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Christ shews the meaning


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32 And I, ‘if I be lifted up from the 31 Now is the judgment of this world : now earth, will draw all men unto me.

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Verse 29. The peoplesaid that it thundered : othersun in the hand of the Most High, of the conversion and salvation mgel spake to him.] Bishop Pearce says, probably there was of a ruined world.” But see on chap. xiv. 30. and xvi. 11. thunder as well as a voice, as in Exod. xix. 16, 17. and some Verse 32. -will draw all men unto me.] After I shall have persons who were at a small distance, might hear the thunder died and risen again, by the preaching of my word and the without hearing the voice: while others heard the voice too; | influence of my Spirit, I shall attract and illuminate both and these last said "an angel hath spoken to him."

Jews and Gentiles. It was one of the peculiar characterW’etstein supposes that the voice was in the language then in istics of the Messiah, that unto him should the gathering of nse among the Jews; which the Greeks, not understanding, took the people be, Gen. xlix. 10. And probably our Lord relen for thunder : the others, the Jews, who did understand it, said to the prophecy, Isai. xi. 10. which peculiarly belonged to the it was the voice of an angel. In Rev. vi. 1. the voice of one Gentiles. “ There shall be a root of Jesse which shall stand of the living creatures is compared to thunder; and in chap. || for an Ensign of the people, to it shall the Gentiles sçek, and X. 3. the voice of an angel is compared to seven thunders. The his rest shall be glorious.” There is an allusion here to the envoice mentioned was probably very loud, which some heard dis- | signs or colours of commanders of regiments, elevated on high tinctly, others indistinctly: hence the variety of opinion. places, on long poles, that the people might see where the

Verse 30. This voice came not because of me, but for your pavillion of their general was, and so flock to his standard. sakes.] Probably meaning those Greeks, who had been brought Instead of Taytas, the Coder Bezce, another, several Verto him by Philip and Andrew. The Jews bad frequent op- sions, and many of the Fathers read marta, all men or all portunities of seeing his miracles, and of being convinced that things : so the Anglo-saxon, Ic reo ealle þing to me sylpon, he was the Messiah; but these Greeks who were to be a first I will draw all things to myself. But marta may be here the fruits of the Gentiles, had never any such opportunity. For accusative singular, and signify all men. their sakes, therefore, to confirm them in the faith, this mi- The ancients fabled that Jupiter had a chain of gold, which raculous voice appears to have come from heaven.

he could at any time let down from heaven, and by it draw Verse 31. Now is the judgment of this world] The judg- the earth and all its inhabitunts to himself. See a fine passage ment spoken of in this place, is applied by some to the punish- to this effect in Homer, Niad. viii. ver. 18–97. ment which was about to fall on the Jewish people for reject- Ειδ’ αγε, πειρησασθε θεοι, ένα ειδετε παντες, ing Christ. And the ruler or prince, ó aşxwy, of this world, Σεις ην χρυσε ην εξ ουρανοθεν κρεμασαντες * is understood to be Satan who had blinded the eyes of the Jews Παντες δ' εξαπτεσθε θεοι, πασαι τε θεαιναι. and hardened their hearts, that they might not believe on the “Now prove me: let ye down the golden chain son of God : but his kingdom, not only among the Jews but From heaven, and pull at its inferior links in all the world, was about to be destroyed by the abolition of Both goddesses and gods : bat me your king, idolatry and the vocation of the Gentiles.

Supreme in wisdom, ye shall never draw The epithet Shyn o sar ha-ólam, prince of this world, is To earth from heaven, strive with me as ye may. repeatedly applied to the Devil, or to Sammael, who is termed But I, if willing to exert my power, the angel of death. The Jews fabled, that into the hands of The earth itself, itself the sea, and you this chief, God had delivered all the nations of the earth, ex- Will lift with ease together, and will wind cept the Israelites. See Lightfoot. The words are understood The chain around the spiry summit sharp by others, as addressed to these believing Grecks, and to have Of the Olympian, that all things upheav'd the following meaning which is extremely different from the Shall bang in the mid heaven. So much am I other. “ In a short time, (four or five days afterwards;) ye Alone, superior both to gods and men.-Cowpea. shall see what sort of a judgment this world passes. 1, who By this chain the poets pointed out the union between heaven am its ruler and prince, shall be cast out, shall be condemned and earth ; or in other words, the government of the universe by my own creatures, as an impions and wicked person. But by the extensive chain of causes and effects. It was termed do not be discourayed: though I be lifted up on the cross, and golden, to point out not only the beneficence of the Divine Prodie like a malefactor, nevertheless I will draw all men unto my-vidence; but also that infinite philanthropy of God, by which self. The gospel of Christ crucified, shall be the grand agent he influences, and by wbich he attracts all mankind to himself.

