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There has been a suggestion made that if this keeps going they will take over the country and, of course, that is an extreme suggestion, I understand that, but there are a lot of people who believe that.

Dr. HAworTH. The law of supply and demand will take care of

that in time. Senator MAGNUsoN. I know we have gone up, but I never did see

the figures. Dr. HAworTH. We will be glad to furnish any degree of figures that

you want. We have lots of them.
Senator MAGNUson. Excuse me. That is what bothers me.

(The information referred to follows:)

A CoMPARIson of CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE INCIDENCE of DEGREE
CoNFERRALs IN MAJoR FIELD's SINCE 1950

A statistical table containing data on “Baccalaureate Degrees Conferred in the United States, by Major Fields, Percentages, and Numbers: 1950 to 1963,” and corresponding tables for conferrals at the master's and doctorate levels, provide the basis for the present discussion of changes in the relative incidence of degree conferrals by field. There is at least a twofold warrant for showing (as is not customary) percentage data before quantities in the attached tables: first, the objective of this discussion is to describe changes in relative strengths among major fields; and, second, the year with which the tables begin (and the year in which the National Science Foundation began) is atypical in terms of numbers of (particularly baccalaureate) degrees. The actual numbers are shown principally as statistical support for the percentages. This atypicalness resulted from the “bunching up,” so to speak, in 1 year (1950) of degrees granted to students whose education had been deferred as a result, mainly, of World War II, and of degrees granted to students graduating with their classes. The record (up to that time) output of 434,000 baccalaureates was not again attained until the past academic year (451,000 in 1963). The intervening years witnessed a o annual decline through 1955 (by which time the phenomenon of significant numbers of students graduating out of their class years was presumably “sifted out”) and a subsequent steady annual increase through 1963 (reflecting larger age cohorts and a greater incidence of college-going-ness). The following discussion—in general terms without much citing of the statistics presented in the accompanying tables—will be devoted to a description of the proportion of degrees granted in the several fields in 1963 as compared with the immediate past and particularly with 1950. In general, it would appear that the nonscience fields have held their own in this period of apparent ascendancy of the science fields. The “arts” have improved their position vis-a-vis the totality of fields particularly at the baccalaureate level, not inconsiderably at the master's level, and to a lesser extent at the doctorate level. The “social sciences” have improved their position relative to the totality of fields at the baccalaureate level, although to a lesser extent than the arts. The situation at the advanced degree level is somewhat mixed: the social sciences accounted for essentially the same proportion of master's degrees in 1963 as in 1950, in each of the intervening years accounting for a lesser proportion; and they accounted for a slightly greater proportion of all doctorates in 1963 than in 1950, in each of the intervening years accounting for a higher proportion. In the “physical sciences” (including engineering) there has been a decline in relative position (more pronounced in engineering) at the baccalaureate level from 1950 to 1963; and an increase at the master's. At the doctoral level, the relative position of the physical sciences is now slightly higher than in 1950; of engineering, considerably higher. At all levels, the situation in the intervening years was somewhat erratic. The relative position of the “life sciences” (including the health professions) is lower in 1963 than in 1950 at all levels, with the intervening year at the baccalaureate and doctorate levels showing greater strength than the terminal years. The health professions show some advance at the baccalaureate level; and a decline at the advanced degree level, in consonance with life sciences in general. The situation in the professions of “education,” “law,” “theology,” and “business and commerce" is somewhat mixed. “Education” accounted for a

greater proportion of degrees at all levels in 1963 than in 1950, with the increase at the baccalaureate level being greater than that at the master's level, which, in turn, was greater than that at the doctorate level, at which level the increase was minimal.

"Law" accounted for a smaller proportion of degrees at all levels in 1963 than in 1950, the decline being greatest at the doctorate level, and least at the master's.

“Theology" and "business and commerce" each accounted for essentially the same proportion of master's degrees in 1963 as in 1950. At the doctorate level, however, theology" shows a considerable relative decline and "business and commerce" a considerable relative improvement. At the baccalaureate level, on the other hand, "theology" shows some increase and "business and commerce" some decline.

