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of the latter (who had never sat among became inevitable, the Parliament orthem) for receiving, and probably dered the Assembly to consider of such answering such correspondence. This a discipline and government, “as may injunction, while it accounts for the be most agreeable to God's word,” &c. silence of Rushworth and other con. This produced what was called “A temporary historians, and for the very Directory for public worship,” which imperfect memoirs of the Assembly now still makes part of the constitution of in existence, presents us with the strange the church of Scotland, and was estainconsistency of a people kept in the blished by an ordinance of Parliament, dark as to the proceedings of an assem- dated Jan. 3, 1645. bly which they were to consider as In this again we have a remarkable popular, whose laws they were to obey, instance of the subserviency both of the but with whose reasons they were to be Parliament and Assembly to the pleaunacquainted.-Pp. xxxii-xxxv. sure of the Scotch : for after the
After the introduction of the “ Directory" had been debated and solemn league and covenant, Mr.
passed through the Westminster assemC. observes
bly, it was sent to the General assembly,
or high judicature of the church of The Assembly of Divines had not
Scotland, sitting at Edinburgh, for its sat long, and indeed bad scarcely time
approbation, and when that was obto congratulate each other on their uni
tained, and not before, it became a law formity, when they discovered that this
to the people of England, and such a apparent concord was, in reality, a law as, Neal thinks, was equally to be compulsory compliance with the small
condemned with the severities and opminority of five Scotch commissioners,
pressions of the late times. now members of their body, in order
Among other clauses in the act, or, to procure the military aid of the Scotch
as it was called the ordinance, for enpation to act against the king. Politi
forcing the use of the “ Directory," cally, if this was right, it should have
there is one which has no parallel, been the sole act of the Parliament, or
except in the arbitrary decrees which of the councils or Parliaments of both
were passed under the popish reigns, nations. With vital religion (the desi
for suppressing the English Bible. This deratum of the day) it had no connex
clause not only forbids the use of the ion, and if any with church-government,
Common-prayer book in any church, the Assembly had no longer any power
chapel, or place of public worship, but to reform the hierarchy, as originally
in any private place or family, under intended, but to adopt the proposed
the penalty of five pounds for the first system of Scotch presbytery, about
offence, ten for the second, and for the which they might debate, but all must
third a year's imprisonment. A severe issue in an apparently cordial acquies
penalty was also enjoined against all cence.
who wrote or printed any thing against It was soon discovered that this
the Directory. “ These," adds Neal, unanimous Assembly actually consisted
“ were the first fruits of Presbyterian of three parties, Presbyterians, Eras
uniformity.”—Pp. xl-xlii. tians, and Independents, the latter at first a small minority, but destined, in
When such was the spirit and no long time, to become the majority,
temper evinced in those unhappy and to complete the destruction of the times, we cannot but feel that civil government. It is not certain that
many recent remarks on the Test, there were any Anabaptists within the co
Corporation, and Conventicle Acts, Assembly, but throughout the nation
are very unjustifiable. These Acts that sect was increasing. Its popularity and that of other sects is not extraordi
were alas too well sanctioned by nary; for the ancient order of worship,
the precedents of some who are doctrine, and discipline, in the Church always numbered by our dissenting of England, was abolished at least a brethren among the excellent of year before any other form or system the earth, and to whose writings was appointed or recommended by
and labours the church of Christ is public authority. This Neal calls “a capital mistake in the proceedings of
deeply indebted. Intolerance is the Parliament, to destroy one building
vice of every age, and it will usually before they had agreed upon another.”° be found in strict proportion to the At length, when some general rule prevailing degree of ignorance.
We should gladly insert, did our declared his purpose of embracing limits allow, the circumstances the Christian faith, and was in conattending the elevation of Dr. sequence compelled to flee from bis Reynolds to the See of Norwich, uncle's house, with whom he was but for these we must refer to the then residing. He now led a wanbook itself; and conclude with the dering and precarious life, until following extract.
