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or payment of an obligation, expressed in terms of the currency of such foreign country.

B. The term "United States” means the United States and any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof; the term "continental United States” means the states of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Territory of Alaska.

C. The term “person” means an individual, partnership, association, corporation, or other organization.

D. The term “foreign country" shall include, but not by way of limitation,

(i) The state and the government thereof on the effective date of this order as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory, dependency, colony, protectorate, mandate, dominion, possession or place subject to the jurisdiction thereof,

(ii) Any other government (including any political subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof) to the extent and only to the extent that such government exercises or claims to exercise de jure or de facto sovereignty over the area which on such effective date constituted such foreign country, and

(iii) Any person to the extent that such person, is, or has been, or to the extent that there is reasonable cause to believe that such person is, or has been, since such effective date, acting or purporting to act directly or indirectly for the benefit or on behalf of any of the foregoing.

E. The term “national” shall include,

(i) Any person who has been domiciled in, or a subject, citizen or resident of a foreign country at any time on or since the effective date of this order,

(ii) Any partnership, association, corporation or other organization, organized under the laws of, or which on or since the effective date of this order had or has had its principal place of business in such foreign country, or which on or since such effective date was or has been controlled by, or a substantial part of the stock, shares, bonds, debentures, notes, drafts, or other securities or obligations of which, was or has been owned or controlled by, directly or indirectly, such foreign country and/or one or more nationals thereof as herein defined,

(iii) Any person to the extent that such person is, or has been, since such effective date, acting or purporting to act directly or indirectly for the benefit or on behalf of any national of such foreign country, and

(iv) Any other person who there is reasonable cause to believe is a “national” as herein defined. In any case in which by virtue of the foregoing definition a person is a national of more than one foreign country, such person shall be deemed to be a national of each such foreign country. In any case in which the combined interests of two or more foreign countries designated in this order and/or nationals thereof are sufficient in the aggregate to constitute, within the meaning of the foregoing, control or 25 per centum or more of the stock, shares, bonds, debentures, notes, drafts, or other securities or obligations of a partnership, association, corporation or other organization, but such control or a substantial

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part of such stock, shares, bonds, debentures, notes, drafts, or other securities or obligations is not held by any one such foreign country and/or national thereof, such partnership, association, corporation or other organization shall be deemed to be a national of each of such foreign countries. The Secretary of the Treasury shall have full power to determine that any person is or shall be deemed to be a “national” within the meaning of this definition, and the foreign country of which such person is or shall be deemed to be a national. Without limitation of the foregoing, the term "national” shall also include any other person who is determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be, or to have been, since such effective date, acting or purporting to act directly or indirectly for the benefit or under the direction of a foreign country designated in this order or national thereof, as herein defined.

F. The term “banking institution” as used in this order shall include any person engaged primarily or incidentally in the business of banking, of granting or transferring credits, or of purchasing or selling foreign exchange or procuring purchasers and sellers thereof, as principal or agent, or any person holding credits for others as a direct or incidental part of his business, or brokers; and, each principal, agent, home office, branch or correspondent of any person so engaged shall be regarded as a separate “banking institution”.

G. The term this order”, as used herein, shall mean Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1910, as amended.

Sec. 6. Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended, shall no longer be deemed to be an amendment to or a part of Executive Order No. 6560 of January 15, 1934. Executive Order No. 6560 of January 15, 1934, and the Regulations of November 12, 1934, are hereby modified insofar as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Order, and except as só modified, continue in full force and effect. Nothing herein shall be deemed to revoke any license, ruling, or instruction now in effect and issued pursuant to Executive Order No. 6560 of January 15, 1934, as amended, or pursuant to this order; provided, however, that all such licenses, rulings, or instructions shall be subject to the provisions hereof. Any amendment, modification or revocation by or pursuant to the provisions of this Order of any orders, regulations, rulings, instructions or licenses shall not affect any act done, or any suit or proceeding had or commenced in any civil or criminal case prior to such amendment, modification or revocation, and all penalties, forfeitures and liabilities under any such orders, regulations, rulings, instructions or licenses shall continue and may be enforced as if such amendment, modification or revocation had not been made.

Sec. 7. Without limitation as to any other powers or authority of the Secretary of the Treasury or the Attorney General under any other provision of this order, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and empowered to prescribe from time to time regulations, rulings, and instructions to carry out the purposes of this order and to provide therein or otherwise the conditions under which licenses may be granted by or through such officers or agencies as the Secretary of the Treasury may designate, and the decision of the Secretary with respect to the granting, denial or other disposition of an application or license shall be final.

