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has exulted in him; but it was when inquiring about the people, and sending smoothing the pillow of poverty and me with messages to them; and he death, that I most loved and venerated listened with much interest to the report him ; and discovered the image of that I made of them...... Saviour who went about doing good.' " I know that he was full of anxiety
“It may seem extraordinary that he for a suitable successor, and the idea of never spoke to us on the subject of his his flock being dispersed hung heavy death, but those can understand it who upon his spirits. One morning, when knew the exquisite tenderness and sus I was sitting near him, he burst into ceptibility of his feelings. His affection tears and said, “Oh! my parish ! my indeed was almost his affliction. He poor parish. I feel as if I had dune could not bear to witness the sorrow nothing for it, as if it had been so much which would have filled our hearts in neglected. I have not done half that I the certain and near prospect of separa- ought.' It was more than I could bear tion. He wished us, I think, to under. to hear bim speak in this way; for I stand his situation and to observe in had seen him 'in weariness, and painsilence.
fulness, and watchings, spending and “ There were no violent symptoms to being spent, if by any means he might mark the approach of death, but a win souls to Christ. I suggested to gradual decay of strength. He sat with him his labours, and the singular useus as usual in his study-chair to the fulness of his ministry, especially within very last day,--almost to the last hour. the last two years : he would still reply, I recollect many things which I did no thanks to me, no thanks to me. I not then understand, but which now see it so different now, as if I had done show me that he was preparing for just nothing. I see nothing but neglect, death : with surprising calmness he set and duties left undone.' I could not his house in order. He made a cata- help reflecting on the different aspect logue of his principal books, with things must have when eternity is openmemoranda how they were to be dis- ing upon us.—Pp. 614–615. posed of; also of his minerals and « He had a great dislike to keep his philosophical apparatus; he emptied bed; and I cannot but acknowledge all the cupboards round the room, the goodness of God that it was not which had not been done for many necessary. He rose every day, to the years; he burnt every book which he last, and sat as usual in his study: only thought of an injurious tendency. All getting up a little later, and going to bed this was done for the most part in earlier, as his strength gradually failed silence, it being painful for him to him. The last fortnight he was very speak, even in a whisper. I have seen silent, and appeared constantly in prayer him sit for an hour together in the and meditation, -waiting his dismissal, deepest abstraction of thought—then he and the end of his earthly pilgrimage. would raise his eyes, the tears 'stream. At this time, nothing seemed to disturb ing down his pale cheeks, clasping his him; and he appeared to realize the full hands, as if in the fervency of importu- import of that blessed promise, Thou nate prayer-and again all was com- wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose posure, and he looked peaceful and mind is stayed on thee.' I have often happy. He seemed to be maintaining thought he exemplified the faith his a constant communion with God. I favourite Leighton commends— Let know he felt deeply for his children, thy soul roll itself on God, and advenwhom he was about to leave young and ture there all its weight. It was ininexperienced-exposed to a world of deed an unspeakable delight to us to sin and temptation. My brother and I . observe the unruffled calm of his soul; have frequently heard him break forth and it confirmed our minds in the truth in prayer for us when we had scarcely and value of the doctrines he had taught closed his door. The sounds were faint for thirty years....... and broken, but we understood their " On Tuesday, the 8th of May, he import; and the unutterable tenderness rose later than usual; I think it was of his manner towards us is even now twelve before he got into the study ; too affecting to dwell upon. He would and he was so weak, that he had great sometimes open his arms for me to come difficulty in walking there from his to him, and laying his head upon my bed-room. His breath was short, and shoulder, would fall again into deep he looked very pale, but he said he felt thought. His parish also was always no pain. He sat on his reading-chair, upon his mind. He was continually with his head resting on a pillow : his countenance and manner was calm and at my door. I was reading the Bible, peaceful. In the afternoon he could and had just reached that verse, That scarcely support himself; and I kneeled ye be not slothful, but followers of them on a chair behind him, and he laid his who through faith and patience inherit head on my shoulder. Once he seemed the promises.' I have thought the to be fainting, but he soon revived ; and, coincidence remarkable, at least I trust looking calmly at me, he said, Better it will ever give a quickening influence now, love.'
