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See of Salisbury, he paid him a red shortly after, could not but be visit, as well for the purpose of felt with much sorrow by Hooker, congratulation, as to recommend as it caused great sensation among to his notice his promising nephew. the friends of the protestant estaThe amiable prelate, making allow. blishment in general; but his disance for the natural partiality of rela tress was alleviated by the assurance tionship, requested that both the lad of Dr. Cole, that he would assist and his schoolmaster might attend in his support. But Providence at his palace next Easter, that he raised him up a still more effectual might judge for himself of young patron in the person of Dr. Sandys, Hooker's attainments and behay. bishop of London, and afterwards iour. At the appointed interview, archbishop of York, to whom the the Bishop was so well pleased with deceased prelate had spoken of the his answers to certain interroga- young bible-clerk of Corpus in such tories, that he made a present to terms, that he resolved to take him the Tutor, and engaged to allow an under his own protection; and as annual pension to his parents, as an earnest of his good disposition well as provide for himself; and towards bim, sent his son Edwin to about three years afterwards, when the same college, placing him unRichard was in his fourteenth year, der the charge of Hooker, though his Lordship recommended him to he was nearly his equal in age : a clerk's place in Corpus-Christi “For (said he) I will have a tutor College, Oxford, of which Dr. Cole for my son, that shall teach him was president, where, with the joint learning by instruction, and virtue contributions of his uncle and the by example; and my greatest care kind diocesan, he had a comfortable shall be of the last, and, God willmaintenance.
ing, this Richard Hooker shall be Soon after his entrance he fell the man, into whose hands I will into a dangerous illness, wbich lasted commit my Edwin.” He bad about two months, during which trying the same time another pupil, named season, his mother had been impor- George Cranmer, grand-nephew of tunate in prayer to God, that if it the celebrated Reformer. These were his blessed will, her beloved two freshmen had as excellent a son's life might be preserved. The model of grave and correct habits tender anxiety of his parent made in their tutor of the green age of an indelible impression on his mind, nineteen, as though they had been and he was no sooner able to travel placed under any senior academic; than he set out on foot for Exeter of which happily they were both with a fellow collegian. They sensible, and cultivated his friendcalled on the Bishop in their pas ship. sage through Salisbury, who invited He made great advances in scho. them to dinner ; and at their depar. lastic and liberal knowledge, and ture the venerable and good-natured was well qualified for the office of prelate, knowing that the convales teacher by the lucid manner in which cent had much further to travel, he conveyed that knowledge to and sympathizing with the weak others. His personal conduct was so from his own infirmities, gave himn exemplary, that he missed chapela staff, which he called “his horse prayers but twice in four years, that had carried him many a mile,” while in the act of worship his with some money to help him on inward affection was evidenced by to Exeter; promising that “ if he reverential deportment. Equable brought back the horse on his re- in temper, moderate in desire, turn,” he would renew the grant patient under privation, he ensured to help him on to Oxford.
the respect of many who differed The death of Jewel, which occur. much from him in general character; while in the hours of relaxa. to marry." Affected by the aption, his converse was frequently pearance of such kind solicitude, in seasoned with pleasantries, which grateful simplicity he empowered bad the merit and good taste of ab- her to chuse the needed help-meet; stinence from levity or coarseness. promising, on a fair summons, to
On the twenty-fourth of Decem- return to London, and accept of ber, 1573, he was chosen a Devon. her choice. “Now,” observes shire scholar; and admitted to a Walton drily, “the wife provided master's degree in 1577. Being for him was her own daughter next elected fellow, he was appoint. Joan, who brought him neither ed, for his skill in the Oriental beauty nor portion; and for her languages, deputy-professor of He- conditions, they were too like that brew, in the room of Kingsmill, wife's, which is by Solomon comwho was disordered in his senses. pared to a dripping house : so that In 1581, he entered into holy orders, he bad no reason to rejoice in the and was soon after called upon, in wife of his youth, but rather to say obedience to the college statutes, with the holy prophet, Woe is me to preach at St. Paul's cross, Lon that I am constrained to have my don. For which purpose he went habitation in the tents of Kedar!" to the hostel in the neighbourbood -that is, says Wood," a clownish of the cathedral, set apart for the silly woman, and withal a mere reception and entertainment of the Xantippe." respective preachers, two days Having relinquished for such a before, and one day after the