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A D. 7.

CC), 3.

He calls Peter, Andrew, James and . CHAP. IV.

John to be his disciples. 4. 1.103: lilee, saw two brethren, Simon à called 21 · And going on from thence, he A. M. 4051. Au. Olymp. Peter, and Andrew his brother, cast- saw other two brethren, James the son

An. Olynp. CCLS.

ing a net into the sea : for they were of Zebedee, and John his brother, in fishers.

a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their 19 And he saith unto them, Follow me, and nets: and he called them. "I will make you fishers of men.

22 And they immediately left the ship and 20 ' And they straightway left their nets, and their father, and followed him. followed him.

23 | And Jesus went about all Galilee, 'teach

c Mark 10. 28. Luke 18. 28.

Mark 1. 19, 20. Luke 5. 10.

* Juba 1. 42. - Luke 5. 10, 11.

ch. 9. 35. Mark 1. 21, 39. Luke 4. 15, 41.

See on

is much human learning; and a man may be well taught in Verse 20. They straightway left their nets] A change, as the things of God, and be able to teach others, who has not far as it respected secular things, every way to their disadhad the advantages of a liberal education.

vantage. The proud and the profane may exult and say, Men-made ministers have almost ruined the heritage of " Such preachers as these cannot be much injured by their God. To prevent this, our Church requires that a man be sacrifices of secular property--they have nothing but nets, inwardly moved to take upon himself this ministry, before &c. to leave.” Let such carpers at the institution of Christ he can be ordained to it. And he who cannot say, that know, that he who has nothing but a net, and leaves that for he trusts (has rational and scriptural conviction) that he is the sake of doing gool to the souls of men, leayes his All: mored by the Holy Ghost to take upon himself this office, is besides, lie lived comfortably by his net before; but, “in bean intruder into the heritage of God, and his ordination coming the servant of all for Christ's sake, he often exposes ipso fucto, vitiated and of none effect. See the truly apostolic || himself to the want of even a morsel of bread. Oritination Serrice of the Church of England.

chap. xix. 27. Fishers.) Persons employed in a lawful and profitable Verse 22. Left the ship und their futher] By the ship, avocation, and faithfully discharging their duty in it. It TO TR0v0v, we are to understand the mere fishing-boat, used was a tradition of the Elders, that one of Joshua's ten pre- / for extending their nets in the water, and bringing the cepts was, that all men should have an equal right to spread | hawser or rope of the farther end to shore, by which the their nets and fish in the sea of Tiberias, or Galilee. The net was pulled to land. But why should these be called to persons mentioned here, were doubtless men of pure morals; || leave their employment and their father, probably now for the minister of God should have a good report from them aged ? To this I answer, that to be obedient to, provide fur, that are without.

and comfort our parents, is the highest duty we owe or can Verse 19. Follow me] Come after me, SIUTE OTOW Mob. Re- discharge, except that to God. But when God calls to the ceive my doctrine, imitate me in my conduct-in every work of the ministry, father and mother and all must be respect be my disciples. We may observe that, most of the left

. Were we necessary to their comfort and support be: calls of God to man are expressed in a few solemn words, fore? Then God, if he call us into another work or state, which alarm the conscience, and deeply impress the heart. will take care to supply to them, our lack of service some

I will make you fishers of men.] Ezek. chap. xlvii. &–10. other way; and if this be not done, it is a proof we have iniscasts much light on this place; and to this Prophet, our Lord taken our call. Again, were our parents necessary 10 us probably alludes. To follow Christ, and be admitted into a and in leaving them for the sake of the Gospel, or in obepartnership of his ministry, is a great honour; but those dience to a divine command, do we deprive ourselves of the only who are by himself fitted for it, God calls. Miserable comforts of life? No matter--we should prefer the honour are those who do not wait for this call—who presume to take of serving the Most High, even in poverty and kumility, to the name of fishers of men, and know not how to cast the net all the comforts of a father's house. But what an honour of the divine word, because not brought to an acquaintance was the vocation of James and Jolin, to old Zebedee their with the saving power of the God who bought them. Such father! His sons are called to be heralds of the God of persons having only their secular interest in view, study not heaven! Allowing him to have been a pious man, this must to catch men, but to catch money: and though, for charity's have given him unutterable delight. sake, it may be said of a pastor of this spirit, he does not enter Verse 23. Teaching in their synagogues] Synagogue, ouray40/, the sheepfold as a thief, yet he certainly lives as a hireling. See from our, together, and sy®, I bring, a public assembly of Duesel. Following a person, in the Jewish phrase, signifies persons, or the place where such persons publicly as: enabled. being his disciplc or scholar. See a similar mode of speech, Synagogues, among the Jews, were not probably older than 2 Kings vi. 19.

the return from the Babylonish captivity. They were erected

F 2

He preaches and


works many miracles.

