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The same relative trends are also visible in Government employment. Although Federal civilian employment in the executive branch is estimated to rise by 6 percent in the decade since 1955, the employment of State and local governments will rise by about 65 percent. In 1955, the Federal Government employed 33 percent of all civilian government employees. In 1962, it employed 27 percent. ederal civilian *go. is estimated to decrease by 1,200 emloyees from 1964 to 1965. State and local governments, on the other hand, F. added in each of the last 5 years about 300,000 employees.

EMPLoyEEs IN OTHER Gover NMENT JURISDICTIons

Senator MAGNUsoN. We find that through all administrations that we have held the line much more than the State and local governments have held it because they have gone up—well, we can see the figures and those figures are just fantastic, as to what they have gone up to, in employment.

Now, when you add that to this, then you have got some real problems that governments should get down to doing something about. Mr. MACY. Yes; Mr. Chairman. Roughly there are 10 million people today employed by all jurisdictions of government. There are about 8 million in State id local and there are 2,500,000 in the Federal Government.

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BLUE-COLLAR DEFENSE AND WA PERSONNEL

Senator MoWRoNEY. Of this 2,500,000, about 1 million of them are blue-collar workers in the Department of Defense; is that right?

Mr. MACY. The total Defense figure in the most recent report is 1,040,000. Of that number slightly more than 60 percent are blue collar. The next largest employer is the Post Office Department with 587,000.

The third largest is the Veterans' Administration with 173,000. So those three agencies produce a total of approximately 1,800,000, and the rest of the Government is in the other 700,000.

EMPLOYEE CEILINGS AND CLASSIFICATION

Senator MonRoNEY. Do you work out the organizational tables in the various departments? }. you fit the civil service schedules into the job requirements? M. MACY. No, they determine their own. Senator MonroNEY. Each ceiling of each department is determined by them and you merely determine the correctness of the classification of the job? Mr. MACY. Senator Monroney, they actually classify the jobs based on standards that we issue. Senator MonRoNEY. I see. Mr. MACY. And we audit a sample of those jobs. The only jobs that we actually classify ourselves are those in grades 16, 17, and 18. Senator Monron EY. I see, but all of the others are evaluated and plotted by the varous departments and then you postaudit them? Mr. MACY. That is correct. Senator MonRoNEY. You postaudit samples? Mr. MACY. That is correct. That is part of our inspection program. Senator MonRoNEY. Mr. Chairman, could I ask just one more question? Senator MAGNUsoN. Yes, sir.

FrteezE on UPGRADING

Senator MonroNEY. About the freeze on the upgrading. Could you tell us a little bit about that and the purpose of that?

Mr. MACY. The word “freeze”. I think is journalese for what is involved here. The Director of the Bureau of the Budget sent to the heads of departments and agencies a communication requesting that they examine the average grade and average salary of their department. They were instructed to compare it with the trend that has been running in recent years and particularly to look at the grade distribution of the positions in their organization at the upper end of the scale, because there has been a marked increase in most of the departments and agencies in the number of positions in grades 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18.

In this communication the Budget Director suggests certain controls that might be applied on a Government-wide basis, agency by agency, that would tend to restrain further increases in these grade levels. The departments and agencies have been requested to reply by May 20 indicating what machinery they have within their own organization to restrain this grade escalation and to comment on the proposed control methods that are cited by the Bureau.

So to say that there is a freeze or one immediately in prospect is an overstatement, but there has been a very serious concern about the upward advancement of jobs. Therefore, the request that the responsible managers in the departments and agencies examine their agencies experience with jobs in grades 13 through 18.

The Budget Director included with his letter a table showing the grade advances over the past 5 years for the Government at large and agency by agency.

STATISTICS on UPGRADING .

Senator MonRoNEY. Could we get that and have it put in the record? Mr. MACY. We will supply tables showing the employees under the Classification Act, if you wish. Senator MonRoNEY. Yes, sir, if you have that. Mr. MACY. We will put the tables in the record. Senator MonroNEY. Would that be all right, Mr. Chairman? Senator MAGNUsoN. Yes. (The information referred to follows:)

FEDERAL Civilian FULL-TIME EMPLOYEEs UNDER THE CLASSIFICATION ACT of 1949, As AMENDED, ALL AREAs, JUNE 30, 1958–63

Table Agency
1. Summary—All agencies.
2. Bureau of the Budget.
3. Department of State.
4. Department of the Treasury.

5. Department of Defense—Summary.
5(a). Department of the Army.

5(b). Department of the Navy.

5(c). Department of the Air Force.
5(d). Department of Defense—Other.
6 Department of Justice.

7. Post Office Department.
8. Department of the Interior.
9. Department of Agriculture.
10. Department of Commerce.
11. Department of Labor.
12. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

13. Civil Service Commission.

14. Federal Aviation Agency.

15. Federal Communications Commission. 16. Federal Power Commission.

17. Federal Trade Commission.

18. General Services Administration.

19. Housing and Home Finance Agency. 20. Information Agency.

21. Interstate Commerce Commission.

22. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
23. Securities and Exchange Commission.
24. Selective Service System.

25. Veterans' Administration.

FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES UNDER THE CLASSIFICATION ACT OF 1949, AS AMENDED,

ALL AREAS, JUNE 30, 1958-63
TABLE 1.Summary-All agencies-All areas

[blocks in formation]

2.2

13.

18.
119 (1) 159 (1) 179

205
264 (1)

313 (1) 17 327 (1) 396

460 (1)
468

552 0.1 697 0.1 16.

761
0.1
941 0.1 1, 084 0.1 1, 124 0.1 1, 376 .1 1, 742

.2 15.

