## Dictionary of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences, According to the Latest Improvements and Discoveries |

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Page 3

ABERRATION, in Optics, is that error, or deviation of the rays of light when

inflected by a lens, or speculum, whereby they are prevented from meeting or

uniting in the same point,

longitudinal.

ABERRATION, in Optics, is that error, or deviation of the rays of light when

inflected by a lens, or speculum, whereby they are prevented from meeting or

uniting in the same point,

**called**the geometrical focus. It is either lateral orlongitudinal.

Page 8

Addition is indicated or expressed by writing the sign +, which is

addition between the numbers or quantities; thus 7+5, and a-Hb, indicate the

addition of 7 and 5, and of a and b. The result of the addition is

Addition is indicated or expressed by writing the sign +, which is

**called**the sign ofaddition between the numbers or quantities; thus 7+5, and a-Hb, indicate the

addition of 7 and 5, and of a and b. The result of the addition is

**called**the sum. Page 13

person who navigates them is

the |. \ late about us as a satellite. The time that a body, so projected, moon to the

earth, is also found to be three days; which is not so long but that it might retain ...

person who navigates them is

**called**an apronaut. would be in its passage fromthe |. \ late about us as a satellite. The time that a body, so projected, moon to the

earth, is also found to be three days; which is not so long but that it might retain ...

Page 18

The effects which are now known to result from the weight and elasticity of the air,

were for a long time attributed to an imaginary principle

Nature's abhorrence of a vacuum ; and Galileo himself admitted the principle, ...

The effects which are now known to result from the weight and elasticity of the air,

were for a long time attributed to an imaginary principle

**called**fuga vacui, orNature's abhorrence of a vacuum ; and Galileo himself admitted the principle, ...

Page 26

A quantity having this sign is

which has no sign, or the sign +, which is

denotes the product of the quantities between which it is placed : thus, axb, or a .

b, ...

A quantity having this sign is

**called**a negative quantity, in opposition to onewhich has no sign, or the sign +, which is

**called**an affirmative quantity. × or .denotes the product of the quantities between which it is placed : thus, axb, or a .

b, ...

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Dictionary of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences: According to the ... James Mitchell No preview available - 2017 |

Dictionary of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences: According to the ... James Mitchell No preview available - 2017 |

### Common terms and phrases

absciss Algebra altitude appears Arithmetic Astronomy axis body called centre circle co-efficients conic sections consequently cosine cube curve cycloid cylinder degree denominator denote diameter distance diurnal motion divided divisor earth ecliptic ellipse equa equal equation feet figure fluid fluxion force formula fraction frustrum Geometry given glass gravity greater greatest heat Hence horizon hyperbola inches instrument latitude length less logarithm longitude means measure mercury meridian method moon motion multiplied neral object observed orbit ordinate parabola parallax parallel passing perihelion perpendicular plane poles produced proportion quantity radius ratio rays refraction right angles right ascension right line roots side signs sine solid space specific gravity sphere spherical square stars subtangent supposed surd surface tangent telescope tion triangle tube velocity weight whence wind

### Popular passages

Page 456 - A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved surface, every point of which is equally distant from a point within called the center.

Page 524 - In higher works on trigonometry, it has been demonstrated that, in any triangle, the sines of the angles are proportional to the lengths of the sides opposite to them. In other words, sin A : sin B :: BC : AC; or, sin A : sin C:: BC : AB, and sin B : sin C::AC : A B. Hence, we have sin 44° 40' : sin 56° 20

Page 312 - A law presupposes an agent ; for it is only the mode, according to which an agent proceeds : it implies a power ; for it is the order, according to which that power acts. Without this agent, without this power, which are both distinct from itself, the law does nothing ; is nothing. The expression, ' the law of metallic nature...

Page 209 - ... winch, with as little labour as it takes to wind up a jack, though the weight of the iron, tin, and wooden circle, is about 1000 pounds.

Page 78 - In foul weather, when the mercury rises much and high, and so continues for two or three days before the foul weather is quite over, then expect a continuance of fair weather to follow.

Page 215 - Specific Gravity of a body is the relation of its weight, compared with the weight of some other body of the same magnitude. A body immersed in a fluid will sink if its specific gravity be greater than that of the fluid; but if it be less, the body will rise to the top, and will be only partly uncovered.

Page 490 - ... the object he views. There is no small speculum, but the magnifiers are applied immediately to the first focal image. From the opening of the telescope, near the place of the eye glass, a speaking-pipe runs down to the bottom of the tube, where it...

Page 412 - Multiply the numerators together for a new numerator, and the denominators together for a new denominator.

Page 467 - And in measuring any of these station-distances, mark accurately where these lines meet with any hedges, ditches, roads, lanes, paths, rivulets, &c ; and where any remarkable object is placed, by measuring its distance from the station-line ; and where a perpendicular From it cuts that line. And thus as you go along any main...

Page 15 - ... of the motion seemed to be from the upper part downwards. It appears also that they were in some danger of having the balloon burnt altogether; as the Marquis observed several round holes made by the fire in the lower part of it, which alarmed him considerably, and, indeed, not without reason.