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master he was suddenly become a superstitions, who feared his invaliant preacher.' Jobn Redman, fluence as a reformer. The honor Master of Trinity College, Cam- itself he did not unduly desire, and bridge, and prebendary of West- took no steps to establish his claim. minster, who had assisted in com- On the contrary, be soon found it piling the first Liturgy of Edward expedient to leave the kingdom, the Sixth, lying on his death-bed, from the persecuting measures was waited upon by Nowell, to which began to be pursued towards request his opinion on the re the protestants. Bonner laid a ligious disputes of the times. The scheme to surprise him one day, dying confessor took a day or two wbile he was fishing; but Francis to consider of the matters pro- Bowyer, at that time a merchant, pounded to him by Nowell; and and afterwards Sheriff of London, then sent for him, declaring himself rescued him from the danger; and ready to converse with him on safely conveyed him across the those subjects, and to answer truly channel. He withdrew to Frankfort as he thought to whatever question with many other exiles : and joining should be asked him, as in the himself to the episcopal party, presence of God. Nowell and others subscribed, among the rest, to the then attested a list of articles, de- discipline they established. He was claring that his opinion was,' that also one of the subscribers to an purgatory, the sacrifice of the excellent letter, sent from Frankfort mass, and transubstantiation, were to the discontented English refugees groundless and ungodly; that we at Geneva, dated the third of Janare justified, not by our works, but uary, 1559, in answer to a circular by living faith, which rests in our which they had addressed to their only Saviour Jesus Christ; that brethren on the continent, exhorting good works are not destitute of their them to unity, and cessation from rewards; yet nevertheless they do contention on superfluous cerenot merit the kingdom of heaven, monies, to the joy of the papists. which is the gift of God. On the The persons, with whom this redeath of Redman towards the close conciliation was more immediately of the year 1551, the canonry which sought, bad left Frankfort on the had been held by that dignitary was death of Mary ; ‘and as for ourconferred on Nowell. He had been selves (say the writers) as we have strengthened in protestant senti- had no contention with you at all ments by the dying testimony of aforetime; so we purpose not (as his friend,

we trust there shall be no cause) to In the first parliament of Queen enter into contention with you Mary, which met in October 1553, hereafter. For ceremonies to conhe was returned one of the burgesses tend (where it shall lie neither in for Portpigham, or Westlooe, in your hands nor ours to appoint Cornwall; but a committee, who what they shall be, but in such sat to enquire into the validity men's wisdoms as shall be appointed of his return, reported to the House, to the devising of the same, and that · Alexander Nowell being a which shall be received by common prebendary of Westminster, and consent of the parliament) it shall thereby having a voice in the Con. be to small purpose. But we vocation house, cannot be a member trust that both true religion shall of this House;' and a new writ was be restored, and that we shall not directed to be issued accordingly. be burthened with unprofitable It does not appear that his stall ceremonies. And therefore, as we necessarily rendered him ineligible, purpose to submit ourselves to such and it was probably a pretext used orders as shall be established by by the party attached to the old authority, being not of themselves wicked, so we would wish you him to the Archdeaconry of Midwillingly to do the same. For dlesex. This preferment was imo whereas all the reformed churches mediately succeeded by the favour differ among themselves in divers of the Archbishop, who was equally ceremonies, and yet agree in the sensible with Dr. Grindal of his unity of doctrine; we see no incon- clerical worth, and presented him venience, if we use some ceremonies on the third of February to the diverse from them, so that we agree rectory of Saltwood, with the in the chief points of our religion. annexed chapel of Hythe, in Kent, Notwithstanding, if any shall be and on the fourteenth of the same intruded, that shall be offensive, we, month to a prebend of Canterbury. upon just conference and delibera- He preached at Paul's cross on the tion upon the same, at our meeting tenth of February, at which time a with you in England (which we person did penance for bigamy. trust by God's grace will be shortly) By a patent dated at Westminster, will brotherly join with you to be June 21, the Queen erected the suitors for the reformation and monastery of St. Peter's in that abolishing of the same. In the city, which the monks had lately mean season, let us with one heart quitted, into a collegiate church; and mind call to the Almighty God, and Nowell was named, in the tbat of his infinite mercy, he will charter of foundation, the first prefinish and establish that work that bendary of the seventh stall. This, he hath begun in our country; and however, as well as his Kentish that we may all lovingly consent benefice, he soon resigned; but together in the earnest setting forth was raised to that ecclesiastical of his truth, that God may be known eminence by which he is chiefly and exalted, and his church per- known to posterity, as Dean of St. fectly builded up through Christ Paul's. As well (says the royal our Lord.'

