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tions, Bulgaria and Greece. Bitter controversy in Great Britain over the question of responsibility for
this fiasco. 8. Second Russian invasion of East Prussia crushed by
Hindenburg in Battle of Maxurian Lakes (Feb. 12). Russians lost 150,000 killed and wounded and 100,000
prisoners. 4. Terrific drive of combined Germans and Austrians un
der Hindenburg and Mackensen in Poland and Galicia (April-Aug.). Fall of Przemysl (June 2); Lemberg (June 22); Warsaw (Aug. 5). All Poland conquered; Courland overrun. Russian losses, 1,200,000 killed and wounded; 900,000 captured; 65,000 square miles of territory. Russian line established from Riga to Eastern Galicia. Grand Duke Nicholas removed from chief command and sent to command in the Caucasus
(Sept. 8). 8. Bulgaria joins the Teutonic Allies (Oct. 13). Serbia
crushed by simultaneous invasions of Austro-Germans and Bulgarians (completed Dec. 2). Montenegro conquered (Jan. 1916)-Landing of an Anglo-French army at Saloniki prevents King Constantine of Greece from
openly joining the Teutonic alliance. 6. Italy declares war on Austria (May 23) to recover the
regions about Trent (the “Trentino") and Trieste. Lack of military results on Italian front in 1915 (failure to capture Gorizia). War on Germany not declared
until Aug. 27, 1916. 7. Naval War. In a battle in the North Sea (Jan. 24) a
British patrolling squadron defeated a German raiding squadron. Increasing use of submarines by Germany. German proclamation of "a war zone” about the British Isles (in force Feb. 18) establishes a so-called "blockade" of Great Britain.-Sinking of the passenger steamship Lusitania (May 7) with loss of 1198 lives (124
Americans). 8. Increase in Allies' munitions supply arranged for; ap
pointment (May, 1915) of Lloyd George to be British Minister of Munitions. Failure of Zeppelin raids over England to produce expected results. (Between Jan. 19, 1915, and Oct. 1, 1917, German aircraft, including Zeppelins, raided England thirty four times, killing outright 865 men, women, and children, and
wounding over 2,500.) 9. Summary: The situation at the end of 1915 was much
less favorable for the Entente than at the beginning of the year. Little change on Western front. Great changes on Eastern front - Russians driven from Russian Poland and Austrian Galicia; Hungary saved from invasion; Central Powers linked to Turkey by the adhesion of Bulgaria and the conquest of Serbia. "The Teutons were no longer hemmed in; they had raised the siege.”
III. CAMPAIGN OF 1916. 1. Battle of Verdun (“no longer a fortress but a series
of trenches”). Great German attack under the Crown Prince (Feb.—July); defeated by the heroic resistance of the French under General Pétain (““They shall not Pass.") Enormous German losses (about 500,000 men) through attacks in close formation against French for
tifications defended by "barrage” fire and machine guns. Practically all ground lost was slowly regained by the French in the autuma. “Verdun was the grave of Germany's claim to military invincibility."-(Col. A. M. Murray, “Fortnightly" History of the War, I. 368). -Hindenburg made commander-in-chief of the German
forces, August 29. 2. Battle of the Somme (July 1-Nov.). The strengthened
artillery of the Allies enabled them to drive back the German front on a breadth of twenty miles, and nine miles deep. Estimated loss of Germans 700,000 men; German estimate of French and British loss, 800,000.