The foregoing discussion, couched in relative terms, should not obscure the fact that, by and large, there has been considerable increase in degree output in terms of absolute numbers, at all levels, in scientific fields as well as in other fields, when 1963 is compared with 1950.

Baccalaureate degrees conferred in the United States by major fields, percentages and numbers: 1950 to 1963

Law

Theology

Business

and
commerce

Other

(11)

(12)

(13)

3.3 3.7 3.8 3.7 3. 2 2.9 2. 7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3

0.7

.9
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1, 2
1.2
1.1

16.6 15.2 14.1 13.4 14.0 14.5 14.9 15.2 15.4 15.2 14.5 14.0 13.8 13.2

6.3 6.4 6.5 7.1 6.7 6. 2 5.8 5.1 5.0

3.2 3.5 4.2 4.5

4.5

1950. 1951. 1952. 1953. 1954. 1955. 1956. 1957 1958 1959. 1960. 1961. 1962 1963

434 384 332 305 293 287 311 340 366 385 395 402 420

53.7 50.1 44.8 41.5 39.3 40.1 45. 5 48.5 51.6 54.1 57.5 59.8 65.6 73.6

61.8 52.6 44.5 40.7 39.7 40.0 44.9 49. 2 53.9 56.0 58.6 61.2 67.4 77.0

78.8 63.5 48.4 40.2 37.4 37.8 43.2 50.4 57.6 63.6 66.4 65. 5 66.4 67.1

(52.7) (41.9) (30.8) (24.4) (22.3) (22.6) (26. 3) (31.2) (25.3) (38.1) (37.8) (35.9) (34.7) (33.5)

59.5 52.7 46.6 44.8 44.1 42.5 42.8 45.6 47.6 48.6 48.9 48.8 49.8 53.4

(22.0) (21.7) (21.6) (21.9) (22.7) (22.5) (22.4) (23.1) (23.9) (24.3) (24.6) (24.8) (24.8) (26.0)

61.7 65.0 63.0 61.5 56.8 53. 3 56.6 61.8 65.6 70.0 71.8 74.9 78.6 83. 2

14.3 14.3 12.6 11.3 9.3 8.2 8.3 8.8 9.4 9.9 9.3 9.5 9.6 10.2

72.1 58. 2 46.7 40.7 40.9 41.7 46.3 51.7 56.5 58.6 57.4 56.4 57.9 59.6

28.6 24.3 21.2 19.7 20.8 19.2 19. 2 19.8 18.8 19.4 19.7 20.7 20.1 21.6

4.5 4.8 5.0 5. 2 5.0 5.0 4.9

451

Year!

(Engineer

All fields

Social sciences

Arts

Physical sciences 3

ing)

Life sciences 5

(Health professions)

Education

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Percentages

1950.
1951.
1952..
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957
1958.
1959.
1960.
1961.
1962
1963

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
10C
100
100
100
100
100

12.4
13.0
13.5
13.6
13.4
14.0
14. 6
14.3
14.1
14.0
14. 6
14.9
15.6
16. 3

14.2
13. 7
13.4
13. 3
13.6
13.9
14.4
14.4
14.7
14. 5
14.8
15. 2
16.0
17.1

18. 2
16.5
14. 6
13. 2
12.8
13. 2
13.9
14.8
15. 7
16.5
16.8
16.3
15.8
14.9

(12. 2)
(10.9)
(9.3)
(8.0)
(7.6)
(7.9)
(8.5)
(9.2)
(9.7)
(9.9)
(9.6)
(8.9)
(8.3)
(7.4)

13. 7
13.7
14.0
14. 7
15.1
14.8
13.8
13.4
13.0
12.6
12.4
12.1
11.9
11.9

(5.1)
(5.6)
(6.5)
(7.2)
(7.7)
(7.8)
(7.2)
(6.8)
(6.5)
(6.3)
(6.2)
(6. 2)
(5.9)
(5.8)

14. 2
16.9
19.0
20.2
19.4
18.5
18.2
18. 2
17.9
18. 2
18.2
18.6
18.7
18.5

Numbers (in thousands)

1 Academic year ending..
? Includes "humanities.
3 Includes ".nathematics" and "engineering."
Parentheses indicate exhibits: engineering" is included in “physical sciences," and
"health professions" within the "life sciences.