6, 756

.7 7,257 .71 8, 134 .8 9, 441 .9 11, 412 1.1 13, 205 1.2 14. 14, 514 1.5| 16, 274 1.7 18,012 1.9 20, 283 2.01 23, 622

27, 454 2.5 33, 494 3.5 37, 151 3.8 40, 586

4.2
45, 145

4.5 51, 241 4.8 56, 635 5.2 12.

52, 269 5.4| 58, 099 6.0 62, 763 6.5 67, 443 6.7 74, 269 7.0 80, 959 7.5 11 73, 124 7.6 79, 472 8.2 85, 787 8.8

93, 336

9.31 97, 492 9.2 106, 143 9.8 10. 14, 214 1.5 14, 111 1.5| 14, 383 1.5 14, 864

1.5 15, 084 1.4 14,560 1.3 9.

94,527 9.8 99, 662 10.3|100, 320 10.3 103, 767 10.3 113,000 10.7 120, 716 11.1 8. 25, 321 2.6 24, 813 2.6 25, 907 2.7 24, 478 2.4 22, 570

2.1 22, 788 2.1 7.

89, 020 9. 90, 630 9.3 85, 915 8.8 91, 436 9. 95,000 9.0 97, 940 9.1 6.

42, 465 4.446, 769 4.8 48, 618 5.0 50, 974 5.1 53, 386 5.1 55, 262 5.1 5. 108, 742 11.3|109, 593 11.3 114, 407 11.8 122, 012

12.1 127, 257 12.09 129, 923 12.0 4..

162, 050 16.9/162, 571 16.8|163, 265 16.8 168, 343 16.7 175, 582 16.6 176, 517 16.3 3.. 185, 458 19.3 173, 521 17.9|161, 342

16.6
156, 621

15.6 158, 329 15.0 148, 271 13. 7 2.

54, 977 5.7| 45,087 4.6 39, 334 4.0 35, 233 3.5 36, 159 3.4 29, 152 2.7 1.

4, 126
.4 3, 418 .4 2, 427

2, 133
1, 890 .2 1, 355

.1 Total. 962,264 100.0 969, 924 100.0 972,923 100.0/1,007, 306 100.0 1,058,485.100.0 31,083, 632 100.0 Average grade.. 6.4

6.6
6.7
6.9
7.0

7.2
Median
grade.... 5.0

5.0
6.0
6.0
6.0

7.0
|

|

.2

.2

1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Includes 81 employees hired under the Public Works Acceleration Act.

[blocks in formation]

General schedule

grade

Num-Per- Num- Per. Num-Per- Num- Per- Num-Per- Num-Per-
ber
cent

ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent

[blocks in formation]

Total..
Average grade..
Median grade...

426 100.0

10.7
12.0

417 100.0

10.7
12.0

1

420 100.0

11.0
12.0

453 (100.0

10.8
12.0

469 100.0

10.7 12.0

1

484 100.0

10.9 12.0

[blocks in formation]

General schedule

grade

Num- | Per- Num-Per- Num- | Per-Num-Per- Num- | Per- Num- Perber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent ber cent

ber cent

[blocks in formation]

18.

7 (1) 9 (1) 16

24
34

38 17.

(1) 30 (1) 33 0.1 44

0.1

51 0.1 67 0.1 69 0.1 16.

81 0.1 98 .2 100 .1 132 .2 170 2 181 15. 481 .7 492

536 .8 573 .8 741 1.0 817 1.1 14. 1,025 1,5 1, 112 1.7 1, 247

1.9 1,388 2.0 1, 554 2.1 1,691 13.

2.2
2,689
4.0 2, 907 4.3 3, 199

4.7
3, 489 4.9 3,951

5. 3 12.

4, 326 5.6 3, 411 5.03, 964 5.9

4, 533

6.7
4, 984

7.0 5,527 7.5 11.

6, 261 8.1 6, 971 10.3 7,471 11.1 7, 650 11.4 8, 123 11.4

8, 200

11.1 10.

8, 626

11,2 857 1.3 888 1.3 1, 407 2.1 1, 355 1.9 1, 212 1,6 1, 102 1.4 9. 10, 204 16.1 10, 015 14.9 8, 422

12.5
7,931
11. 2 9, 715 13,1 10, 994

14.2 8.

2, 347
3.5 2, 556 3.8 2, 775

4.1

2, 894 4.1 1, 425 1.9 862 1.1 7. 5, 713 8. 44,725 7,05, 824 8.6 6, 992

9.8 7, 294 9.9 6.

8, 079 10.5
2,977
4. 4 | 4, 122 6.1 4,048 6.0

4, 195
5.9 4, 529 6.1

4, 145

5.4 5. 5,386 7.9 5, 533 8.25, 978 8.9

6, 756 9.5 7, 196 9.7 7, 099 9. 2
8,820
13.08,394 12.5 8,155 12.1

8, 071
11.4
8, 421
11.4

11.4 3

10, 225 15. 1

8, 755
13.08,322 12.4 8, 653 12. 2 8,884

12.0
9, 191

11.9 2.

5,953
8.8 5, 671 8.5 4,880 7.25, 200 7.3 4,904 6.6

6.1 587 .9 489

255
.4
234

197 .3 Total.

67,764 100.0 67, 224 100.0 67,391 100.0 71, 045 100.0 74,081 100.0 77, 194 100.0 Average grade.. 6.8

7.0
7.2
7.2
7.3

7.4 Median grade..

6.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0

7.0

8,800

4, 716

.3

257

1 Less than 0.05 percent.

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