The Allies failed to break through the German lines. 3. Galician and Armenian Fronts. Great Russian offen
sive (June-Sept.) under General Brusilov, on front from Pripet marshes to Bukovinian border. Capture of Czernovitz (June 18). Hundreds of thousands of Austrians taken prisoners.--Successful offensive of Grand Duke Nicholas in Armenia against the Turks;
capture of Erzerum (Feb. 16) and Trebizond (April 18). 4. Roumania enters the war and is crushed. Encouraged
by Allied successes and coerced by the disloyal Russian Court, Roumania declared war (Aug. 27) with a view to rescuing her kindred populations from Austrian rule. Unsupported invasion of Transylvania; terrific counter attacks by German-Austrian-Bulgarian armies under Generals Mackensen and Falkenhayn; Roumanians driven from Transylvania. Greater part of Roumania conquered (fall of Bucharest, Dec. 6). Rich wheatfields and oil lands gained by Teutons, and the "corridor” to Constantinople widened. The “Mittel-Europa"
project approaches realization. 5. British failure in Mesopotamia. Basra, on Persian
Gulf, taken by British Nov. 31, 1914; advance of General Townshend's inadequate expedition from India up the Tigris River toward Bagdad; expedition besieged by Turks at Kut-el-Amara (Jan.-April, 1916); relieve ing expedition forced to turn back. Surrender of General Townshend (April 29) with 13,000 men. Serious blow to British prestige in the East. (The report of an investigating commission, June 26, 1917, divides the responsibility for failure between the Home Govern
ment and the Government in India.) 6. Italian Front. Successful Austrian offensive from the
Trentino (May 16-June 3). Brusilov's drive in Galfcia, however, relieved the pressure upon the Italiano, who then (Aug. 6th to Sept.) freed Italian soil of the Austrians, and began an offensive which brought them Gorizia on the River Isonzo (Aug. 9) and carried them
to within thirteen miles of Trieste. 7. Naval War. Battle of Jutland (May 31); the Ger
high seas fleet engaged the British battle-cruiser file until darkness enabled the German ships to escape the on-coming British dreadnaughts.- Increased use of submarines by Germans. Channel packet Sussex sunk (March 25) without warning, in violation of German
pledge. 8. Political events in Great Britain affecting the war.
Adoption of compulsory military service (May 25) layı the basis for a British army of 5,000,000 men. Sinn Fein rebellion in Ireland crushed (April 25-28); Bir
Roger Casement executed (Aug. 2).-Lloyd George dig places Asquith as head of British cabinet, to infuse new
energy into the war (Dec. 5-7). .. Summary: The balance in 1916 inclined on the whole
in favor of the Allies-at Verdun, on the Somme, in Galicia, in Italy, and on the sea. Against these victories must be set the disasters of Roumania and Mesopotamia. The Central Powers continued to possess the advantage of operating on interior lines, enabling them while adopting a defensive attitude on certain fronto to concentrate for a drive elsewhere; also of their superiority (though diminished) in strategy, tactica, and material equipment.
IV. CAMPAIGN OF 1917.
1. Unrestricted submarine warfare begun by Germany
(Feb. 1). Hundreds of thousands of tons of belligerent and neutral shipping sunk each month; (merchant shipping destroyed by mines and submarines to Jan. 1, 1917, was 5,034,000 tons; from January to June, 1917 the total was 3,856,000 tons). Reliance upon this weapon by Germany to starve Great Britain out; failure of the policy to achieve the ends planned. (See War Cyclopa dia, under "Shipping. Losses," "Spurlos Versenkt Ape plied, " "Submarine Blockade." "Submarine Warfare,"
etc.) 2. Entrance of the United States into the War. War
declared on Germany, April 6; on Austria-Hungary, December 7. (See chapter viü.) Energetic measures to raise and train army of one and a half million men, and to provide food, munitions, and shipping for our selves and our associates. Magnitude of this task prevented the full weight of the United States being felt in 1917. Nevertheless, about 250,000 American troops were in France under General Pershing by December. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Austria-Hungary, Break With,” “United States, Break with Germany," "War, Declaration Against Austria-Hungary," "War, Declaration Against Germany''; also under "Acts of Congress," "Alien Enemies," "Army." "Bonds Act," "Cantonments," "Espionage Act," "Food and Fuel Control Act," "Profiteering." "Red Cross," "Selective Service," "Shipping Board,” “War Industries Board,” “Y. M. C.
A.”, etc.) 8. Further Spread of the War. Cuba and Panama follow the United States in declaring war on Germany (April 7).
Constantine of Greece deposed (June 12, 1917) And Greece joined the Allies (June 30). Siam declared w on Germany July 22; Liberia, August 4; China, A 14. Brazil repealed its declaration of neutrality anu revered diplomatic relations; war declared Oct. 26. "ibe "llowing broke diplomatic relations with Germany: Pols (April 14), Guatemala (April 27), Honduras 7. 17), Nicaragua (May 18) Haiti (June 17), Costa K. Sept. 21), Peru (Oct. 6), Uruguay (Oct. 7), Ecuador lec. 8). German destruction of South American
and revelations of the abuse by her diplomats
entine neutrality under cover of Swedish diplo mauu immunity (the Luxburg dispatches; spurlos ver senkt), led to widespread agitations for war with Germany and united action of all the South American countries.
