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243 failing in his endeavour to influence Lord, that he did perceive by him, their determination, the Archbishop, that like a smatterer he had studied in conjunction with the Earl of Salis. some two or three questions, bury, Lord Treasurer, framed an ex- whereof, when he came in com., pedient for contenting both parties. pany, he must be talking to vindiThe English theologians who agreed 'cate his skill; but if he were put in sentiment with the Arminian party from those, he would show himself in Holland felt a natural uneasiness but a simple fellow. There was at the side taken by their Sovereign, present also Dr. Richardson, the and distaste at the conciliatory King's professor of divinity in Cammeasures of the Primate ; while the bridge, and another doctor in that Dutch Remonstrants, as they then faculty, with whom he falleth in began to be called, sent over to also about some of those questions, England the famous Hugo Grotius, which are now controverted among a plausible defender of their cause, the ministers in Holland. And but a secret favourer of Pelagianism being matters wherein he was and Socinianism, to mitigate the studied, he uttered all his skill King's displeasure. The following concerning them. My lord of Ely letter, written to Winwood by his sitting still at the supper all the Grace, shows that the latter had while, and wondering what a man some discernment of character. he had there, who, never being in
• You must take heed how you the place or company before, could trust Dr. Grotius too far, for I overwhelm them so with talk for perceive him to be so addicted to so long a time. I write this unto some partialities in those parts, that you so largely, that you may know he feareth not to lash, so it may the disposition of the man, and how serve a turn. At his first coming kindly be used my lord of Ely for to the King, by reason of his good his good entertainment. You will Latin tongue, he was so tedious, ask me what is this to you? I must and full of tittle-tattle, that the tell you therefore, that you shall King's judgment was of him, that not be without your part. At the he was some pedant, full of words, same time that Sir Noel Caron was and of no great judgment. And I together with Grotius, being now myself, discovering that to be his to take his leave of the King, it was habit, as if he did imagine that desired of his Majesty, that he every man was bound to hear him, would not hastily give his judgment so long as he would talk (which is concerning points of religion, now a great burthen to men replete in difference in Holland, for that with business) did privately give his Majesty had information but him notice thereof, that he should of one side, and that his ambassador, plainly and directly deliver his did deal partially, making all reports mind, or else he would make the in favour of the one side, and sayKing weary of him. This did not ing nothing at all for the other. For
so take place, but that afterwards he might have let his Majesty know, · he fell to it again, as was especially how factious a generation these
observed one night at supper at the contradictors are; how they are Lord Bishop of Ely's ; whether like to our puritans in England ; being brought by Mr. Casaubon (as how refractory they are to the I think) my Lord intreated him to authority of the civil magistrate ; stay to supper, which he did. There and other things of like nature, as was present Dr. Steward, and I wrote you in my former letter, another civilian, unto whom he doubt not but Grotius had his part Alings out some question of that in this information, whereout I profession, and was so full of words, conceive you will make some use, that Dr. Steward afterwards told my keeping these things privately to
yourself, as becometh a man of your divine expressed his sense of the employment. When his Majesty hospitality he had experienced at told me this, I gave such an answer Lambeth, by procuring for Dr. as was fit; and now, upon the Abbot the manuscript of Father receipt of your letters, shall upon Paul's history of the Council of the first occasion give further satis Trent. It is melancholy to add faction. All these things rest there that he was persuaded by Gondaas they did; and I, as ready to do mar, the Spanish ambassador, to you all good offices, remain, &c. return to Rome and his former
GEORGE CANT.' communion; but though the proJune 1, 1613.
mise of a Cardinal's hat was held The marriage of the Lady Eliz out to him, he was seized by the abeth, the King's only daughter, Inquisition, and died in prison in an amiable princess, with the 1625. Elector Frederick V. Count Pala. The King having passed the tine of the Rhine, a connexion noted declaration for permitting likely to strengthen the Protestant sports and pastimes on the Lord's interest on the Continent, was pro- day, and ordering it to be read in moted by the Archbishop, who was churches, the Archbishop could not among the principal to show respect refrain from expressing his disapto his Highness on his arrival in probation of a measure, so insulting England. His Grace thougbt fit to the majesty of God, and unbeto invite the nobility who attended coming a Protestant nation. Hap. the illustrious stranger to an en- pening to be at Croydon when the tertainment at Lambeth ; where, declaration arrived in that parish, though uninvited and unexpected, he forbad its being read by the the Elector himself condescended minister. His Majesty suffered this to make his appearance. The act of opposition on the part of the wedding was solemnized on Valen Primate to pass without animadvertine's day, 1612, the Archbishop sion, though many of the courtiers performing the ceremony on a and divines about his person never platform erected in the middle of omitted an opportunity of irritating the royal chapel, on which occasion him against that prelate, because Dr. Donne wrote a congratulatory he knew how to value piety in poem. Frederick, leaving Eng. the non-conformists, and generally land, with his bride on the tenth voted in favour of a moderate and of April, made his Grace a present pacificatory conduct in the ecclesiof a thousand pounds, in acknow astical administration. Like most ledgement of his pains to accomplish other moderate churchmen, he was the union.
