million persons is anticipated. The limited amount of the Federal payment, combined with intensive servicing, education, and training of architects and engineers, is expected to stimulate increasing ingenuity in finding the lowest cost methods of meeting local shelter deficiencies. The new shelter space thus developed, while small in comparison to the results of the survey, will be of special importance in meeting the national shelter requirement. From this new shelter will come the first experience with an austere program of Federal financial assistance, depending on local initiative, planning, and in some cases, local financial participation. Planning for the best utilization of new and existing shelters will strengthen the organization of civil defense and the organization of community effort to provide minimal protection for the entire community. The result of a year of such experience will provide a basis for more accurately assessing the requirements of Federal financial assistance. The chart below is an estimate of how $103.3 million would be applied to the three main categories of low-cost opportunities to create new shelter.

CHART 22
Elements of the shelter development program

Cost Cost per Persons

(millions) person sheltered

Sheltered (millions) 1. Minor shielding changes (based upon survey results)------- $8.8 $20.00 4

2. Dual-purpose shelters incorporated into designs of new

construction--------------------------------------------- 54.6 25.00 2.2 3. Low-cost structural modification of existing buildings.------ 39.9 22.50 1.8 Total.---------- 103.3 23.47 4.4

SHELTER IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS

The chart on page 740 shows the planned fiscal year 1965 program for incorporating fallout shelter through modifications to existing Federal buildings. First attention will be given in fiscal year 1965 to exploiting low-cost opportunities identified by national shelter survey for increasing shelter capacity of existing structures located in or near those communities where the population to be sheltered exceeds the shelter space found through the survey. Th minor improvements proposed include— 1. Ventilation improvements: By installation of ventilation packa or improvements of existing ventilation systems, adequately shielded ar in many basements can be brought up to minimum OCD ventilation sta

ards. It is proposed to use $8.6 million of fiscal year 1965 funds for this purpose, providing 745,000 additional shelter spaces at $12 per space average cost.

2. Shielding improvements: Many areas contain structural characteristics which generally provide adequate shielding, but fail to meet OCD standards because of minor deficiencies, such as unprotected openings, which can be readily corrected. It is proposed to use $7 million of fiscal year 1965 funds to correct these deficiencies, providing 308,000 additional shelter

spaces at $23 per space average cost. In addition to the modification funds proposed in the OCD budget, the construction agencies of the Federal Government have included $3,581,000 in their authorization proposals and budgets for shelter space in 59 new construction projects proposed for fiscal year 1965. The authorizations and appropriations requests are based on the permissive executive branch policy of several years standing that shelter protective features, where appropriate and needed, shall be included as an inherent part of the design and construction process for new Federal facilities.

CHART 23
Shelter in Federal buildings, fiscal year 1965

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Excludes construction of shelter prototypes.
FY 1956-1962 Obligations

FY 1963 Obligations

FY 1963 Program-Obligations

Estimated in FY 1964
FY 1964 Estimated Obligations FY 1965 Estimated Obligations

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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Research is a basic requirement for civil defense planning and operations and for anticipating future program requirements. In an era of rapidly changing weapons technologies and delivery systems, it is essential that civil defense countermeasures keep pace. Research provides knowledge and guidance for development of improved methods of protection, increased economy of hardware and operations, postattack recovery measures, and an integrated civil defense system.

Research and development effort during the fiscal years 1964 and 1965 is designed to continue and in most cases, to expand those efforts from previous years which are both important and have shown promise of worthwhile results. In fiscal year 1964, modest increases have been made over the amounts programed in fiscal year 1963 for protection studies, fire research, radiological studies, and civil defense systems analysis. Other areas of effort continue at approximately the same level with some showing small increases and others small decreases.

In fiscal year 1965, it is proposed to increase the total research and development effort on civil defense in consonance with program planning and associated organization in the fiscal years 1965–69 time frame. Effort on all problem areas will be increased with preferential increments assigned to systems analysis and integration, and to post-shelter hazards, countermeasures, and operations. Emphasis in shelter and support systems research will be given to problems expected to be serious obstacles to completion of the terminal phases of the action programs.

HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

STATEMENT OF DR. GABRIEL P. FERRAZZANO, CHIEF, DIVISION OF

HEALTH MOBILIZATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE; ACCOMPANIED BY DR. JAMES M. HUNDLEY, ASSISTANT SURGEON GENERAL FOR OPERATIONS; ARNOLD H. DODGE, ASSISTANT CHIEF, DHM; RICHARD W. BOWMAN, EXECUTIVE OFFICER, DHM; ROBERT J. WALLACE, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT OFFICER, DHM; AND JAMES F. KELLY, DEPARTMENT BUDGET OFFICER

HEW PROGRAM AFFECTED Mr. FERRAZZANO. Right. We benefit from the same Federal-State assistance program as far as personnel is concerned, and if this is not forthcoming, of course, it would affect several of the State employees in the health mobilization program. Some of the States receive a limited amount of Federal assistance money to support health activities.

Senator MAGNUSON. In other words, your program there would be affected by what happens here?

Mr. FERRAZZANO. Yes. We do not have a Federal-State assistance appropriation of our own. Matching funds for health are included in this old appropriation.

Senator MAGNUSON. It would be included in this ratiowise?
Mr. FERRAZZANO. Right.

(The prepared statement of Mr. Ferrazzano follows:) STATEMENT BY CHIFE, DIVISION OF HEALTH MOBILIZATION, ON EMERGENCY HEALTH

ACTIVITIES Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, thank you for the opportunity to present the Public Health Service program for the operation of the emergency medical stockpile and the provision of emergency health services, which includes assistance to States in the development of their disaster preparedness capabilities.

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