after many adventures he was Like most of his contemporaries, he recommended by the Pope's Ambasabounds in quotations from many authors sador at Vienna for admission into now little read; but this is important the Propaganda at Rome, where he in literary history by showing us what arrived in 1816. Here he was authors were then studied. The divines in his time were insatiable readers in
introduced to Pius VII, who re. their youth. The use of the fathers and
ceived him “not as a king his the schoolmen was not yet discontinued,
subject, but as a father receives bis and to these were added the writings, son," and directed him to be adstill in the newest gloss, of LUTHER, mitted into the Seminario Romano CALVIN, and the other divines who pro- until the Propaganda was re-estamoted the Reformation, and established
blished; where he entered, Sept. 5, divinity-schools and systems of divinity,
X 1816, being then twenty years of for the propagation of its doctrines. With the writings of such men, it was 18
age. enjoined on the students of our univer In November following Mr. sities to be well acquainted. Their Wolff observesown works afterwards showed that this After the spiritual exercises, the school injunction was strictly obeyed, often at was opened ; and the Professor of Schothe expense of health, and always of lastic Divinity began to dictate “de those social relaxations which in sub- Tractatu Gratiæ," which we were obsequent times were introduced to relieve liged to write. In his preface to the the mind, but which had too often the subject, he uttered the following seneffect of withdrawing the mind froin its tence, “The subject of grace being a main object and its professed purpose, difficult point, I exhort you at first not --P. lxxi.
to think about it too much; but only to
take the infallible authority of the Popes Missionary Journal, and Memoir of
and of the Councils for the rule of faith;
and we must believe St. Augustine upon the Rev. Joseph Wolff. 2 vols.
that point, no further than as his sentiSvo. pp. viii. and 365; and viii.
ments accord with some bull of the Pope, and 392.
because Pius V. condemned every one
in his bull, if he asserted that the authoThe interest excited in various rity of St. Augustine upon the point of quarters by the character and pro
grace, was equal to the Pope's autho
rity.” After the first hour was passed, ceedings of Mr. Wolff, necessarily
I said to the Professor in the presence excites the desire for accurate in
of all the other priests, “You speak formation concerning his origin here about the authority of the Pope in and history. Such information is such a manner that I suppose you communicated in the volumes believe, and command others to believe, before us. The one edited by Mr. the infallibility of the Popes !” He Bayford, the other without any
replied, “ They believe in Rome indeed,
that the Pope is infallible, but they do acknowledged editor.
not believe it in France." I answered, Mr. Wolff was born in Bavaria, « The Catholics in Germany do not in the year 1796. His father was believe it !” When I spoke thus, all a Rabbi, by whom he was strictly the priests present arose against me, and educated according to Jewish prin- said, “If you would stay longer in ciples. At eight years old, he was
Rome, you must believe it: wretched led to think favourably of Jesus
wicked man ! do not you believe the Christ, whom he had been taught
infallibility of the Pope?" I rejoined
angrily, “ I believe not the infallibility by his parents to consider as a bad of the Pope." And when I had said man. When scarcely thirteen, he this, I left the lecture-room, and went to the Cardinal Litta, and told him that I I found also in that convent, two had had a dispute about the Pope's Italian Bishops, who, with the simplicity infallibility, and that I did not believe of Apostles, encouraged me in the love it. The Cardinal said to me with great of Christ and his Gospel; and I found kindness and softness, “ You must not two Irish gentlemen, Mr. Taylor and dispute about this subject till you have Mr. O'Brien, amongst the pupils of the finished your studies. You will be Propaganda, who told me, that there persuaded of the Pope's infallibility were good Christians amongst the when you have heard the reasons.” For Quakers, and the Methodists, and other a long time I obeyed the Cardinal's denominations in England. One of injunction; but when I heard them one them observed, as we walked together, day call the Pope God, and heard this that all our works are nothing, and all title defended by the most learned men our knowledge is nothing, but the merits of Rome, who told me that he merits of Christ alone have any real value; such a title, because he has power not and the other remarked, that the philoonly upon the earth, but likewise over sophy of Aristotle had introduced a bad Purgatory, and in heaven, and because spirit into the doctrine of the Catholic whatever the Pope absolves in the Church. I found amongst them also, a earth, is absolved in heaven, and that black Mahomedan, twenty years of they call the Pope God upon earth on age, who was baptized by Cardinal account of his power to sanctify and to Litta. He seemed to lose himself in beatify—when I heard such arguments meditation and in prayer. But my joy as these, I understood Paul's words, and pleasure did not last long; for all “ He as God sitteth in the temple of the pupils were introduced to the Pope God, shewing himself that he is God: ” in the month of January, and we went and I could no longer abstain from the same day into the building of the protesting against such an idolatrous Propaganda, in the street called Piazza opinion, and exclaimed: “The Pope is di Spagna. The Pope received us with a man as I am, the Pope is dust of the fatherly kindness, and gave us his earth as I am.”—Pp. 28–30.