letter addressed to the chapter) for Cardinal Pole and Queen Mary his godly zeal, and special good being both removed together, by learning, and other singular gifts the will of Providence, from this and virtues, we thought good to earthly scene, the mild and devout commend him unto you, as one, Parker was raised to the Primacy, whom we, of a singular good will and on the twenty-first of December, and hearty affection towards that 1559, four days after his own con- church, would have preferred unto secration, consecrated in Lambeth the Deanery thereof.'* His elecchapel Grindal bishop of London, tion was confirmed by the bishop Cox of Ely, Sandys of Worcester, on the first of December, who two and Merrick of Bangor. On this days after collated him to the presolemn and, at that crisis, peculiarly bend of Wildland. : interesting occasion, the preacher He was now an example of was Alexander Nowell, recently activity in advancing the reformed returned to his native country, and religion. He preached at St. Paul's made chaplain to Grindal. His cross on the third Sunday after text; from Acts xx. 28, was sea- Epiphany; on which occasion a sonable apd apposite. “Take heed passage of his sermon was much unto yourselves, and to all the talked of, and grossly misrepreflock, over the which the Holy sented by the papists; who charged Ghost hath made you overseers, him with having said, that it to feed the church of God, which would do him good to raze his he hath purchased with his own buckler upon a papist's face.' To blood.”

this he answered in the blunt style On the first day of the following year, the bishop of London collated * Strype's Life of Grindal, p. 38.

of the day, 'It is a false lye; I had storm of thunder and lightning, rather go a thousand miles about, which did considerable damage in than be put to that necessity to save the capital. The south-west pinmy life by such hard means ; and nacle of St. Martin's, Ludgate-hill, have mine own face razed ten times; was thrown down, and burst through than I would once raze another the roof of the church; and the man's face, or hurt any Christian spire of St. Paul's was set on fire man : so little good would it do by the electric fluid. A brass eagle, me!' He had been discoursing on with the cross which supported it, the epistle for the day, in which is and the golden ball or globe, fell the injunction, “Avenge not your on the south tower. The flames selves." After remarking that we continued to rage till ten at night, may not avenge ourselves, he ob. when the wind veered to a more served that the old translation ren favourable point. Providentially, dered the passage, that we should no lives were lost, nor houses despot defend ourselves. And here- troyed, though the embers were upon he moved this question, carried as far as Newgate market • Whether a Christian man niight and Fleet street. On the Sunday defend himself ?' Whereunto he immediately following the catasanswered by these words : ‘In case trophe, Dr. Pilkington, Bishop of we be, by any magistrate or officer, Durham, preaching at the cross, or at the commandment of the exhorted his audience to a consideprince, by any man wronged, I ration of the judgments of God, know no defence but patient suffer- and descanted on the necessity of ing. For no true Christian hath repentance and submission to legal any hand to lift up against the authority; condemning the abomiprince. But in case a thief would nable practice of walking, talking, set upon me by the high way, where and fighting in the cathedral, in I could have no help at the magis- time of divine service. The next trate's hand, I would, if I were able, Sunday Dean Nowell addressed defend myself; and rather than I from the same pulpit the Lord would be slain, I would, if I could, Mayor and Corporation, with a maim him. For to kill the thief, numerous audience, exciting them who being in that cause slain, to repair the Cathedral, the ruins should a thousand pounds to a of which lay strewn around. A penny be damned, would be most municipal committee was appointed horrible. Yea, (said he) if any to superintend the work, in purprivate person, without authority suance of a resolution to grant a of office, or commandment of the levy of three fifteens, to be raised prince, should quarrel with me, and within the city, towards the rebuildcall me heretic, thief, or would ing the church and steeple. The invade me forcibly, I would lift up Dean and Chapter contributed the my buckler hand, and rather than sum of £136. 13s. 4d.; and likehe should kill me, I would lay my wise with the Bishop's approbation, buckler upon his face, if I could, sold some plate to defray one though it were rough with studs, moiety of £220, which the diocesan and had a pike in the middle: and chapter had jointly engaged to speaking (as he said in his vindica pay for lead, to cover the cross tion) those words only in case of roof of "the north aisle leading saving his own life, if he could no towards Paternoster Row. At the otherwise do it.'*

conclusion of the work in NovemIn the afternoon of the fourth of ber, 1562, wben all was again fit June, 1561, there was a tremendous for the due celebration of divine

worship, an explicit renunciation * Strype's Annals, 1. 236. of the Pope and his supremacy, by

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a prescribed form, was subscribed so, Madam ?' You know I have by the Dean and Chapter, as indi. an aversion to idolatry, to images, cating that the renovated edifice and pictures of this kind.' Whereshould become, as was meet, a in is the idolatry, may it please protestant temple.