to that passage, when I read it. She “ Mamma could no longer stay in the told me to come and look at my father. room, and I was left alone with him till She said, she could hardly tell whether five. He still said nothing, except to there was any change or not. I hurried assure me he felt no pain. To the very to bim. He raised his eyes to heaven, last, it appeared to be his great desire to and then closed them. I put my cheek spare our feelings. We now persuaded upon his; and I believe at that instant him to go to bed, but we little thought I felt, for I could not hear, his dying death was so ncar. He could not walk, sigh. I thought he was sleeping, and and we were going to riug for a servant continued looking at him, till Hannah to assist him; but he said, I should said, Your dear papa is in heaven.' like Henry to carry me. He was I did not think him dead ; and I rubbed wasted to a skeleton : Henry took his still warm hands, and kissed his him up with great ease, and we all pale cheek, and entreated him to speak followed, I shall never forget this one word to me: but I soon found it most affecting moment; it was a was the silence of death. All turned to moment of anguish to me, more than poor mamma, who was insensible ; and the last scene. He seemed to know I was thus left alone with my dear that he was leaving the study, never to
father, kneeling beside him, with his Teturn to it: his look told me that he hand in mine. The same holy calm knew it. This was a favourite room,
sat on his countenance, and seemed to Where for more than twenty years he say~ Thanks be to God, who has given had constantly carried on his pursuits. me the victory!' There he had written bis books-studied
“ The scene that followed was truly his sermons-instructed his children afflictive. The grief of the widow and conversed with his flock, and offered
the fatherless was unchecked; for he
the fatherless was daily sacrifice of praise and praver. I who bad always comforted them, and watched him, as Henry carried him out;
bid them kiss the rod, was no longer his countenance preserved the same
with them. The contrast between the look of fixed composure. He raised
after-scene of Wilberforce's and our his head, and gave one searching look
beloved parent's death, was peculiarly round the room, on his books—his table
affecting to me. When my brother -his chair-his wife-his children ;
died, my father assembled us together, and then the door closed on him for
to implore resignation, and offer praise. ever! He gave the same look round
But when he himself departed, all the gallery, through which we passed,
seemed gone. There was no one to as if he were bidding farewell to every
collect us; and we were scattered in ting. There was a peculiar expression wild sorrow, with a feeling of desolation in his countenance, which I cannot
which was quite unutterable. describe ; it seemed to say, “Behold, I
“We cannot, we ought not to forget die, but God will be with you !' Henry
such a father. Yea, I would add, seated him in a chair ; and he sat to
when I forget thee, may my right hand De undressed, like a little dependant forget her cunning: child, in deep silence, but without the
* The hand of God has gone out rufting of a feature.
against us—yet the seed of the “ About nine, he seemed rather
righteous is not forsaken.' He has cut wandering, and made an effort to speak,
off the stream which made us glad,' but we could not make out his meaning;
but praised be his name, he invites us only we perceived he was thinking of
to the living fountain,' where our souls tus church, for we heard him say several may drink and be satisfied."-Pp. 622 limes, It will be all confusion !' Mamma ---626. asked him what would be confusion ? 'The church! There will be such con
Surely every reader must exfusion in my church !'
claim, Let me die the death of the " About half-past ten, Mrs. G. the righteous, and let my last end be kind and faithful nurse of Willy, tapped like His. OCT. 1828,
REFORMATION IN IRELAND.
We inserted in our number for August, the former part of an interesting letter from a clergyman in Ireland on the above subject; we now annex some extracts of the remainder :
With obstacles such as these, it is not surprizing the Reformation should be retarded. Popery is the popular-perhaps I should rather say, the endemic religion in Ireland. It is consequently the thriving persuasion. Your lordship is aware of the influence which men's worldly interests imperceptibly exert over their opinions, and what a confirmation they afford to pre-conceived notions, especially if supported by authority or a show of plausible argument. A religion of forms also, such as Popery is, invariably generates an habitual apathy : the mind resting in the observance of ceremonies, and the conscience lulled with the self-applauding zeal of external devotion, sink into the repose of an uninquisitive spiritual security. Its professors become persuaded that, notwithstanding some errors detected, they are still safe enough ; and imagine they may, for convenience' sake, continue outwardly in the profession of doctrines, which they inwardly condemn. I am persuaded this is a very