benediction; and when we left his These circumstances induced
room, one of his clergy said to us, Mr. Wolff to neglect scholastic
“ You are the true soldiers of the Pope :" divinity, and employ his whole time
to which another Prelate replied, “Not
soldiers of the Pope, but soldiers of the in reading the Holy Scriptures. In Church of Christ.” I was much deDecember, 1818, he entered by lighted with the answer of that Prelate; direction of Cardinal Litta, amongst and we entered the Propaganda.-Pp. tbe pupils of the Propaganda, in 38, 39. the Missionary House called Monte Here he was placed under the Cittorio
instruction of a priest named When I entered that convent, I put
Dominici, with whom he soon on the habit of the pupils of the Pro- engaged in controversy. paganda. It consists of a long black On another occasion he remarked, garment, with a red girdle, and five red that Jansenius merited burning, because buttons are attached to it, which indicate his doctrines were heretical altogether the five wounds of Christ; and the red he said this to all the pupils. I replied, colour is the symbol of the danger of “ The Church has no power to burn a losing his life, to which a Missionary is man!” He asked me, “How can you exposed. I found amongst the monks prove this?” I said, “ Thou shalt not of that convent, holy and silent devotion, kill, says the Scripture !” He rejoined, not the spirit of controversy; and they " But the shepherd has a right to kill read daily, not Segneri, but a book a wolf, who enters the sheep-fold." called, the Imitation of Christ, com- I observed to him, “A man is not a posed by Thomas a Kempis, together wolf !” “Seventeen Popes, however, with the Holy Scriptures, and the have done it!” he answered ; I thereChurch History. That History, how- upon rejoined, “Seventeen Popes have ever, speaks with great freedom of the committed a sin!” tyranny of Alexander VI, who burnt In consequence of this conversation, the pious Savonorala, for preaching I wrote to Cardinal Litta, telling him, against that monster of a Pope, more that I was at length persuaded, from fit for a leader of banditti, than for a the principles which I heard defended
in the Propaganda, that the Protestants
of Germany had not told me falsehoods will fall into the clutches of the Cardiof the Church of Rome. The Cardinal nals, and then you will weep blood.” came to me the following day, and In a letter which I wrote to Mr. conversed with me for nearly three Bunsen, I acquainted him with the last hours. He said, “I have read your mentioned occurrence, and added : “I letter, and I cannot deny, that the will go to the East, and preach the Rector spoke nonsense and absurdities; Gospel of Christ, but I will be always but so do you also in the letter you the enemy of this antichristian tyranny have written to me! You do not admit of Rome. I will preach the pure docthe doctrine, Extra Ecclesiam nulla trine of Christ, without adulterating it est salus !' and this doctrine is a fide! with Popery." This letter came into
A man who does not hear the truth is the hands of the Inquisition, as did also condemned!' “ This I believe," re- some of my other letters which I wrote plied I, “but I know many good to different friends, entreating them to Christians amongst the Protestants.” assist Mr. Tommaso Alcushi, of Alcush, “ For this reason," added the Cardinal, near Mosul (or Nineveh), the birth " the elder theologians, make a dis place of the prophet Nahum (Nah. i. 1.) tinction between heretici formales and an eastern gentleman of the Propaganda, materiales, but we cannot. It is not who was endeavouring to translate the permitted us to ask God, why he does Bible into his native language. The save the one, and not the other man; Inquisition opened likewise the letters neither can we understand why Christ which my English and German friends wrought many miracles in one city and wrote to me; and my German friends none in another; we know not why God who were at Rome, learnt that I was in commanded St. Paul to preach the Gos- great danger, and they recommended pel to one particular country, and not me to the Prince of Bayaria, who was to another! All this is a mystery for at that time at Rome, and who wrote us! The Rector told you the truth, upon the occasion to his father, the also, when he said, it is only proximum King of Bavaria, and assured me that ad fidem, and not a fide, that Christ he would protect me. But the same died for all men, for the Church has day that the Prince of Bavaria left not yet decided it.” I remarked, “ But Rome, for Naples, Cardinal Litta sent the Holy Scriptures tell me this." He for me.--I entered his room, and he said, “ You are no judge of the Holy said to me, “ We are informed of the Scriptures, this is the great error of the correspondence which you still maintain, Protestants: they believe that every one notwithstanding I have warned you may understand the Scriptures ! But several times. We know, by that corwe must hear the Popes! It is true, respondence, your sentiments and your that the moral conduct of Alexander manner of thinking. These are entirely the Sixth was very objectionable, and opposite to the Pope's, and if you should we do not deny the facts ; but his bulls stay any longer in the Propaganda. are very fine, and they are according to you would taint your companions with the truth! You must consider, that as your sentiments. You must therefore, yet you are not a doctor, but merely a by express command of the holy father, disciple. You must therefore hear what remain a prisoner till you leave Rome, they teach you, and not take the place and return to Vienna." Hereupon I was of a master and dipute.-I wish you compelled to stay three hours in the well.” I wept when he thus addressed house of an advocate of the Inquisition, me, and kissed his hand.-Pp. 41, 42, where I was watched by a little dwarf,
While in the Propaganda Mr. (without having permission to see any W. met with a Chaldean Bishop of my friends) till the post coach came who had come to Rome sixteen to the door, about twelve o'clock at years before, to justify himself on
night. A disguised soldier was my
companion as far as Bologna, and from the charge of having been ordained
thence I wrote a letter to the Cardinal by a Bishop who had dissented Litta, complaining that I had been from the Roman Church.