Ser partner those companions, with mon, and known by the appropriate whom he took sweet fellowship in designation of “ The Shunamite's academic groveor hallowed cloister, House.” It was kept by one as well as his college income, he Churchman, who had been a sub- remained for some time without stantial draper in Watling street, preferment, supporting himself as and a tradesman of unblemished circumstances permitted, till the repute, but had experienced a great latter end of the year 1584, when reverse of circumstances. He was he was presented by John Cheney, an honest man, and as well as his Esq. to the rectory of Draytonwife, a plausible woman, treated his Beauchamp, near Aylesbury, in clerical guests with much civility. Buckinghamshire. He had been Hooker, on his arrival, was exceed. there about a twelvemonth, when ingly dispirited, having travelled in one day, as he was tending his few rainy weather, and on a rough sheep, (while his man was gone going horse, and was so fatigued, home to dine, and assist in the that he feared he should not be house) and amusing himself with able to preach at the appointed the Odes of Horace, he was agreetime ; but through his hostess's ably surprized by the appearance attention, and judicious treatment, of his two quondam pupils, Sandy's his recovery exceeded his expecta- and Cranmer, who were recently tion, and he was not wanting in returned from their travels. On suitable acknowledgment. In the the return of the servant, the three course of conversation, she told friends moved to the parsonage, bim, “ that he had a very tender where, after they had discoursed constitution ; and that it was best together but a short time, in the for him to have a wife, that would pleasing recollection of former be a nurse to him ; such a one as times, the good Rector was called might both prolong his life, and away by his discourteous dame to make it more comfortable; and rock the cradle. The two gentlesuch a one she could and would men perceiving that they could provide for him, if he thought fit enjoy but little of his valued society, took their leave the next morning, sentiment; while his life exhibited Cranmer saying, “Good tutor, I the influential power of the religion am sorry your lot is fallen in no he professed, and augured well for better ground, as to your parson- the moral interests of their comage; and more sorry your wife munity. But some diversity of proves not a more comfortable feeling and judging on ecclesiastical companion, after you have wearied subjects was to be apprehended, your thoughts in your restless from the opinions promulgated by studies !” “ My dear George,” Walter Travers in the Afternoon replied he, “if Saints have usually Lectures. This minister had been a double share in the miseries of ordained by the presbytery at Antthis life, I that am none, ought notwerp, and was so much attached to to repine at what my wise Creator that mode of discipline, that he hath appointed for me; but to would gladly have aided any endealabour, as indeed I do daily, to sub- vour to introduce it into the Anglimit to his will, and possess my soul can church; for which purpose he in patience and peace.”
held correspondence with Beza at The sympathy expressed by Geneva, and others in Scotland. Cranmer, was participated by What Cartwright was in Cambridge, Sandys, who on his return to Lon Travers was in London ; and don, acquainted his father with the Hooker had to oppose the statecircumstances in which he had ments of the latter, as the progress found his excellent friend, and of the former had been withstood requested for him some superior by Whitgift. His learning was preferment. In consequence, the respectable, his conduct blameless, Bishop, happening to dine with the and his manners engaging; while Templars after the decease of Alvy, bis talents as a preacher were much the late Master of that Society, and approved, especially by the junior hearing them express their wish members of the learned body whom that a successor might be found he had the privilege of addressing. resembling him in piety and erudi. He had indeed endeavoured to tion, took the opportunity of notice obtain the Mastersbip on the death ing the claims of the worthy Rector of Alvy, with a view of promoting of Drayton-Beauchamp; and his presbyterianism in the Temple, so recommendation being very accep that his opposition was further table to the Lawyers, he sent for stimulated by feelings of disapHooker, and offered him the Mas. pointment. For some time howtership, observing the advantages ever the two Advocates maintained which it presented in point of asso. their respective systems, without ciation and revenue. But he an- any expressions of bitterness; but swered, that a rural benefice of at length the opposition rose to a somewhat better income would be height, very unsuitable to a nursery to him more desirable preferment, of law and a sanctuary of religion, from his natural love of retirement. and dangerous from its tendency to On the further entreaty of his inflame those controversies, with Lordship, he accepted bis proposal, which the public mind was already and was created Master by patent too much excited. The Archbishop for life, on the seventeenth of thought it his duty to cause the March, 1585.