general feeling among Roman Catholics. In illustration, I need but state the fact, that in many districts of Cavan, the people have so far given up a belief in purgatory and the intercession of saints, that, in conversation with our clergy and the Scripture readers, they no longer attempt a defence-nay, confess them to be upscriptural and untrue. Yet they continue professedly Roman Catholics, and would probably pay the priest for a mass for the dead ! — With this sort of feeling, your lordship will understand how they would willingly become converts; though by no means martyrs :-cheerfully forsake their errors, could it be done with safety-but not embrace the truth, if accompanied by danger. Of religion, as an authoritative revelation from heaven, they have no correct notion. The religion of the people,' says Mr. John O'Driscoll (a Roman Catholic gentleman of very ancient family, and what are called liberal principles) in his Views of Ireland, “The religion of the people is,
for the most part, a kind of fatalism; they tell you of their crimes and calamities that it was before them to commit and endure, and they could not escape it. How could they contend with fate? It was appointed for thein to do and to suffer, and they have but accomplished their destiny; they confess that this is not the language of the priest, but it is nevertheless true ;-the priests, they admit, know every thing ; but then they tell them only what they judge proper.' Vol. i. 143. Thus, my lord, as far as they have any idea of revelation, the priest is their religion. To them he is all in all. Root the priest out, and the mind of a Roman Catholic, generally speaking, is a carte blanche, ready for the impression of any system. Perhaps this operation requires an illustration. My meaning may be thus exemplified. Were a priest, on one day, to preach from his altar the popish doctrine of salvation through the works of the law, and on the following, the protestant doctrine of justification by faith only, the great bulk of his congregation would not at first comprehend his meaningothers would perceive no very essential difference, and the whole would implicitly believe either, or both, as it might happen: merely because the priest had declared it. In the same manner of transubstantiation: I am firmly convinced from observation, that were the priest, at one time, to expound the doctrine in the gross and carnal manner expressed by the council of Trent; and at another to explain it in the spiritual sense of protestants and (in the words of a note appended to John vi. 63. in the Rheimish Testament)
correct their gross apprehension of eating his (Christ's) flesh and drinking his blood in a vulgar and carnal manner
by showing them how he (Christ) should take his whole body living with him to heaven, and consequently not suffer it to be, as they supposed, divided, mangled, and consumed on earth :'were the priest, I say, to preach those conflicting doctrines at several times, his people would either not search deep enough to distinguish the gross contradiction, or they would take both or either of them, as the case might be, implicitly on his credit, backed, as they conceive it
to be, by the fiat of heaven which they their natural protectors, the proprietors can all quote, if he will not hear the of the soil) in whom they could confide, church, let him be unto thee as a I should think the operation of this heathen.'
principle, which is still in activity, The priest being thus, as it were, the would incline them still • to follow the incorporated creed of the Irish peasantry, religion of their Lords. But it has if his authority were overthrown, their unfortunately happened that the landed minds would be left free for any im interest and gentry in Ireland were, pression, and inclined, as I think, to a taken as a whole, any thing but Lords good one. For we must all testify, on whose protection, benevolence, or who have witnessed their punctual good-feeling, the peasantry could repose. attendance at mass and the scrupulous These powerfui persons had become constancy of their fasts or abstinences, possessors of the land, by forfeiture of “ that they have a zeal of God, but not the ancient proprietors, many of whom according to knowledge.” To overthrow became serfs and tenants. Here was a such an influence may seem a formidable fundamental source of distrust and susundertaking, aod it is not without diffi- picion. Time might have worn away culties. Nevertheless it is feasible. It ibis feeling, had the conduct of the has been done in individual cases. new proprietors, and their successors, There is nothing to prevent it being been humane and considerate. But done on a more extensive scale, but the many of them were absentees, most of apprehension of its magnitude. Were them needy, and all, I might add, too protestants convinced of its practicability, ignorant or too ambitious to regard their I am persuaded it could and would be own interests as identified with the done; and, to the best of my judgment, prosperity of the people. Their object at much less expence of exertion than is appears to have been to aggrandize their commonly imagined.