condemned without his having examined I was one day in good spirits, and me.—(Pp. 43–45. laughed very loud about a certain
Mr. W. was thus excluded from occurrence, when the poor Chaldean Archbishop began to weep, and said the
1 the the Propaganda, and conveyed to following words to me: "You laugh Vienna, where he entered a con: now, but it will come to pass, that you vent of the Ligorians, with whom
he continued seven months. Not and love, such as the Scriptures of God long after. he met with some furnish no account of, “ faultless monEnglish Christians, and by their
sters which the world ne'er saw;” and
it is not possible to recognize in the recommendation proceeded to Lon
reports published in their name, the same don, and from thence to Cambridge
to Cambridge hatred of “the truth as it is in Jesus” and Stansted : in 1821 he com- existing, which the Bible shows us has menced his Mission to Palestine, prevailed throughout mankind from the &c. the particulars of which are days of Adam to those of St. John, and detailed at considerable length in which practical experience convinces us the volumes before us.
is as vivid, whatever mask it may wear, Mr. W. constantly appears as a
at the present period, as it ever has been.
The Bible describes man as he is. zealous, and energetic advocate of The Journals of Missionaries published the Gospel of Christ; evincing by Committees are like Romances; considerable tact and dexterity in they do not indeed give us absolute argument, though very deficient in fables, but they present real scenes worldly prudence. His whole through a distorted medium, and prohistory bowever, exhibits the bene
duce therefore a false impression. ficial results of honesty, integrity, The observations appear to us affection, and courage, in carrying not strictly correct. The analogy a man through difficulties, silencing between the scripture narratives determined opponents, and awing and the journals of modern or winning over decided adversaries. missionaries is far too imperThese volumes show also the la- fect to justify our arguing from mentable and degraded state of the the unreserved publication of the Jews, and should stimulate us to former to that of the latter. The unwearied exertions for their benefit, writers 'of scripture history were and fervent prayer for the divine under infallible guidance; "holy blessing on those exertions. men of old spake as they were
In the preface to the second moved by the Holy Ghost.” Yet volume some observations are made only a very small and brief selecto which we cannot entirely assent. tion is given of the acts and dis
In order to make the Journal of a courses of those of whom the Missionary profitable to the church, world was not worthy. The labors (observes the Editor,) all bis opinions of thirty years are inserted in a and actions must be faithfully declared.
few short chapters, and would not The only models which ought to be occupy a tenth of one of Mr. followed in publishing narratives for the use of the church, are the histories which
Wolff's volumes. The analogy have been given for our example “ in
is therefore in favor of an abridgold time, not by the will of man, but ment of a missionary's journal, wherein holy men of God spake as they though it will not justify the entire were moved by the Holy Ghost.” suppression of his defects, failings,
And just before, the Editor re- or mistakes. It is true by making marks,
such selections, an imperfect view It is the custom of Committees to is given of the writer's conduct and publish only as much of the journals of their Missionaries as coincide with
conversation, but only an imperfect their own views, and present that which view can be conveyed by any they conceive to be the favourable side written communication, especially of the picture ; against this custom it is where the facts and arguments of necessary frankly and decidedly to pro- two or more controversialists are test. Without affirming that the Com communicated by one of the parties. mittees thereby intend to deceive, it is
And possibly a more correct view obvious that, by hearing one side of the
of the writer's conduct may be dequestion only, the subscribers are deceived, whether the deception be inten
duced by a person who coolly and tional or not : the individuals are dispassionately selects from voluFaunted as models of zeal, discretion, minous journals the most impor