4. Western Front. Withdrawal of German forces on a
front of fifty miles to new and more defensible positions (the “Hindenburg line") extending from Arras to Sois Bons (March); wanton wasting of the country evacuated. Battle of Arras (April 9-May) brought slight gains to the Allies; a mine of 1,000,000 lbs. of high explosives was fired at Messines (July 7).—Terrific British offenaives in Battle of Flanders (July-Dec.) won Passchendaele ridge and other gains. Battle of Cambrai (Nov. 20 -Dec.) begun by "tanks” without artillery preparation, penetrated Hindenburg line and forced German retiro ment on front of twenty miles, to depth of several milca. Terrific German counter attacks forced partial retiro
ment of British (from Bourlon wood, etc.) 5. Italian Front. Great Italian offensive begun in the
Isonzo area (Carso Plateau) in May. When the Rus sian Revolution permitted the withdrawal of Austrian troops to the Italian front, & new Austro-German counter-drive was begun (Oct.—Dec.) which undid the work of two years. Northeastern Italy invaded; Italian stand on the Piave and Brenta Rivers (Asiago Plateau). French and British aid checked further enemy advance
in 1917. Interallied War Council formed (Nov.) 6. Bagdad captured by a new British expedition (March
11). Restoration of British prestige in the East. Co operation of Russian and British forces in Asia Minor and Persia. British advance from Egypt into Palestine in March; Ascalon and Jaffa taken (Nov.); Jerusalem
currendered to British, Dec. 9, 1917. 7. Revolution in Russia. Due to pro-German policy of
certain members of the Russian court and the well founded suspicion that a separate peace with Germany was planned. Abdication of the Tsar, March 19. Power seized from Constitutional Democrats by moderato no cialists and radicals (Council of Workmen's and Sot diers' Delegates); formation of a government under Alexander Kerensky (July 22). Military power of Ros sia paralyzed by abolition of discipline; frequent to fusals of soldiers to obey orders; "fraternizing" of the armies encouraged by German agents. Germans seized Riga (Sept. 3), and the islands at entrance to Gull of Riga (Oct. 13-15), thus threatening Petrograd. General Kornilov failed in an attempt to seize power with a view to restoring order and prosecuting the war (Sept.). -Overthrow of Kerensky (Nov.) by extreme socialists (Bolsheviki), who repudiated Russia's obligations to the Allies, and negotiated a separate armistice with Germany with a view to an immediate peace, Dec. 15). Practical withdrawal of Russia from the war, permitting transfer of German troops to the French and Italian fronto. (See War Cyclopedia, under “Kerensky," "Lenine,"
“Russian Revolution,” etc.) 8. Summary: Ruthless submarining imparts a more det
perate character to the conflict, but brings Germany and her allies no nearer ultimate victory. Against her submarine successes, the Austro-German gains in Italy, and the Russian defection, must be set the British Vio tories in Mesopotamia and Palestine, the Allied gains on the Western Front, and the entrance of the United States with its vast potential resources into the war. For reading references on Chapter IX, see page 40.
I PROPOSALS FOR PEACE: WILL THIS BE THE
I. SUMMARY OF STATES AT WAR IN 1917. 1. The Teutonic Allies: Austria-Hungary, Germany,
Turkey (1914); Bulgaria (1915). 2 The Entente Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Belgium,
Great Britain, Montenegro, Japan (1914); Italy, San Marino (1915); Portugal, Roumania (1916); United States, Cuba, Panama, Liberia, Siam, China, Brazil (1917). Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti, Costa Rica, Peru, Uruguay and Ecuador severed diplomatic relations with Germany (1917) without de
claring war. II. AMERICAN AIMS IN THE WAR. (See War Cyclopedia, under
“Aims of the United States," "Permanent Peace, American Plans," "United States, Isolation of," "War
Aims of the United States.") 1. Vindication of our national rights. “We enter the war
only where we are clearly forced into it, because there is no other means of defending our rights." Hence war not declared at first against Austria-Hungary, Tur.
key, and Bulgaria. 2. Vindication of the rights of humanity. “Our motivo
will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the
power.” 8. Making the world safe for Liberty and Democracy.
"We are glad. . to fight thus for the ultimato peace of the world and the rights of nations great and mall and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life and obedience. The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty." (The above quotations are from President Wilson's speech
to Congress on April 2, 1917.) 4 Creation of an improved international system including
permanent League or Concert of Powers to preserve International peace.
(See President Wilson's speeches of January 22, and April 2, 1917, and January 8, 1918. 6. Absence of selfish designs. “We have no selfish ends to
serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when these rights have been made a secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them.”—(President Wilson, speech of April 2.