your Majesty ?' 'In the cuts, Now on New year's day, the resembling angels and saints ; nay festival of the circumcision, 1562, grosser absurdities, pictures rethe Dean preached at St. Paul's, sembling the blessed Trinity.' 'I whither the Queen resorted. Here, meant no harm ; nor did I think says Strype, a remarkable passage it would offend your Majesty, when happened, as is recorded in a great I intended it for a new year's gift.' man's memorials, who lived in You must needs be ignorant then. those times. The Dean, having Have you forgot our proclamamet with several fine engravings, tion against images, pictures, and representing the stories and passions Romish relics in the churches ? of the Saints and martyrs, had Was it not read in your deanery?' placed them against the epistles and It was read. But be your Majesty gospels of their respective festivals, assured, I meant no harm, when I in a Common Prayer Book; which caused the cuts to be bound with he had caused to be richly bound, the service book.' You must and laid on the cushion for the needs be very ignorant, to do this Queen's use, in the place where she after our prohibition of them. It commonly sat; intending it for a being my ignorance, your Majesty new year's gift to her Majesty, and may the better pardon me.' •Iam thinking to have pleased her fancy sorry for it : yet glad to hear it therewith. But it had a quite con- was your ignorance, rather than trary effect. For she considered your opinion.' 'Be your Majesty how this varied from her late in- assured, it was my ignorance.' 'If junctions and proclamations, against so, Mr. Dean, God grant you his the superstitious use of images in Spirit, and more wisdom for the churches, and for the taking away future!' 'Amen, I pray God.' all such relics of popery. When I pray, Mr. Dean, how came you she came to her place, and had by these pictures ? who engraved opened the book, and saw the pic. them?' I know not who engraved tures, she frowned and blushed: them; I bought them.' From and then shutting the book (of whom bought you them?' 'From which several took notice) she called a German. It is well it was from for the verger, and bade him bring a stranger. Had it been any of our her the old book, wherein she was subjects, we should have questioned formerly wont to read. After ser- the matter. Pray let no more of mon whereas she used to get imme- these mistakes, or of this kind, be diately on horseback, or into her committed within the churches of chariot, she went straight to the our realm for the future.' • There vestry, and applying herself to the shall not.' Dean, thus she spoke to him : ‘Mr. Without seeking to investigate Dean, how came it to pass, that a Elizabeth's reasons for this long · new service book was placed on my reprimand, or doubting the genuine cushion?' To which the Dean protestantism of Nowell, it must be answered, "May it please your confessed that she appears to much Majesty, I caused it to be placed greater advantage in this anecdote, there. Then said the Queen, than the learned dignitary, who • Wherefore did you so ?' To though he might intend nothing present your Majesty with a new further than is compatible with the year's gift.' •You could never modern fondness for illustration, present me with a worse,' Why whether of prayer books, or other

literary publications, seems not to episcopal house adjoining St. Paul's. have been equally sensible with bis At Hadham he indulged in his sovereign of the necessity of keep- favourite amusement of angling, ing at the greatest possible distance, as the river Ash ran through bis at the period in question, not only parish.' The succeeding bishop from sculptured abomination, but of London, Dr. Edwyn Sandys, also from the illumination of conferred on him a grant of the breviaries and missals. The affair custody of the river, within the however had this good effect; that manor, with leave to take fishi, and it occasioned the clergy of the cut down timber to make pits and capital and suburbs, with their dams, free of expense. Nowell is churchwardens, to search the said to have spent a tenth part of churches and chapels; and caused his time in this amusement, and to them to wash out of the walls all have bestowed a tenth part of his paintings that seemed to be Romish revenue, and nearly all his fish, and idolatrous, placing in their stead among the poor who dwelt near the appropriate texts from Holy Scrip- stream, observing, that “ Charity ture.

gave life to religion.” The Dean preached at the Cross The second Parliament of Queen three days afterwards, when a man Elizabeth was opened at Westmin. did penance for his imposture in ster, on the twelfth of January, pretending dumbness, who had 1563, with considerable splendor. been detected by the master of Her Majesty came on horseback, Bridewell, and brought thither to apparelled in her mantle, open ask public pardon of the church, before, furred with ermine, and It was also his office to proclaim her kirtle of crimson velvet, close the gospel message through Lent before, and close sleeves, but the at court before the Queen, in asso- bands turned up with ermine, a ciation with Sandys, Jewel and hood hanging low round about her others. Their discourses were al- neck of ermine; over all, a collar ways in the afternoon, that they set with rich stones and other might not interfere with the ser- jewels, and on her head a rich mons at St. Paul's, wbich were in caul.* At the north door of the the forenoon. He likewise preached abbey she was met by the Dead one of the Spital sermons on Easter of Westminster and the Dean of Tuesday, which, was repeated at the Chapel-Royal. She proceeded the Cross on the ensuing sabbath, to her seat near the table of adni. by Dr. Sampson, dean of Christ nistration with all due honours, Church, whose retentive powers the spiritual lords sitting on the of memory qualified him for the north side, and the temporal on the undertaking.

south. The Litany was then Towards the close of the year, chaunted in English, and a Sermon his patron, the Bishop of London, preached by Nowell, who prayed collated him to the valuable rec. first for the universal church of tory of Great Hadham, in Hert. Christ, the Queen's Majesty, and fordshire, where his Lordship had the three estates of the realm. a country residence ; so that he His text was, “Offer ye the sacrimight have bis friend and fellow fice of righteousness, and put your exile, with whom he appears to trust in the Lord." Psalm iv. 5. have kept up a constant community He began with a short view of the of intercourse and counsels always rebellion of Absalom, who with near : when the Dean's wife and his counsellors, not trusting in the family were at Hadham and himself Lord, but in themselves, came to in town, he was commonly a guest at his Lordship’s table, in his

* Dew's Journals, p. 58.

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