.*... ing in their synagogues, and preach-'| 24 And his fame went throughout all A M. 4631. Au. lymp. ing the gospel of the kingdom, and Syria : and they brought unto him all An. Olyanp.

healing all manner of sickness and all sick people that were taken with divers manner of disease among the people.

diseases, and torments, and those which were


CCI. 3.

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not only in cities and towns, but in the country, and espe- effects of sin, and that their hatred to iniquity should in. cially by rivers, that they might have water for the con- crease in proportion to the evils they endure through it. 6. venience of their frequent washings.

And that nothing but the power of God can save them from Not less than ten persons of respectability, composed a

sin and its consequences. synagogue, as the Rabbins supposed that this number of For glad tidings, or gospel, see chap. i. title. Proclaiming, persons, of independant property, and well skilled in the see chap. iii, 1, and end; and for the meaning of kingdom, law, were necessary to conduct the affairs of the place, and see chap. iii. 2. keep up the divine worship. See Lightfoot. Therefore, where All manner of sickness, and all manner of disease] There this number could not be found, nơ synagogue was built; is a difference between rocos, translated here sickness, and but there might be many synagogues in one city or town, wanaxı«, translated disease. The first is thus defined: votos, provided it were populous. Jerusalem is said to have con- την χρονιαν κακοπαθειαν, a disease of some standing, a claronic tained 480. This need not be wondered at, when it is con

disorder. sidered that every Jew was obliged to worship God in public, Infrmity, μαλακια, την προσκαιρον ανωμαλιας του σωματος, και either in a synagogue or in the temple.

temporary disorder of the body. Theophylact. This is a proThe chief things belonging to a synagogue were:

per distinction, and is necessary to be observed. Ist. The ark or chest, made after the mode of the ark of Verse 24. Sick people] Tous naxwS EXortas, those who felt illthe covenant, containing the Pentateuch.

were afflicted with any species of malady. 2dly. The pulpit and desk, in the middle of the syna- And torments] Bacavors, from Bacarsw, to examine by lorture, gogue, on which he stood, who read or expounded the law. such as cholics, gouts and rheumatisms, which racked every

3dly. The seats or pers for the men below, and the gal- joint. leries for the women above.

Possessed with devils) Dæmoniacs. Persons possessed by 4thly. The lamps to give light in the evening service, and evil spirits. This is certainly the plain obvious meaning of at the feast of the dedication. And

dæmoniac in the Gospels. 5thly. Apartments for the utensils and alms-chests.

Many eminent men think, that the sacred writers accomThe synagogue was governed by a council or assembly, modated themselves to the unfounded prejudices of the orer whom was a president, called in the Gospels, the ruler common people, in attributing certain diseases to the inof the synagogue. These are sometimes called chiefs of the fluence of evil spirits, which were merely the effects of naJews, the rulers, the priests or elders, the governors, the over- tural causes : but that this explanation can never comport Weers, the fathers of the synagogue. Service was performed in with the accounts given of these persons, shall be proved as them three times a day — morning, afternoon, and night. the places occur. Synagogue, among the Jews, had often the same meaning Our common version, wbich renders the word, those posas congregation among us, or place of judicature, see Jam. ii. 2. sessed by devils, is not strictly correct; as the word devil,

Preaching the gospel of the kingdom) Or, proclaiming the saboros, is not found in the plural in any part of the Sacred glad tidings of the kingdom. See the preceding notes. Be- Writings, when speaking of evil spirits: for though there hold here the perfect pattern of an evangelical preaclier : 1. are multitudes of dæmons, Mark v. 9. yet it appears there is He goes about seeking sinners on every side, that he may | but one DEVIL, who seems to be supreme, or head, over all shew them the way to beaven. 2. He proclaims the glad the rest. Anaboros signifies an accuser, or slanderer, 1 Tim. tidings of the kingdom, with a freedom worthy of the Kingii. 11. 2 Tim. iii. 3. Tit. q. 3. Perhaps Satan was called whom he serves. 3. He makes his reputation and the con- so, Ist. because he accused or slandered God in Paradise, as fidence of the people subservient not to his own interest, averse from the increase of Man's knowledge and happiness, but to the salvation of souls. 4. To his preaching he joins, Gen. iii. 5. Jolin viii. 44. and 2dly. because he is the ucas far as he hasability, all works of mercy, and temporal || cuser of men, Rev. xii. 9, 10. See also Job' i. 2. The word assistance to the bodies of men. 5. He takes care to inform comes from doce, through, and Gardey, to cast, or shoot, because men that diseases, and all kinds of temporal evils, are the of the influence of his evil suggestions, compared, Eph. vi. 16.