1917.) II. Various PEACE PROPOSALS. (See War Cyclopedia, under
"Lansdowne Note," "Peace Overtures, German, 1916," "Peace Overtures, Papal," "Peace Terms, American,"
“No Annexations, no Indemnities,” etc.) 1. Offer of Germany and her allies (December 12, 1916)
to meet their enemies in a peace conference (see "Official Documents Looking toward Peace" in International Conciliation for January, 1917). An empty and inginvero proposal. They "propose to enter forthwith into
peace negotiations," but refuse to state any terms; on the other hand much is made of the "glorious deeds of our armies" and their “incomparable strength.” Tho proposal evidently looked to & "German peace,” with Germany and her allies triumphant.
Reply of the Entente Allies (December 30, 1916). The German propomal was styled "less an offer of peace than & war manoeuvre. It is founded on calculatod misinterpretation of the character of the strugglo in the past, the present and the future. . . . Once again the Allies declare that no peace is possible so long as they have not secured reparation for violated righte and liberties, the recognition of the principle of nationality and the free existence of small states, so long as they have not brought about a settlement calculatod to end once and for all forces which have constituted a perpetual menace to the nations, and to afford the only effective guarantee for the future security of the world."—(International Conciliation for January, 1917,
pp. 27-29.) 2. President Wilson's effort (Dec. 20, 1916) to elicit peaco
terms from the belligerents. (See his note in Intor national Conciliation, for February, 1917.) (a) Germany merely repeats its proposal of December
12, still refusing to go into details in advance of a
formal conference.-(Ibid., p. 7.) (b) The Allies' reply (Jan. 10, 1917). Their statement
of terms included adequate compensation for Belgium, Serbia, and Montenegro; evacuation of invaded territories of France, Russia, and Roumania; reorganization of Europe on the basis of nationality; the ending of Turkish rule in Europe, etc.
“It goes without saying that if the Allies with to liberate Europe from the brutal covetoumom of Prussian militarism, it never has been thoir design, as has been alleged, to encompass the extermination of the German peoples, and their
political disappearance.”—(Ibid., pp. 8-10.) 3. Widespread and intense desire for peace among the
German people. Evidenced, among other things, by the fall of Chancellor von Bethmann Hollweg (July 14, 1917) following this declaration of the Reichstag (July 13):
“As on August 4, 1914, so on the threshold of the fourth year of the war the German people stand upon tho Assurance of the speech from the throne—'We aro driven by no lust of conquest.'
“Germany took up arms in defense of its liberty and independence and for the integrity of its territories. The Reichstag labors for peace and a mutual understanding and lasting reconciliation among the nations. Forced acquisitions of territory and political, economio and financial violations are incompatible with such peace.
"The Reichstag rejects all plans aiming at an economic blockade and the stirring up of enmity among the peoples after the war. The freedom of the seas must bo assured. Only an economic peace can prepare tho ground for the friendly association of the peoples.
"The Reichstag will energetically promote the creation of international juridical organizations. so long, however, as the enemy Governments do not
accept such a peace, so long as they threaten Germany and her allies with conquest and violation, the German people will stand together as one man, hold out unsbaken and fight until the rights of itself and its allies to life and development are secured. The German nation united is unconquerable.
"The Reichstag knows that in this announcement it is at one with the men who are defending the Fatherland. In their heroic struggles they are sure of the undying thanks of the whole people." (N. Y. Times Current History, VI, p. 195.)
It should be noted that the Reichstag has no power to conclude peace, or to initiate peace negotiations, or even to force the German Government to do so.
4. Pope Benedict XV attempts to promote Peace. (a) His first appeal (Aug. 1915) lacked definite pro
posals and was without effect. (b) His second appeal (Aug. 1, 1917) recommended:
(1) "That the material force of arms shall give way to the moral force of right”; simultaneous and reciprocal decrease of armaments; the establishing of compulsory arbitration "under sanctions to be determined against any State which would decline either to refer international questions to arbitration or to accept its awards." (2) True freedom and community of the seas. (3) Entire and reciprocal giving up of indemnities to cover the damages and cost of the war. (4) Occupied territory to be reciprocally given up; guarantees of Belgium's political, military, and economic independence; similar restitutions of the German colonies. (5) Territorial questions between Italy and Austria, and France and Germany, to be taken up after the war "in a conciliatory spirit, taking into account, as far as it is just and possible .... the aspirations of the population." Questions of Armenia, the Balkan States, and the old Kingdom of Poland to be dealt with in the same way.-In the main this was a proposal for the restoration of the status quo ante bellum (the conditions existing before the war)-& drawn battle.—(N. Y. Times Current
History, September, 1917, pp. 392-293). 8. Reply of the United States to the Pope's appeal(Aug.