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SEC. 8. Section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917, as amended, provides in part:

Whoever willfully violates any of the provisions of this subdivision or of any license, order, rule or regulation issued thereunder, shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, may be imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both; and any officer, director, or agent of any corporation who knowingly participates in such violation may be punished by a like fine, imprisonment, or both." Sec. 9. This order and any regulations, rulings, licenses or instructions issued hereunder may be amended, modified or revoked at any time.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

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Executive Order 8832—July 26, 1941

AMENDMENT OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 8389 OF APRIL 10, 1940,

AS AMENDED

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 415), as amended, and by virtue of all other authority vested in me, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, do hereby amend Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended, by changing the period at the end of subdivision (j) of Section 3 of such Order to a semi-colon and adding the following new subdivision thereafter: (k) June 14, 1941–China, and Japan.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

Executive Order 8963—December 9, 1941

AMENDMENT OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 8389 OF APRIL 10, 1940,

AS AMENDED

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 415), as amended, and by virtue of all other authority vested in me, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, do hereby amend Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended, by changing the period at the end of subdivision (k) of Section 3 of such Order to a semi-colon and adding the following new subdivision thereafter: (1) June 14, 1941–Thailand.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

Executive Order 8998—December 26, 1941

AMENDMENT OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 8389 OF APRIL 10, 1940,

AS AMENDED

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Sections 3 (a) and 5 (b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 415), as amended by Title III of the First War Powers Act, 1941 (Public No. 354, 77th Congress), and by virtue of all other authority vested in me, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, do hereby amend Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended, in the following respects :

(1) By changing the period at the end of subdivision (1) of section 3 of such Order to a semi-colon and adding the following new subdivision thereafter:

(m) June 14, 1941—Hong Kong.

(2) By amending paragraph B of section 5 of such Order to read as follows:

B. The term "United States” means the United States and any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, and the term "continental United States” means the states of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Territory of Alaska ; provided, however, that for the purposes of this Order the term “United States” shall not be deemed to include any territory included within the term “foreign country” as defined in paragraph D of this section.

(3) By substituting the following in lieu of subdivision (iii) of paragraph D of section 5:

(iii) Àny territory which on or since the effective date of this Order is controlled or occupied by the military, naval or police forces or other authority of such foreign country;

(iv) Any person to the extent that such person is, or has been, or to the extent that there is reasonable cause to believe that such person is, or has been, since such effective date, acting or purporting to act directly or indirectly for the benefit or on behalf of any of the foregoing. Hong Kong shall be deemed to be a foreign country within the meaning of this subdivision.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

Executive Order 9788—October 14, 1946

TERMINATING THE OFFICE OF ALIEN PROPERTY CUSTODIAN AND

TRANSFERRING ITS FUNCTIONS TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes, including the Trading with the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917, 40 Stat. 411, as amended, and the First War Powers Act, 1941, 55 Stat. 838, as amended, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered, in the interest of the internal management of the Government, as follows:

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1. The Office of Alien Property Custodian in the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President, established by Executive Order No. 9095 of March 11, 1942, is hereby terminated; and all authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties, and functions vested in such Office or in the Alien Property Custodian or transferred or delegated thereto are hereby vested in or transferred or delegated to the Attorney General, as the case may be, and shall be administered by him or under his direction and control by such officers and agencies of the Department of Justice as he may designate.

2. All property or interests vested in or transferred to the Alien Property Custodian or seized by him, and all proceeds thereof, which are held or administered by him on the effective date of this order are hereby transferred to the Attorney General.

3. All personnel, property, records, and funds of the Office of Alien Property Custodian are hereby transferred to the Department of Justice.

4. This order supersedes all prior Executive orders to the extent that they are in conflict with this order. 5. This order shall become effective on October 15, 1946.

HARRY S. TRUMAN

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Executive Order 10587—January 13, 1955

ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 321h) OF THE TRADING WITH THE

ENEMY ACT

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By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.), and by section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code (65 Stat. 713), and as President of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

SECTION 1. The Jewish Restitution Successor Organization, a charitable membership organization incorporated under the laws of the State of New York, is hereby designated as successor in interest to deceased persons in accordance with and for the purposes of subsection (h) of section 32 of the Trading with the Enemy Act, as added by Public Law 626, approved August 23, 1954 (68 Stat. 767).

SEC. 2. Exclusive of the function vested in the President by the first sentence of the said subsection (h) of section 32 of the Trading with the Enemy Act, the Attorney General shall carry out the functions provided for in that subsection, including the powers, duties, authority and discretion thereby vested in or conferred upon the President; and functions under the said subsection are hereby delegated to the Attorney General, and the Attorney General is hereby designated thereunder, accordingly.

SEC. 3. The Attorney General may delegate to any officer and agency of the Department of Justice such of his functions under this order as he may deem necessary.

DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER

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