A. J. 40.31,
A. D. 27.

Casts oul demons, and is


followed by great multitudes, possessed with devils, and those which | titudes of people from Galilee, and A. M. 10,1. Ax. Cly.up. were lunatic, and those that had the from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, An. Olymp. palsy; and he healed them.

and from Judea, and from beyond 25 "And there followed him great mul- Jordan.



a Jark 3. 7. & 7. 31. Luke 5. 15.

Num. 32. 33. Luke 6. 17. Mark 5. 20.

to fiery darts : - and thus it is nearly of the same meaning with Manasseh ; for the country of Decapolis lay on both sides of • 3pwy, he who pierces through. See on ver. 3. the river Jordan. See Numb. xxxii. 5, 33.

Lunatic] Persons afflicted with epileptic or other disorders, which are always known to have a singular increase The account of our Lord's temptation, as given by the at the change and full of the moon. This undoubtedly pro- Evang list, is acknowledged on all hands to be extremely ceeds from the superadded attractive influence of the sun difficult. Tavo modes of interpretation have been generally and moon upon the earth's atmosphere, as in the periods resorted to, in order to make the whole plain and intelmentioned above, these two luminaries are both in con- ligible: viz. the literal and allegorical. In all cases, where junction; and their united attractive power being exerted on it can possibly apply, I prefer the first: the latter should the earth at the same time, not only causes the flux and re- never be used, unless obviously indicated in the text itself; flur of the ocean, but occasions a variety of important or so imperiously necessary, that no other mode of interprechanges in the boilies of infirm persons, of animals in gene- tation can possibly apply. In the preceding observations, I ral, but more particularly in those who are more sensible of have taken up the subject in å literal point of view; and it these variations. And is this any wonder, when it is well is hoped that most of the difficulties in the relation have known, that a very slight alteration in the atmosphere causes been removed, or obviated, by this plan. An ingenious the most uncomfortable sensations to a number of invalids ? correspondent has favoured me with some observations on the But sometimes even these diseases were caused by dæmons. subject, which have much more than the merit of novelty to reSee on chap. viii. 16, 34. and xvii. 15.

commend them. Ishall give an abstract of some of the most strik· Palsy] Palsy is defined, a sudden loss of tone and vital power ing; and leave the whole to the reader's further consideration. in a certain part of the human body. This may affect a limb, The thoughts in this communication proceed on this the whole side, the tongue, or the whole body. This disorder ground : These temptations were addressed to Christ as a is in general incurable, except by the miraculous power of public person, and respected his conduct in the execution of God, unless in its slighter stages.

his ministry; and are reported to his Church as a forcible He healed them.] Either with a word or a touch; and thus and practical instruction, concerning the proper method proved, that all nature was under his controul.

of promoting the kingdom of God upon earth. They are Verse 25. This verse is immediately connected with the warnings against those Satanic illusions, by which the servth chapter, and should not be separated from it.

vants of Christ are liable to be hindered in their great work, Great multitudes] This, even according to the Jews, was and even stopped in the prosecution of it. one proof of the days of the Messiah: for they acknow- “ As our Lord had, at his baptism, been declared to be ledged, that in his time there should be a great famine of the Son of God, i. e. the promised Messiah, this was prothe word of God; and thus they understood Amos viii. 11. | bably well known to Satan, who did not mean to insinuate Behold, the days comethat I will send a famine in land, || any thing to the contrary, when he endeavoured to engage not a famine of breadbut of hearing the words of the Lord. him to put forth an act of that power which he possessed as And as the Messiahı was to dispense this word, the bread of the Messiah. The mysterious union of the divine with the life; hence they believed that vast multitudes from all parts human nature, in our Lord's state of humiliation, Satan should be gathered together to him. See Schoetgenius on might think possible to be broken; and therefore endea-.

voured, in the first temptation, Command these stones to be Decapoli)] A small country, situated between Syria and made bread, to induce our Lord to put forth a separate indea Galilee of the Nations. It was called Decapolis, Arxatonis pendant act of power; which our Lord repelled, by shewing from dexo, ten, and honos, a city, because it contained only | his intimate union with the Divine Will, which he was come ter cities; the metropolis, and most ancient of which, was to fulfil---Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word Damascus.

that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Thus shewing, as From beyond Jordan.] Or, from the side of Jordan. Pro- | he did on another occasion, that it was his meat and drink bably this was the country which was occupied anciently by to do the will of his Father. the two tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of 2. The ground of the temptation was then changed;

this place.