families and make the most of their The priest is the papist's guide and land, regardless of the condition of those confidence, more from the want of who tilled it; and by a long series of any other leader in whom they can mismanagement and oppression, they confide, than from any natural bias in reduced their tenantry to such wretchhis favour. If he be their Religion, it edness, that no relations of friendship or is because he is their Leader. In other confidence could be supposed to exist respects they hang lightly enough to between them. The difference of relihim. “The parish Priest,' says Mr. gion in their new Lords was an obvious O'Driscoll, "is as often the subject of mark of distinction to the people; and this cunning management as any other they hated the creed for the sake of its person. His motives are as much can- professors. Meanwhile, the heart natuvassed, his objects as strictly enquired rally seeks for sympathy. "The Priestinto, his errors as freely censured, and hood,' says Mr. O'Driscoli, whose his character as thoroughly understood.' authority, because it is Roman Catholic, I feel assured, therefore, they would I prefer laying before your Lordship, to shake off this authority, which they fre my own opinion, The Priesthood in quently find abused, if they had any most parts of Ireland, stood as it were, other authority on which they could the representatives (he should rather lean with equal confidence. It is an have said substitutes of the ancient observation of the great and wise Lord families of the country; they were Stafford, who had been many years invested with a new and extraordinary Viceroy of Ireland, that 'no people in power. In fact upon the extinction of the world were more disposed to follow the ancient gentry, the station and the religion of their lords than the Irish. superior attainments of the Priests, Traces of this disposition may be added to their ecclesiastical character, discovered in the popular definition of gave them a natural, but very undue their creed. “The Faith of our ANCES importance: they became the friends TORS;' a mode of expression similar and counsellors of the people, whose to that of the fides carbonaria, which waste affections flowed into the bosom • believes what the cuURCH believes.' of the church;' and the Priests thus It is thus, my Lord, that a Roman becoming leaders in civil, as well as Catholic seldom or never speaks of guides in spiritual affairs, the people his religion as a personal thing, but still followed the religion of their something founded on the belief of adopted Lords. others. Now, had the population Lords Another and most influential cause I mean, of course, powerful leaders, of the permanency of popery was, the
preference which the avarice or ambition every fair inftuence to enforce the attenof the landed interest gave to popish dance of the children at them, the VERY above protestant tenants. The latter, RESISTANCE which the Priest will give my Lord, are (thank God !) too sturdy will undermine his own authority, and and independent in their principles to in the same degree establish that of his be made the tools of an unworthy rival, the landlord. A thousand other ambition. They were educated in habits ways will suggest themselves to your of decency and comfort, which they were Lordship, by which the power of the not inclined to sacrifice. The protestant Protestant gentry may be legitimately must be enabled not merely to erist by increased, and that of the Priest prohis labour, but to enjoy the comforts of portionally diminished. In short, a a clean home, decent apparel, and the humane attention on the part of the means of educating his children. He gentry to their tenants-an exemplary could not pay exorbitant rents and attention to religion—zeal in the disenjoy these indispensables, and therefore tribution of God's holy word-a liberal he would not. But the poor Roman maintenance of schools and Protestant Catholic is content with a bare sub institutions-a fair encouragement to sistence-ill clothed—ill fed, he re Protestant people—and a kind protecsides in a bovel, into which an English tion of those who join the Reformed farmer would scarcely introduce his pig. Churches, will inevitably point out the He there subsists, produces a numerous inclinations of their superiors, and the offspring, rears them in ignorance, and people, pursuing their natural bent, makes as many freeholders as he has will follow the religion of their Lords.' sons or sons-in-law, by subdividing his The transactions in the county of Cavan little tenement amongst them. His are a perfect illustration of the posiwants being thus so few, he can afford tions I have hazarded : and I might the highest penny that his toil can triumphantly adduce the magnitude extract from the ground; and he will of the moral revolution in that country offer it, and, if he can, pay it. His as a corroboration of my humble distresses consequent upon this, make sentiments. him subservient; so that, upon these In this letter, my Lord, I have spoken accounts, the Romish tenantry have only of the human means and agency had a decided preference with the which appear to our finite capacities landed interest, covetous of wealth, good or useful in such an undertaking. or anxious for parliamentary influence. I am well aware that God, of his own This degrading humiliation to which free grace, mercy, and power, may and the Roman Catholic submits may will accomplish his own good purpose be accounted for, from an attachment in the way which seems to him fittest. to the soil which he is unwilling But as his usual providence acts by to relinquish at any expense ; from means and second causes, I have not ignorance and its brutalizing effects; thought it presumptuous to speculate and from the notion, with which his on the probable means of effecting so religion inspires him, of the positive great and desirable an event as the merit of poverty, sufferings and dis Reformation of Ireland. Already the comforts, towards his salvation. But operation of his hands is manifested in this evil, my Lord, is working its own the work, by the employment of the cure. Landlords are beginning to dis- ordinary means, as well as by his specover their true interests; finding that cial blessing on the pious labours of an the highest nominal rental is not always eminent servant. Bedell, my Lord, the the surest; and experiencing that their apostolic Bedell, who fell a victim to masses of freeholders, under the skill the fury of the popish insurrection in of a more powerful enchanter, may be 1641, was Bishop of Kilmore. He turned against themselves. If the translated the scriptures, our book of gentry will reside at home, and let Common Prayer, and several religious their lands on such terms as a Pro tracts into the Irish language. Is it too testant yeoman can afford, they will much to say, that the blood of the have a large and thriving Protestant martyrs is the seed of the church; and tenantry, and the people will no longer that the tree he planted is now bearing see a worldly advantage in being Roman its late though certain fruit? It is an Cathclics, and therefore more eligible interesting fact that the tower of Cloughto their Landlord's favour. If they will hooter, in which this venerable prelate establish schools for the moral and reli- took refuge from his assailants, is seated gious instruction of the poor, and exert in an island on a lovely lake, the pro