stigmatized as a puritan, and an Towards the close of the year encourager of sectaries. By Bishop 1614, Antonio de Dominis, Arch. Laud, and the rest of the clergy, bishop of Spalato in Dalmatia, and who held the same high notions the territory of Venice, fled to Eng- with him on points of discipline, land for shelter against the perse- and entertained similar sentiments cution with which he was threatened on the Arminian controversy, Dr. by the Pope, for discovering his Abbot was disliked on account of dislike both of the doctrine and dis- his moderation and faithfulness ; cipline of the Church of Rome, and but he was an enlightened episcowas very kindly received by the palian, a steady friend to protesKing, who was pleased to order the tantism, and one who was desirous Archbishop to entertain him. On that the ministers of the national his professing himself a convert to church should attract the reverence the Protestant faith, he was raised of the laity, from their adherence to the deanery of Windsor. This to the Articles, the sanctity of their
manners and the charity of their the expediency of British interbehaviour, rather than from a blind ference, and during this hesitation, and superstitious regard for their Ferdinand, being elected Emperor function. Dr. Welwood bas drawn of Germany, marched bis forces his character in a fair and candid against Frederick in Prague, and manner. Archbishop Abbot was not only expelled him and his a man of wonderful temper and Queen and children thence, but also moderation; and in all his conduct took from him his Palatinate, and showed an unwillingness to stretch forced him for succour into the low the Act of Uniformity beyond what countries. was absolutely necessary for the declining state of health, renpeace of the church ; or the pre- dering exercise and recreation rogative of the crown, any farther necessary, the Primate made a tour than conduced to the good of the into Hampshire, and being invited state. Being not well turned for a by the Lord Zouch to hunt in his court, though otherwise of con- park at Bramsbill on the border siderable learning and genteel edu- of the county of Berks, he met cation, lie either could not, or would there with a most distressing not, stoop to the humour of the accident. Shooting from a crosstimes; and now and then, by an bow at one of the deer, the arrow unseasonable stiffness, gave occasion wounded Peter Hawkins the keeper to his enemies to represent him, as in the left arm, and piercing a not well inclined to the prerogative, blood vessel occasioned his death or too much addicted to a popular in the course of an hour. It apinterest ; and therefore not fit to peared that the Archbishop was not be employed in matters of govern- chargeable with the least indiscrement. We cannot equally appre- tion, and that the deceased had ciate the observation of Fuller in been repeatedly warned to be on his his • Worthies of England,' that if guard, but the homicide threw his Laud had succeeded Bancroft, and Grace into a deep melancholy. the plan for conformity had not He allowed the widow of Hawkins suffered the interruption which it an annuity of twenty pounds, and experienced from Abbot there throughout the remainder of his would no doubt have been an end life observed a monthly fast on a to schism in England.
Tuesday, the day on which the fatal The Emperor Matthias dying in event occurred. So malicious were 1619, the states of Bohemia, re his enemies, that they wished to jecting his cousin and adopted son represent the affair in a sinister Ferdinand the second, offered their light to the King, who pertinently crown to the Elector Palatine. As replied, “An angel might have this was the effect of a policy miscarried in this sort.* The favourable to the principles of civil Bishop of Lincoln, who was keeper and religious liberty, in opposition of the seals, informed the Duke of to the tyranny and bigotry of the Buckingham that the Archbishop house of Austria, the Archbishop was ipso facto degraded from his agreed in sentiment with those- dignity by the murder that he had of the English government, who committed, according to English thought that King James should lend his assistance to his son-in-law
* Every one must approve the conduct
of the Sovereign in considering the gamein support of his election. Not
Notkeeper's death as entirely accidental ; but being able, from bodily infirmity, the Archbishop evidently forgot his charto attend the council, he wrote his acter and station while engaging in field opinion to the Secretary of State.
sports; amusements, to say the least,
questionable in laymen, but altogether inThere was great division however
consistent with the clerical profession.-among the ministers of James on Editor.
statute, and ancient discipline ; and of Babylon. How hateful it will expressed his apprehension that the be to God, and grievous to your papists would turn it to their good subjects the professors of the account, if the government suffered gospe), that your Majesty who bath an individual, whose hands were often disputed, and learnedly written stained with blood, to retain the against those heresies, should now primacy of the church. In con- show yourself a patron of those sequence of this remonstrance, a wicked doctrines, which your pen commission was appointed of some hath told the world, and your conspiritual and temporal lords to ex. science tells yourself, are superamine the matter, which terminated stitious, idolatrous, and detestable. in the Archbishop's favour. When And hereunto I add what you have his Majesty was given to under. done, in sending the Prince into stand that he had incurred grievous Spain, without consent of your penalties by this accident, he wrote council, the privity and approbation him a consolatory letter with his of your people ; and although you own hand, telling him he would have a charge and interest in the not add affliction to his sorrow, or Prince, as son of your flesh, yet take one farthing from his chattels have the people a greater, as son or moveables which were forfeited of this kingdom, upon whom (next by law.