Observations upon


the temptation of Christ.

and the fulfilment of the Divine Pill, in the completion of a fluence and power for the promotion of his king lom, even prophetic promise, was made the ostensible object of the though, in so doing, an apparent communion of Christ and next attack. Cust thyself down for it is written, He Belial is the result: for it will be found, that neither worldly will gire his angels charge concerning thee, und in their hands | riches, nor power, can be employed in the service of Christ, shall they beur thee up, &c. This our Lord repelled with vill, like the spoils taken in war, Deut. xxxi. 21–23. they Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy Godas Satan had de have passed through the fire and water, as, without a divine Eigned to induce him to seek this public miraculous con- | purification, they are not fit to be employed in the service firination of Gool's peculiar care over him, as the promised of God and his Church. Messiah; of his being which, according to the hypothesis “ Hence we may conclude, that the first temptation had above, Satan had no doubt. Moses being appointed to a for its professed object, Ist. our Lord's personal relief and great and important work, needed miraculous signs to comfort, through the inducement of performing a separate strengthen his faith; but the sacred humanity of our and independunt act of power. The second temptation problessed Lord needed them not; nor did his wisdom judge, fessed to have in view his public acknowledgment by the people, that such a sign fronı hearen, was essential to tlre inst: uction as the Messiah: for should they see hiin work such a of the people.

miracle as throwing himself down from the pinnacle of the “ 3. The last temptation was the most subtle and the most temple without receiving any hurt, they would be led inpowerful -- All these will I give unto thee, if thou wilt fall stantly to acknowledge his divine mission; and the evil of down and worship me. To inherit all nations, had been re- this temptation may be explained, as seeking to secure the peatedly declared to be the birth-right of the Messiah. His success of his mission by other means than those, which, as right to universal empire could not be controverted; nor the Messiah, he had received from the Father. Compare could Satan presume to make the investiture. What, then, John xiv. 31. The third temptation was a subtle attempt was zus purpose? Satan had hitherto opposed, and that with to induce Christ to acknowledge Satan as an Ally, in the considerable success, the kingilom of God upon euth; and establishment of his kingdom.”-E. M. B. what he appears to propose bere, were, terms of peace, and The above is the substance of the ingenious theory of my an honourable retreut. The worship which he exacted was correspondent, which may be considered as a third mode of an act of homage, in return for his cession of that acendancy interpretation, partaking equally of the allegoric and literal. which, through the sin of man, he had obtained in the still, however, think, that the nearer we keep to the letter world. Ilaving long established his rule among men, it was in all such difficult cases, the more tenable is our ground, not at first to be expected, that he would resign it without especially where the subject itself does not obviously rea combat: but the purpose of this last temptation appears to quire the allegorical inole of interpretation. Among nrany be an offer to decline any farther contest; and yet more, things worthy of remark in the preceding theory, the fol. if his terms were acceptod, apparently to engage his in- lowing deserves most attention: That Satan is ever ready to fluence to promote the kingdom of the Messiah. And as tempt the governors and ministers of the Christian Church

1 the condition of this proposed alliance, he required, not to suppose, that worldly means, humun policy, secular interest divine worship, but such an act of homage as implied amity and influence, are all essentially pecessary for the support and obligation; and if this construction be allowed, he may and extension of that kingdom which is not of this world! be suppored to have enforced the necessity of the measure, Such persons can never long preserve hullowed hands—they by every suggestion of the consequences of a refusal. The bring the world into the Church; endeavour to sanctify the sufferings which would inevitably result from a provoked op- bud means they use, by the good end they aim at; and often, position, which would render the victory, though certain to in the prosecution of their object, by means which are not Christ himself, dearly bought; added to which, the conflict of God's devising, are driven into straits and difficulties, he was prepared to carry on through succeeding ages, in and to extricate themselves, tell lies for God's sake. This which all his subtlety and powers should be employed to human policy is from beneath_God will neither sunction hinder the progress of Christ's cause in the earth, and that por bless it. It has been the bane of true religion in all ages with a considerable degree of anticipated success. Here the of the world; and in every country where the cause of Devil seems to propose to make over to Christ the power and Christianity has been established, such schemers and plotters influence he possessed in this world, on condition that he in the Church of God, are as dangerous to its interests, as a yould enter into terms of peace with him; and the induce plague is to the health of society. The governors and ment offered was, that thereby our Lord should escape those ininisters of the Christian Church should keep themselves sufferings, both in his own person, and in that of his adhie- pure, and ever do God's work in his own way. If the slothe rents, which a provoked contest would ensure. And we ful servant should be cast out of the vineyard, he that cor. may suppose, that a similar tercptation lies hid in the de- rupts the good seed of the divine field, or sows tares among sires excited even in some of the servants of Christ, who the wheat, should be considered as an enemy to righteousmay feel themselves often induced to employ worldly in-ness, and be expelled from the sacred pale as one who closes Our Lord commences his


scrmon on the mount.