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The Jews cavil. Christ exhorts


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34 The people answered him, We Walk while ye have the light, lest have heard out of the law, that Christ abideth darkness come upon you: for he that walkfor ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man eth in darkness knoweth not whither he gomust be lifted up? who is this Son of man? eth.


Cl. 18. 32. Ps. 89. 36, 37. & 110. 4. lsai. 9,7. & 53. 8. Ezek. S7. 25.

Dan. 2. 44. & 7. 14, 27. Mic. 4. 7.

Ch. 1. 9. & 8. 12. & 9. 5. ver. 46.—_d Jer. 13. 16. Eph. 5. 8.

11. 10. 1 John 2. 11.

It was possibly in allusion to this that our Lord spoke the above by the name, The Law, in opposition to the words or saywords. Should it be objected that it is inconsistent with the ings of the Seribes. See on chap. x. 34. gravity of the subject, and the dignity of our Lord, to allude That Christ abideth for ever] There was no part of the to the fable of a heathen poet, I answer: 1. The moral is ex- law nor of the scripture that said, the Messiah should not die ; cellent, and, applied to this purpose, expresses beautifully our but there are several passages that say as expressly as they Lord's gracious design in dying for the world, viz. That men can, that Christ must die, and die for the sin of the world might be united to himself, and drawn up into heaven. 2. It too. See especially Isai. liii. 1,&c. Dan.ix. 24, 27. But as there is no more inconsistent with the gravity of the subject and his were several passages that spoke of the perpetuity of his reign, dignity for our blessed Lord to allude to Homer, than it was as Isai. ix. 7. Ezek. xxxvii. 25. Dan. vii. 14. they probably for St. Paul to quote Aratus and Cleanthes, Acts xvii. 28. and confounded the one with the other, and thus drew the concluEpimenides, Tit. i. 12. for he spoke by the same spirit.

sio The Messiah cannot die; for the scripture hath said, bis As sometimes justice was represented under the emblem of throne, kingdom, and reign shall be eternal. The prophets, a golden chain, and in some cases such a chain was construct- as well as the evangelists and apostles, speak sometimes of ed, one end attached to the emperor's apartment, and the the divine, sometimes of the human nature of Christ : when other hanging within reach ; that if any person were op- they speak of the former, they shew forth its glory, excelpressed he might come and lay hold on the chain, and by lence, omnipotence, omniscience, and eternity; when they shaking it give the king notice that he was oppressed; and speak of the latter, they shew forth its humiliations, amicthus claimed protection from the fountain of justice and tions, sufferings, and death. And those who do not make power. In the Jehangeer Nameh, a curious account of this the proper distinction belween the two natures of Christ, kind is given, which is as follows. The first order which the human and the divine, will ever make blunders as well Jehangeer issued on his accession to the throne (which was as the Jews. It is only on the ground of two natures in A. H. 1014. answering to A.D. 1605.) was for the construc- Christ, that the scriptures which speak of him, either in the tion of the GOLDEN CHAIN of Justice. It was made of pure Old or New Testament, can be possibly understood. No gold, and measured thirty yards in length, consisting of position in the gospel is plainer than this, God was manifest sixty links, and weighing in the whole, four Hindostany in the flesh. maunds (about four hundred pounds avoirdupois). One end Verse 35. Yet a little while is the light with you] of the chain was suspended from the royal bastion of the swer to their objection, our Lord compares himself to a light, fortress of Agra, and the other fastened in the ground near which was about to disappear for a short time, and afterthe side of the river. The intention of this was, that if the wards to shine forth with more abundant lustre; but not to officers of the courts of law were partial in their decisions, | their comfort, if they continued to reject its present beamor dilatory in the administration of justice, the injured par- ings. He exhorts them to follow this light while it was among ties might come themselves to this chain, and making a noise. them. The Christ shall abide for ever, it is true; but he by shaking the links of it, give notice that they were waiting will not always be visible. When he shall depart from you, to represent their grievances to his majesty. Hist. of Hin- || ye shall be left in the thickest darkness ; in impenitence and dostan, p. 96. Calcutta, 1788. Such a communication, prayer | hardness of heart. Then shall ye wish to see one of the and faith establish between the most just and most merciful || days of the Son of man, and shall not see it, Luke xvii. 22. God, and the wretched and oppressed children of men. And Then shall ye seek me, but shall not find me, John vii. 34. I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto | For the kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given me,

