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NEW JERSEY.
WILLIAM LIVINGSTON,

DAVID BREARLEY,
WILLIAM PATTERSON,

JONATHAN DAYTON.

NORTH CAROLINA. WILLIAM BLOUNT, Rich'd DoBBS SPAIGHT, Hugu WILLIAMSON.

PENNSYLVANIA, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, THOMAS MIFFLIN,

ROBERT MORRIS, GEORGE CLYMER,

THOMAS FITZSIMONS, JARED INGERSOLL, JAMES Wilson,

GOUVERNEUR MORRIS.

MARYLAND.
JAMES McHENRY, DAN. OF ST. THO. JENIFER, DANIEL CARROLL.

VIRGINIA.
JOHN BLAIR,

JAMES MADISON, JR.
SOUTH CAROLINA.
JOHN RUTLEDGE,

CHARLES C. PINCKNEY,
CHARLES PINCKNEY,

PIERCE BUTLER.

GEORGIA.
WILLIAM FEW,

ABRAHAM BALDWIN.
Attest, WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.

The following named delegates from other States were present, but did not sign the Constitution :

MASSACHUSETTS.
ELBRIDGE GERRY,

CALEB STRONG.

NEW JERSEY.
Wu. C. HOUSTON,
GEORGE WYTHE,

JAMES MCCLURG.
CONNECTICUT.
OLIVER ELLSWORTH.

NEW YORK.
JOHN LANSING, JR.,

ROBERT YATES.

MARYLAND.
JOHN FRANCIS MERCER,

LUTHER MARTIN,
NORTH CAROLINA.
ALEXANDER MARTIN,

WM. R. DAVIE.

VIRGINIA.
EDMUND RANDOLPH,

GEORGE MASON.

GEORGIA.
WM. PIERCE,

WM. HOUSTON.

Of the 63 delegates originally appointed ten did not attend, two of which vacancies were filled. Of those attending, 39 signed and 16 did not.

The Constitution was adopted by the Convention on the 17th of September, 1787, appointed in pursuance of the Resolution of the Congress of the Confederation of the 21st of February, 1787, and ratified by the Conventions of the several States, as follows :

Delaware, December 7th, 1787, unanimously.
Pennsylvania, December 12th, 1787, by a vote of 46 to 23.
New Jersey, December 18th, 1787, unanimously.
Georgia, January 20, 1788, unanimously.
Connecticut, January 9th, 1788, by a vote of 128 to 40.
Massachusetts, February 6th, 1788, by a vote of 187 to 168.
Maryland, April 28th, 1788, by a vote of 63 to 12.
South Carolina, May 23d, 1788, by a vote of 149 to 73.
New Hampshire, June 21st, 1788, by a vote of 57 to 47.
Virginia, June 25th, 1788, by a vote of 89 to 79.
New York, July 26th, 1788, by a vote of 30 to 25.
North Carolina, November 21st, 1789, by a vote 193 to 75.
Rhode Island, May 29th, 1790, by a majority of 2.
Vermont, January 10th, 1791, by a vote of 105 to 4.
Declared ratified by resolution of the old Congress, September 13th, 1788.

The adoption of the Constitution was opposed by many who believed that the extensive powers granted by it to Congress and the executive would be dangerous to the liberties of the people. It was, however, finally adopted chiefly through the exertions and writings of James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton. Virginia ratified the Constitution with the declaration that she was at liberty to withdraw from the Union whenever its powers were used for oppression; and New York, after Hamilton had declared that no State should ever be coerced by an armed force. There were two great parties: The Federalists, in favor of a strong, centralized government, and the AntiFederalists, supporters of States' rights. Washington and Adams, Federalist leaders, were elected, and the government was organized with Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State; Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury; Henry Knox, Secretary of War; and John Jay, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.

ARTICLE I.*

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

* Twelve amendments were proposed by Congress, September 25th, 1789; the last ten were adopted, which are the first ten as shown above, and were proclaimed to be in force December 15th, 1791.

The rejected Articles were as follows:

I. After the first enumeration required by the First Article of the Constitution there shall be one Representative for every 30,000 persons, until the number shall amount to one hundred; after which, the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than one hundred Representatives for every 40,000 persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every 50,000 persons.

II. No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

The twelve proposed amendments were acted upon by the States as follows:

All ratified by Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Vermont and Virginia-7.

All, excepting Art. I., ratified by Delaware-1.
All, excepting Art. II., ratified by Pennsylvania-1.

All, excepting Arts. I. and II., ratified by New Hampshire, New York and Rhode Island-3.

All rejected by Connecticut, Georgia and Massachusetts-3.

ARTICLE II. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and hear arms shall not be infringed.

ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

ARTICLE V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

ARTICLE VII. In suits of common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

ARTICLE IX. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

ARTICLE XI.* The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

* Article XI. was proposed by Congress March 12th, 1794, and declared in force Jan. uary 8th, 1798.

ARTICLE XII.* The electors shall meet in their respective States, t and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; † the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediateiy, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from twothirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

ARTICLE XIII.S Sec. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this Article by appropriate legislation.

ARTICLE XIV. SEC. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the State

* Article XII. was proposed in the first session of the Eighth Congress, and declared in force September 25th, 1804.

+ The time for the meeting of the electors is the first Wednesday in December. * The time for counting the votes is the second Wednesday in February.

& Article XIII. was proposed by Congress February 1st, 1865, and declared in force December 18th, 1865.

Ratified by Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, lowa, Kansas, Louisiana Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan. Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin-34. Ratified conditionally by Alabama and Mississippi. Rejected by Delaware and Kentucky-2.

| Article XIV. was proposed by Congress June 13th, 1866, and declared in force July 28th, 1868. Ratified by Alabama, Arkansas,

Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missiswherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SEC. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

SEC. 3. No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

SEC. 4. The validity of the public debt of the ited States authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enfore, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE XV.* SEC. 1. The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

SEC. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this Article by appropriate legislation. sippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin-33.

of the above, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, and Virginia, first rejected the amendment but finally ratified it. New Jersey and Ohio rescinded their ratification.

No final action was taken by California-1.
Rejected by Delaware, Kentucky, and Maryland—3.

Article XV. was proposed by Congress February 26th, 1869, and declared in force March 30th, 1870.

Ratified by Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin-30.

of the above, Georgia and Ohio at first rejected but finally ratified. New York rescinded her ratification.

Rejected by California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey and Oregon-6.

No final action was taken by Tennessee-1.

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