in with the temptation—" All these things (the kingdoms | the Church may be to the State; and the State to the Church, of the world, and the glory of them) will I give unto thee, yet the latter is nerer in so much danger, as when the former if thou wilt fall down and worship me.” However necessary



CHAPTER V. Christ begins his sermon on the mount, 1, 2. The beatitudes, 3-12. The disciples the salt of the earth, and light

of the world, 13–16. Christ is not come to destroy, but confirm and fulfil the Law and the Prophets, 17—19. Of the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, 20: Interpretation of the precepts relative to murder, anger, and injurious speaking, 21, 22. Of reconciliation, 23–26. Of impure acts and propensities, and the necessity of mortification, 27—30. Of divorce, 31, 32. Of oaths and profane swearing, 33–37. Of bearing injuries and persecution, 38—41. Of borrowing and lending, 42. Of love and hatred, 43–46. Of civil respect, 47. Christ's disciples must resemble their heavenly Father, 48. A. SI. 4031.

ND seeing the multitudes, a he 2 And he opened his mouth, and A. M. 4031. Aa. Olymp. went up into a mountain : and taught them, saying,

An. Olymp. when he was set, his disciples came 3 Blessed are the poor in spirit : for unto him :

their's is the kingdom of heaven.

A. D. 9.


A. 1). 27.

CCI. 3.

CCI. 3.

· Mark 3. 13, 20.

• Luke 6. 20. See Ps. 51.17. Prov. 16: 19. & 29. 23. Isai. 57. 15. & 66. 2.

tal men.



ye witnesses before the immortal gods, and before morVerse 1. And seeing the multitudes] Tous oxlovs, these multi

From this definition we may learn, that the pertudes, viz. those mentioned in the preceding verse, which son whom Christ terms happy, is one who is not under the should make the first verse of this chapter.

influence of fute or chance, but is governed by an all-wise He went up into a mountain] That he might have the providence, having every step directed to the attainment of greater advantage of speaking, so as to be heard by that immortal glory, being transformed by the power into the likegreat concourse of people which followed him.

ness of the ever-blessed God. Though some of the persons, And when he was set] The usual posture of public teach- whose states are mentioned in these verses, cannot be said to ers among the Jews, and among many other people. Hence as yet blessed or happy, in being made partakers of the sitting was a synonymous term for teaching among the Rab- Divine nature; yet they are termed happy by our Lord, because bins.

they are on the straight way to this blessedness. His disciples) The word ua nins signifies literally a scholar. Taken in this light, the meaning is similar to that exThose who originally followed Christ, considered him in the pressed by the poet, when describing a happy man. light of a divine teacher, and conscious of their ignorance,

Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere cuusas: and the importance of his teaching, they put themselves under his tuition, that they might be instructed in heavenly

Atque metus omnes & inexorabile FATUM things. Having been taught the mysteries of the kingdom

Subjecit pedibus; strepitumque Acherontis aduri!

Virg. Geor. ii. v. 490,of God, they became closely attached to their Divine master, Anitating his life and manners; and recommending his sal- Which may be thus paraphrased. ration to all the circle of their acquaintance. This is still · Happy is he who gains the knowledge of the first cause the characteristic of a genuine disciple of Christ.

of all things! who can trample on every fear, and the doctrina Verse 3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, &c.) Or, happy, uceo of inexorable fate; and who is not terrified by death, nor

from ux or un, nol, and xng, fate or death : intimating, by the threatened torments of the invisible world.” that such persons were endued with immortality, and conse- Poor in spirit] One who is deeply sensible of his spiritual quently were not liable to the caprices of fate. Homer, Iliad. || poverty and wretchedness. IITwxos, a poor man, comes from 1. 339. calls the supreme Gods, Otwv uxxazwy, the ever happy TTWOOW, to tremble, or shrink with fear. Being destitute of ead IMMORTAL Gods, and opposes them to Juntwy ar Ogwawy, the true riches, he is tremblingly alive to the necessities of his portal men.

soul, shrinking with fear lest he should perish without the sal. Το δ' αυτω μαρτυροι εστων

vation of God. Such, Christ pronounces happy, because Προς τε Θιων μακαρων, προς τε θνητων ανθρωπων. there is but a step betareen them and that kingdom which is


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