5 Includes "biological sciences," "agriculture," and "health professions."
6 Preliminary.
NOTE.-Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
Source: National Science Foundation, based on U.S. Office of Education data.

Master's degrees conferred in the United States by major fields, percentages, and numbers: 1950 to 1963

Education

Law

Theology

(Health
profes-
sions)

(8)

Business

and
commerce

Other

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

Percentages

(2.7) (2.5) (2.9) (3.0) (2.7) (3.0) (2.1) (2.2) (2.6) (2.6) (2.5) (2.1) (1.9) (2.2)

34.5 37.3 41.7 44.0 48.9 47.5 46.0 45.5 43.0 41.1 40.8 39.5 38.5 37.3

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1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1. 2
1. 2
1.0
1.0

9
.9
1.1

9
8
9

7.4 6.7 6.0 6.6 5. 5 5.7 6. 2 6.3 7.2 7.4 7.3 6.9 7.1

7.9 8.3 7.2 6.5 1.9 2.4 2.4 2. 2 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.3

7.4

7.3

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Year 1

All fields

Arts ?

Social sciences

Physical (Engineersciences

ing)

Life sciences

(1)

(2)

(3)

(5)

1950
1951.
1952
1953
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957
1958.
1959.
1960.
1961.
1962.
1963

::
!!!!

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

12.4
12.5
12.1
12.0
11.7
11.6
12.9
12.8
13.0
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.5
14.0

11.1
10. 2
9.4
9.0
9.4
9.3
9.1
9.4
9.8
9.8
9.9
10.3
10.7
11.2

15. 3
14.4
12.7
11.6
12.9
13.5
14.0
14.4
15. 5
16.7
16.8
18.5
18. 7
19.0

(7.9)
(7.6)
(6.6)
(6.1)
(7.4)
(7.7)
(8.0)
(8.4)
(8.8)
(9.7)
(9.6)
(10.4)
(10.5)
(10.5)

9.4
8.9
9.3
8.7
7.9
8. 2
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.8
7.5
7.5

III

1950.
1951.
1952.
1953.
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959
1960.
1961.
1962
1963

!!!!!

!!!!!
!!!

!!!!!

58. 2
65. 1
63.6
61.0
56.8
58. 2
59.3
62.0
65. 6
69.5
74.5
78. 2
84.9
91.4

7.2
8.1
7.7
7.3
6.7
6.7
7.7
7.9
8.5
9.3
10.1
10.6
11.5
12.8

6.5
6. 7
6.0
5.5
5. 3
5.4
5.4
5.8
6.5
6.8
7.4
8.1
9.1
10.2

8.9
9.4
8.1
7.1
7. 3
7.8
8.3
9.0
10.2
11. 6
12.5
14.5
15.9
17.4

(4.6)
(5.0)
(4.2)
(3.7)
(4.2)
(4.5)
(4.7)
(5.2)
(5.8)
(6.8)
(7.2)
(8.2)
(8.9)
(9.6)

5.5
5.8
5. 9
5. 3
4.5
4.8
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.5
5.8
5.9
6.4
6.8

(1.6)
(1.6)
(1.8)
(1.8)
(1.6)
(1.8)
(1.3)
(1.4)
(1.7)
(1.8)
(1.9)
(1.7)
(1.7)
(2.0)

20. 1
24. 3
26. 5
26.9
27.8
27.6
27.3
28. 2
28. 2
28. 6
30.4
30.8
32.7
34. 1

1 Academic year ending.
? Includes "humanities."

Includes "mathematics" and "engineering.'
• Parentheses indicate exhibits: "engineering" is included in "physical sciences," and
"health professions" within the life sciences.