Lecturer to be silenced by the • His discourses in the Temple High-commission Court; but he pulpit soon justified to the judges presented a petition against this and students the character which prohibition to the Privy Council, had been given of him as a Divine, where he was not without many pregnant as they were with sound powerful friends, some disliking theology, and correct protestant hierarchical interference, and others holding similar sentiments; they assurance concerning heavenly and could not however prevail against spiritual things, may grow, increase, the authority and influence of Whit- and be augmented ? gift, and the petition was rejected. In the discourse which occasioned Mr. Travers and his partizans then this objection, he had very properly caused the petition to be published; drawn the distinction between the and as this was virtually an appeal certainty of evidence, and that of to the nation against the Archbishop adherence; or in other words, had and the Master of the Temple, shewn where the question ceased to Hooker sent out an answer, dedi. belong to the province of moral cated to the Primate, which was philosophy, and entered that of distinguished for an union of meek- transcendental divinity; and had Dess and dignity, of Christian humi- observed, “ Comfortable as to weak lity and unbending love of truth. believers, who suppose themselves
The Master and Lecturer not to be faithless, not to believe, when only differed altogether or questions notwithstanding they have their of church-government, but in some adherence; the Holy Spirit hath measure in doctrinal statement. his private operations, and worketh · Travers alleged that Hooker secretly in them, and effectually nad declared, “That the assurance too, though they want the inward of wbat we believe by the Word of testimony of it. Tell this to a man God, is not to us so certain as that that hath a mind too much dejected which we perceive by sense.” To by a sad sense of his sin ; to one this metaphysical quibble, which that by a too severe judging of would have found little entertain himself, concludes that he wants ment in our own day, when the faith, because he wants the comdegrees of certaintyj attaching to fortable assurance of it; and his different kinds of evidence are so answer will be, Do not persuade well understood, he thought fit to me against my knowledge, against reply—“ First, I taught, that the what I find and feel in myself: I do things which God promises in his not, I know I do not believe. Well word, are surer to us than what we then, to favour such men a little in touch, bandle, or see; but are we their weakness, let that be granted so sure and certain of them? If we which they do imagine ; be it, that be, why doth God so often prove they adhere not to God's promises, his promises to us as he doth, by but are faithless, and without belief. arguments drawn from our sensible But are they not grieved for their experience ? For we must be surer unbelief? They confess they are : of the proof, than of the things do they not wish it might, and also proved; otherwise it is no proof. strive that it may be otherwise ? For example; how is it that many We know they do! Whence commen looking at the moon at the eth this, but from a secret love and same time, every one knoweth it to liking, that they have of those be the moon as certainly as the things believed ? For, no man other doth ? but many believing can love those things which in his one and the same promise have not own opinion are not: and, if they all one and the same fulness of think those things to be, which persuasion. For how falleth it out, they show they love, when they that men being assured of any desire to believe them; then must thing by sense, can be no surer of it be, that by desiring to believe, it than they are; when as the they prove themselves true believstrongest in faith that liveth upon ers. For, without Faith, no man the earth, hath always need to thinketh that things believed are: labour, strive, and pray, that his which argument all the subtilties of infernal powers will never be able effectual, but his mercy. We deny to dissolve."
the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, Another charge brought against we abuse, disannul, and annihilate him was to this effect : that he bad the benefit of his passion, if by a declared, “That he doubted not proud imagination we believe we but that God was werciful to save can merit everlasting life, or can be many of our forefathers living worthy of it.—Yet nevertheless, heretofore in Popish superstition, considering how many virtuous and forasmuch as they sinned igno- just men, how many Saints and rantly.” He was prepared to justify Martyrs have had their dangerous this sentiment of Christian charity, opinions, amongst which this was as the former of Christian experi- one, That they hoped to make ence. First, however, he stated God some part of amends, by the question about justification and voluntary punishments which they works; and how the foundation of laid upon themselves. Because by faith is overthrown ; and then he this, or the like erroneous opinions proceeds to discover that way which which do by consequent overthrow natural men and some others have the merits of Christ, shall man be mistaken to be the way by which so bold as to write on their graves, they hope to attain true and ever- Such men are damned ; there is for lasting happiness: and having dis- them no salvation ? St. Austin covered the mistaken, he proceeds saith, Errare possum; hereticus esse to direct to that true way, by which, nolo-I may err; a heretic let me and no other, everlasting life and not be! And except we put a blessedness is attainable. And these difference betwixt them that err two ways he demonstrates thus : ignorantly, and them that obstinately “ That, the way of nature; this persist in it, how is it possible that the way of grace. The end of that any man should hope to be saved ? way, salvation merited, presup- Give me a Pope, or a Cardinal, posing the righteousness of men's whom great afflictions have made works: their righteousness, a na to know himself, whose heart God tural ability to do them; that ability, hath touched with true sorrow for the goodness of God which created all his sins, and filled with a love of them in such perfection. But the end Christ and his gospel; whose eyes of this way, salvation bestowed upon are willingly open to see the truth, men as a gift : presupposing, not and his mouth ready to renounce their righteousness, but the for all error, this one opinion of merit giveness of their unrighteousness, excepted, which he thinketh God justification; their justification, not will require at his hands; and betheir natural ability to do good, but cause he wanteth, trembleth and is their hearty sorrow for not doing; discouraged, and yet can say, Lord, and unfeigned belief in him, for cleanse me from all my secret sins ! whose sake not doers are accepted, Shall I think, because of this, or a which is their vocation ; their like error, such men touch not so vocation, the election of God, much as the hem of Christ's gar. taking them out of the number of ment ? If they do, wherefore lost children; their election, a should I doubt, but that virtue may Mediator in whom to be elect: this proceed from Christ to save them ? mediation inexplicable mercy ; this No! I will not be afraid to say to mercy, supposing their misery for such a one, You err in your opinion, whom he vouchsafed to die, and but be of good comfort; you have make himself a Mediator,"
to do with a merciful God, who “There is no meritorious cause will make the best of that little for our justification, but Christ; no which you hold well, and not with