O thou that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh to the Gentiles, Matt. xxi. 43. If ye believe not in me now, come! Psal. Ixv. 2.

ye shall then wish ye had done it, when wishing shall be for Verse 34. We have heard out of the law] That is, out of ever fruitless. the sacred writings. The words here are quoted from Psal. Instead of men wuwy, with you ; , among you, is the cx. 4. but the Jews called every part of the sacred writings !! reading of BDL. seventeen others : Coptic, Gothic, Slavonic,

In an

The Jeu's would not believe, and


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S6 While ye have liglit, believe in 38 That the saying of Esaias the proAn. Olymp. the light, that ye may be a the child- phet might be fulfilled, which he spake, An. Olymp.

ren of light. These things spake Je-Lord, who hath believed our report? sus, and departed, and did hide himself from and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been them.

revealed ? 37 But though he had done so many mira 39 Therefore they could not believe, because cles before them, yet they believed not on him : that Esaias said again,

a Luke 16. 8. Eph. 5. 8. 1 Thess. 5. 5. 1 John 2. 9, 10, 11.

6 Ch. 8. 59. & 11. 54. - Isai. 53. 1. Rom. 10. 16.

Vulgate, Itala, Cyril, Nonnius, and Victorinus. Griesbuch has the person, office, sufferings, death, and sacrifice of the Messiah. received it into the text. The meaning of both is nearly the See Isai. liii. 1, &c. same.

The arm of the Lord] The power, strength, and miracles Lest darkness come upon you] Ye have a good part of your of Christ. journey yet to go: ye cannot travel safely but in the day Verse 39. Therefore they could not believe] Why? Because light--that light is almost gone-run that the darkness over they did not believe the report, of the prophets concerning take you not, or in it ye shall stumble, fall, and perish! Christ; therefore they credited not the miracles which he

Reader, is thy journey near an end? There may be but wrought as a proof that he was the person foretold by the a very little time remaining to thee-Oh run, fly to Christ, prophets, and promised to their fathers. Having thus reJest the darkness of death overtake thee, before thy soul bave sisted the report of the prophets, and the evidence of Christ's found redemption in his blood !

own miracles; God gave them up to the darkness and hardVerse 36. Children of light] Let the light, the truth ofness of their own hearts, so that they continued to reject Christ so dwell in and work by you, that ye may be all every overture of divine mercy; and God refused to heal light in the Lord. That as truly as a child is the produce their national wound, but on the contrary, commissioned the of his own parent, and partakes of his nature ; so ye may Romans against them ; so that their political existence was be children of the light, having nothing in you but truth and totally destroyed. righteousness.

The prophecy of Isaiah was neither the cause for the moDid hide himself from them.] Either by rendering himself tive of their unbelief: it was a simple prediction, which iminvisible, or by suddenly mingling with the crowd, so that | posed no necessity on them to resist the offers of mercy. they could not perceive him. See chap. viii. 59. Probably | They might have believed, notwithstanding the prediction, it means no more than that he withdrew from them, and for such kinds of prophecies always include a tacit condition; went to Bethany as was bis custom, a little before his cruci- | they may believe, if they properly use the light and power fixion; and concealed himself there during the night, and which God has given them. Such prophecies also are of a taught publicly every day in the temple. It was in the night- | general application—they will always suit somebody, for in season that they endeavoured to seize upon him, in the ab- every age persons will be found who resist the grace and sence of the multitude.

spirit of God like these disobedient Jews. However it apVerse 37. Yet they believed not on him] Though the mi-l pears, that this prediction belonged especially to these reracles were wrought for this very purpose, that they might jectors and crucifiers of Christ: and if the prophecy was believe in Christ, and escape the coming wrath, and every infallible in its execution, with respect to them, it was not 'evidence given that Jesus was the Messiah, yet they did not because of the prediction that they continued in unbelief, but believe; but they were blinded by their passions, and ob- because of their own voluntary obstinacy; and God forestinately hardened their hearts against the truth.

seeing this, foretold it by the Prophet. Should I say, that Verse 38. 'Thut the saying of Esaias] Or, Thus the word || they could not believe, means, they would not believe, I should of Isaiah was fulfilled. So I think syre (commonly rendered perhaps offend a generation of his children; and yet I am that,) should be translated. For it certainly does not mean pretty certain, the words should be so understood : However, the end the Pharisees had in view by not believing; nor the that I may put myself 'under cover from all suspicion of perend which the Prophet had in view in predicting the incre- || verting the meaning of a text which seems to some, to be spoken dulity of the Jews; but simply, such a thing was spoken by in favour of that awful doctrine of unconditional reprobation; .the Prophet, concerning the Jews of his own tiine, and it

the very father of it shall interpret the text for me. Thus had its literal fulfilment in those of our Lord's time.

then saith St. Augustin. Quare autem non POTERANT, si a Our report] The testimony of the prophets, conceraing lime quæratur, cito respondeo ; Quia NOLEBANT: MALAM quippe

Their punishment. Christ


continues to teach them,

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40 * He hath blinded their cyes, and 43 " For they loved the praise of men, A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. hardened their heart; that they should more than the praise of God.