after your Majesty) are their eyes It was in consistency with his fixed, and welfare depends; and so public life, and decision of character, tenderly is his going apprehended, that he opposed the design which as (believe it) however his return his Sovereign had so strangely at may be safe, yet the drawers of him heart of marrying the Prince of into this action, so dangerous to Wales to the Spanish Infanta. He himself, so desperate to the kingfelt a salutary alarm, in common dom, will not pass away unqueswith all true Protestants, at the tioned, unpunished. Besides, this probable issue of such an unnatural toleration which you endeavour to connexion. The epistle addressed set up by your proclamation, canby the venerable prelate to his not be done without a parliament; Majesty, is preserved to his lasting unless your Majesty will let your honour.
subjects see, that you will take unto • May it please your Majesty; yourself ability to throw down the • I have been too long silent, and laws of your land at your pleasure. am afraid by my silence I have ne- What dreadful consequences these glected the duty of the place it hath things may draw afterward, I pleased God to call me unto, and beseech your Majesty to consider ; your Majesty to place me in : But and above all, lest by this toleration, now I humbly crave leave I may and discountenancing of the true discharge my conscience towards profession of the gospel, wherewith God and my duty to your God bath blessed us, and this kingMajesty; and therefore I beseech dom bath so long flourished under you freely to give me leave to it, your Majesty do not draw upon deliver myself, and then let your this kingdom in general, and yourMajesty do with me what you self in particular, God's heavy please. Your Majesty hath pro wrath and indignation. pounded a toleration of religion. • Tbus in discharge of my duty I beseech you, to take into your towards God, to your Majesty, and consideration what your act is, what the place of my calling, I have the consequence may be. By your taken humble leave to deliver my act you labour to set up the most conscience. Now, Sir, do what damnable and heretical doctrine of you please with me.' the Church of Rome, the Whore It is evident that the Archbishop
wrote under apprehension of the at variance with sound religious displeasure of James, who at this and political sentiment. He stated time was causing so much uneasi- accordingly his objections, which ness to the most worthy of his were so unanswerable, that the servants, while a weak partiality preacher was led to qualify his for Buckingham and some interested expressions, before the discourse courtiers led him into unconstitu- received the approval of Dr. tional and pernicious measures. Mountaigne, the London diocesan. The plan proceeded so far, that the Much was said at court in consepreparatory articles for the marriage quence of the refusal of the Primate, were sworn to, in the presence of who retired to Croydon, where his Abbot and other great officers Majesty sent him word by Lord of state, though through the coun- Secretary Conway that he expected teraction of a merciful providence him to withdraw to Canterbury, they never took effect.His Ma- which his Grace declined, as having jesty continued however to give a law suit with that city, and reDr. Abbot such marks of his esteem quested permission to go to Ford, as were due to his integrity. His five miles distant from Canterbury, increasing infirmities prevented his which was granted; and a comfrequent attendance at the council- mission was given to six Bishops board; but he paid his Sovereign to execute the archiepiscopal auunremitting attention in his last thority. The necessities of the illness, and was near him when he times however rendering a parlia. expired.
'ment necessary, his Grace's presence At the coronation of Charles I. was required soon after, when he the Primate set the crown on his was not only restored to his authoMajesty's head, though at the time rity, but was honourably received, extremely weak, and suffering from and conducted to the King, who an attack of gout. But he could desired his attendance at the council not hope for the same considera- twice in the week. With respect tion under the new reign. That to his temporary suspension, it was unprincipled favorite, Buckingham, declared in the commission, that watched every opportunity to pre- the Archbishop could not at that judice the young monarch against time, in bis own person, attend the honest and venerable man who those services, which were otherhad opposed the Spanish intrigue, wise proper for his cognizance and and while he sought to depreciate jurisdiction. He knew however his influence in the state, was that the whole proceeding was the seconded by Bishop Land, who led effect of party-malice, and wrote a party against him in the church. from bis retirement at Ford, a A circumstance of no great moment 'Narrative containing the true in itself was sufficient to produce cause of his sequestration, and disan explosion where inflammatory grace at court.' elements were prepared. Dr. Sib. He recovered much of his former thorp, vicar of Brackley in North- consideration, and in 1623 actually amptonshire, having preached a consecrated Dr. Montague to the See sermon on the obedience due to the of Chichester, a man who had been civil magistrate, with a view to among the foremost in affecting justify an arbitrary loan which the to consider the Primate irregular, King had demanded, and made his ever since the death of Hawkins, way at court, the Archbishop re- Laud himself assisting at the fused to licence its publication, ceremony. And on the memorable though recommended by his Ma- occasion of the presentation of the jesty, because he conceived the Petition of Right,' he delivered expressions of the preacher to be the sense of the House of Lords