6 Includes "biological sciences," "agriculture," and "health professions.
• Preliminary.
NOTE.-Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
Source: National Science Foundation, based on U.S. Office of Education data.

Doctorate degrees conferred in the United States by major fields, percentages, and numbers: 1950 to 1963

Law

Theology

Business

and commerce

Other

(11)

(12)

(13)

[blocks in formation]

27 46 46 42 31 22 27 31 32 28 24

132 158 132 152 169 149 121 133 170 158 180 121 154 143

58 65 92 109 118 144 152 119 123 164 154 195 256 273

[blocks in formation]

29

Year 1

(Engineer

All fields

Social sciences

Arts a

Physical sciences

ing)

Life sciences :

(Health profes

Education

sions)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(5)

(7)

(8)

(10)

31-706-64—pt. 1-34

Percentages

(7.2)
(7.7)
(7.6)
(6.9)
(6. 6)

1950.
1951.
1952
1953
1954.
1955
1956.
1957.
1958.
1959
1960..
1961.
1962
1962

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

10.4
11.0
11.5
10.9
11.1
10.7
12.7
12. 2
12.0
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.3
12.0

17.8
19.8
19. 6
18.8
19.4
19.9
20.2
19.2
19.2
19. 7
19.6
19.6
18.7
18.7

32.6
32.7
32.0
29. 8
28. 1
29.0
28.2
28.8
28.5
30.0
29.8
31.0
32.1
33.1

17.8
17.5
17.4
19,2
20.1
19.1
17.6
18.4
18.2
17.0
18.0
16.9
16.9
16.2

(2.0)
(1.5)

..0)
(1.8)
(2.2)
(2.1)
(1.6)
(1.7)
(1.6)
(1.6)
(1.1)
(1.3)
(1.3)
(1.2)

14.8
14.1
14.9
16.3
16.7
16.6
16.2
16.4
17.1
15.9
15.0
15.1
14.9
15. 2

(6.8)
(7.2)
(7.6)
(8.0)
(8.9)
(10.4)
(10.7)

Numbers

1950.
1951.
1952
1953
1954.
1955.
1956.
1957.
1958
1959.
1960.
1961.
1962

6, 420
7,338
7, 683
8, 309
8, 996
8, 840
8, 903
8, 756
8, 942
9, 360
9,829
10, 575
11, 622
12,822

666
804
881

904
1,001

945
1, 135
1,067
1,073
1,188
1, 250
1, 345
1, 430
1,538

1, 145
1, 455
1,507
1,565
1, 742
1, 755
1,795
1, 677
1. 716
1, 843
1, 923
2,072
2, 172
2, 401

2,096
2, 403
2, 460
2, 475
2, 525
2, 564
2, 512
2,521
2, 549
2, 811
2,928
3, 280
3, 725
4, 250

(463)
(567)
(584)
(575)
(594)
(599)
(610)
(596)
(647)
(714)
(786)

(943)
(1, 207)
(1,378)

1, 140
1, 285
1,334
1, 594
1, 812
1, 692
1,567
1,609
1, 625
1, 589
1, 769
1,790
1, 959
2, 076

(128)
(111)
(152)
(153)
(202)
(189)
(144)
(150)
(147)
(153)
(107)
(133)
(148)
(157)

953
1,038
1, 146
1, 357
1, 498
1, 470
1, 438
1, 432
1, 529
1, 487
1,474
1, 594
1, 737
1,943

1963

1 Academic year ending.
? Includes "humanities."
3 Includes "mathematics" and "engineering."
* Parentheses indicate exhibits: engineering" is included in “physical sciences," and
"health professions within the "life sciences.

5 Includes "biological sciences," "agriculture," and "health professions."
0 Preliminary.
NOTE.-Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
Source: National Science Foundation, based on U.S. Office of Education data.

[graphic]
[graphic]
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