An. Olynıp, not see with their eyes, nor understand 44 | Jesus cried and said, 'He that with their heart, and be converted, and I should believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on heal them.

him that sent me. 41 These things said Esaias, when he saw his 45 And he that seeth me, seeth him that sent glory, and spake of him.

46 % I am come a light into the world, that also many believed on him ; but because whosoever believeth on me should not abide in of the Pharisees they did not confess him, | darkness. lest they should be put out of the syna 47 And if any man hear my words, and begogue :

lieve not, I judge him not: for 'I came not


42°¢ Nevertheless among the chief rulers

* Isai. 6. 9, 10. Mait. 13. 14.----_.b Isai. 6. 1.-ch. 7. 13. & 9. 22.

ach. 5. 11.

e Mark 9. 37. 1 Pet. 1. 21.-fch. 14. 9. Ever. 35, 36. ch. 3. 19. &

8. 12. & 9. 5, 39.hch. 5. 45. & 8. 15, 20.-ich. S. 17.

It is a very

eorum VOLUNTATEM præcidit Deus, & per prophetum prænun- ral advantages. 3. The fear of disgrace. 4. The love of the ciarit. “ If I be asked why they could not believe? I in- || praise of men. Abundance of persons persuade themselves mediately answer, Because They WOULD NOT. And God hav- that they love God more than the world, till some trying ing foreseen their bad will, foretold it by the prophet.” || occasion fully convinces them of their mistake. Aug. Tract. 53. in Joan.

great misfortune for a person not to know himself but by Verse 40. And I should heal them.] This verse is taken | his falls; but it is the greatest of all, not to rise again after from Isai. vi. 9. and perhaps refers more to the judgments he has fallen. This is generally occasioned by the love of the that should fall upon thein as a nation, which God was de- praise of men, because in their account it is more shameful termined should not be averted; than it does to their eternal to rise again, than it was to fall at first. state. To suppose that the text meant that God was un Verse 44. Jesus cried and said] This is our Lord's conwilling that they should turn unto him, lest he should be cluding discourse to this wicked people : probably this and obliged to save them; is an insupportable blasphemy. the following verses should be understood as a part of the dis

Verse 41. When he saw his glory] Isai. vi. I, &c. I saw course, which was left off at the 36th verse. Jehovah, said the Prophet, sitting upon a throne, high and Jesus cried-he spoke these words aloud, and shewed his lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Abore it stood the earnest desire for their salvation. seraphim--and one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, Believeth not on me (only,) but on him that sent me.] Here holy, is Jehoral, God of hosts; the whole earth shall be full he asserts again, bis indivisible unity with the Father :-he of his glory! It appears evident from this passage, that the who believes on the Son, believes on the Father: he who hath glory which the Prophet saw, was the glory of Jehovah : seen the Son, hath seen the Father: he who honours the Son, John therefore, saying here, that it was the glory of Jesus, honours the Father. Though it was for asserting this, (his shews that he considered Jesus to be Jehovah. See Bishop oneness with God,) that they were going to crucify him; yel Pearce. Two MSS. and a few Versions have lov, and he retracts nothing of what he had spoken, but strongly re@:0V AUTOU, the glory of God, or of his God.

asserts it, in the very jaws of death! Verse 42. Among the chief rulers--many believed on him) Verse 46. I am come a light into the world] Probably reWe only know the names of two of them, Nicodemus, and ferring to what his forerunner had said, chap, i. 5. Before Joseph of Arimathea.

the coming of this Saviour, this Sun of righteousness, into Butthey did not confess him] Or it: they were as yet the world, all was darkness : at his rising the darkness is disweak in the faith, and could not bear the reproach of the persed; but it only profits those whose eyes are open to receive cross of Christ. Besides, the principal rulers had determined the rays of this Sun of righteousness. See on chap. i. 5. iii. to excommunicate every person who acknowledged Christ 19. viii. 12. and ix. 5. for the Messiah ; see chap. ix. 22.

Verse 47. And believe not] Και μη φυλαξη, And keep them Verse 43. They loved the praise of men] Aočav, the glory, | not, is the reading of ABL. seven others, Syriuc, Wheelock's or honour that cometh from men.

Persian, two of the Arabic, Coptic, Sahidic, Æthiopic, ArmeHow common are these four obstacles of faith, says Ques- | nian, latter Syriac, Vulgate, six of the Itala, and some of the nel. 1. Too great a regard to men. 2. Riches and tempo- | Fathers.


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me'a' commandment, what I should' An. Olymp. 48 · He that rejecteth me, and re- say, and what I should speak. ceiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth 50 And I know that his commandment is life him : the word that I have spoken, the same everlasting : whatsoever I speak therefore, even shall judge him in the last day.

as the Father said unto me, so I speak. 49 For I have not spoken of myself ; but

· Luke 10. 16.

- Deut. 18. 19. Mark 16. 16.

- Cl. 8. 38. x 14. 10.

d Deut. 18. 18.

A man must hear the words of Christ, in order to beliere a ransom for all : and whosoever believeth on thee shall not them; and he must believe, in order to keep them: and he perish, but have everlasting life. Every word of Christ, promust keep them, in order to his salration.

perly credited, and carefully applied, leads to peace and hapI judge him not] I need not do it: the word of Moses and piness here, and to glory bereafter. What an amiable view of the Prophets, judges and condemns him. See the notes on the gospel of the grace of God does this give us! It is a system chap. iii. 17. and v. 45.

of eternal life, divinely calculated to answer every imporVerse 48. The word that I have spoken-shall judge him] | tant purpose to dying, miserable man. This sacred truth Jesus. Ye shall be judged according to my doctrine :-the maxims witnessed with his last breath. He began his public ministry, which


have heard from my mouth, shall be those on which proclaiming the kingdom of God; and he now finishes it, by ye shall be tried in the great day: and ye shall be condemned asserting, that the whole commission is eternal life : and having or acquitted, according as ye have believed or obeyed them; or attested this, he went out of the temple, and retired to Bethany, . according as ye have despised and violated them. See this proved, Matt. xxv. 35, &c.

The public work of our Lord was now done; and the remnant Verse 49. For I have not spoken of myself ] I have not of his time previously to his crucifixion, he spent in teaching spoken for my secular interest :- I have not aimed at making his disciples--instructing them in the nature of his kingdom, any gain of you :-1 have not set up myself, as your teachers his intercession, and the mission of the Holy Spirit; and in that in general do; to be supported by my disciples; and to heavenly life which all true believers live with the Father, be credited on my own testimony. I have taught you, not through faith in the Son, by the operation of the Holy Ghost. the things of men, but the deep everlasting truths of God. Many persons are liberal in their condemnation of the Jews, As his envoy, I came to you; and his truth only, I proclaim. because they did not believe on the Son of God: and doubtless

Gave me a commandment] Or, commission. So I under their unbelief bas merited and received the most signal punishistand the original word tytoan. Christ, as the Messiah, re

But those who condemn them, do not reflect that they ceived his commission from God: what he should command, are probably committing the same sort of transgression in cirevery thing that related to the formation and establishment of cumstances which heighten the iniquity of their sin. Will it the Christian institution : and what he should speak, all his avail any man that he has believed that Christ has come in private conversations with his disciples or others, he, as man, flesh to destroy the works of the devil, who does not come unto cominanded and spoke through the constant inspiration of the him that he may have life, but continues to live under the Holy Spirit.

power and guilt of sin? Paradoxical as it may seem, it is Verse 50. I know that his commandment is life everlasting] nevertheless possible, for a man to credit the four evangelists, These words of our Lord are similar to that saying in St. || and yet live and die an infidel, as far as his own salvation is John's first epistle, chap. v. 11, 12. This is the record, that concerned. Reader, it is possible to hold the truth in unGod hath given unto us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. righteousness:—Pray to God that this may not be thy conHe that hath the Son, hath life. God's commandment or com demnation. For a farther improvement of the principal submission is, Preach salvation to a lost world, and give thyself || jects of this chapter, see the notes on verses 24, 32 and 39.


CHAPTER XIII. Christ washes the feet of his disciples, and gives them instructions concerning humility and charity, 1–17. He tells

them, that one of themselves would betray him, 18—20. The disciples doubting of whom he spoke, Peter desires John to ask him, 21—25. Jesus shews that it is Judas Iscariot, 26. Sutan enters into Judas, and he rises up and leaves the company, 27—30. Christ shews his approaching death, and commands his disciples to love one another, 31-35. Peter professing strong attachment to Christ, is informed of his denial, 36–38.

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