27, 1917). The Entente Allies practically accepted this reply as their own.
“To deal with such a power by way of peace upon the plan proposed by his Holiness the Pope would, 80 far as we can see, involve a recuperation of its strength and a renewal of its policy, would make it necessary to create a permanent hostile combination of nations against the German people, who are its instruments; and would result in abandoning the new-born Russia to the intrigue, the manifold subtle interference and the certain counter-revolution, which would be attempted by all the malign influences to which the German Government has of late accustomed the world. Can peace be based upon a restitution of its power or upon any word of honor it could pledge in a treaty of settlement and accomodation?
"... We believe that the intolerable wrongs done In this war by the furious and brutal power of the Imperial German Government ought to be repaired,
but not at the expense of the sovereignty of any people rather & vindication of the sovereignty both of those that are weak and of those that are strong. Punitive damages, the dismemberment of empires, the establishment of selfish and exclusive economic leagues, we deem inexpedient and in the end worse than futile, no proper basis for a peace of any kind, least of all for an enduring peace. That must be based upon justice and fairness and the common rights of mankind.
"We cannot take the word of the present rulers of Gore many as a guarantee of anything that is to endure, unless explicitly supported by such conclusive evidence of the will and purpose of the German people themselves as the other peoples of the world would be justified in accepting. Without such guarantees, treaties of settloment, agreements for disarmament, covenants to set up arbitration in the place of force, territorial adjust ments, reconstitutions of small nations, if made with the German Government, no man, no nation could
now depend on." 6. Reply of Germany (September 22, 1917). This was
filled with the vaguest generalities. In part it consisted of hypocritical and lying protestations that ever since the Kaiser ascended the throne he had "regarded it as his principal and most sacred task to preserve the blessings of peace for the German people and the world"; and that “in the crisis which led up to the present world conflagration his Majesty's efforts were up to the last moment directed towards settling the conflict by peaceful means." With reference to the substituting of "the moral power of right” for “the material power of arms”, and for the reduction of armaments and the establishing of arbitration, indorsement was given the Pope's proposals in such vague and general terms a to bind the German Government to nothing.
“The Imperial Government greets with special sympathy the leading idea of the peace appeal wherein his Holiness clearly expresses the conviction that in the future the material power of arms must be superseded by the moral power of right. . . . From this would follow, according to his Holiness' view, the simul taneous diminution of the armed forces of all staten and the institution of obligatory arbitrations for international disputes.
“We share his Holiness' view that definite rula and a certain safeguard for a simultaneous and reciprocal limitation of armaments on land, on sea, and in the air, as well as for the true freedom of the community and high seas, are the things in treating which the new spirit that in the future should prevail in international relations should first find hopeful expression .
“The task would then of itself arise to decide international differences of opinion not by the use of armed forces but by peaceful methods, especially by arbitration, whose high peace-producing effect we together with his Holiness fully recognize.
“The Imperial Government will in this respect sup. port every proposal compatible with the vital interest of the German Empire and people.”
No notice whatever was taken of the Pope's plea for the giving up of occupied territory and the restoration of Belgium's independence. When reports were published in the German press that nevertheless the Government
was prepared to give up Belgium, the Chancellor denied this, saying (September 28):
"I declare that the Imperial Government's bands are free for eventual peace negotiations. This also refers
to Belgium.” 7. Failure of the attempt to promote an international con
ference of Socialists at Stockholm (Sweden) for peace on the basis of the Russian revolutionary formula, “No annexations and no indemnities,” September, 1917. This failure was due to (a) suspicion that proGerman influence was back of the proposal; and (b) publication of proofs of pro-German and unneutral conduct on the part of Swedish diplomatic officials. (See War Cyclopedia, under Spurlos Versenkt,” “ Stockholm Conference,” “Sweden, Neutral Problems.")
January 28 to February 3, 1918, occurred a widespread strike in Germany (500,000 said to have struck in Berlin alone) to secure (a) a general peace
“ without indemnities or annexations,” (b) betterment of food and living conditions, and (c) more democratic political institutions. The arrest of the leaders and the firm attitude of the military
authorities speedily sent the strikers back to work. 8. President Wilson's proposals of January 8, 1918:
“ What we demand in this war ... is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression. All the peoples of the world are, in effect, partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless jus. tice be done to others it will not be done to us. The program of the world's peace, therefore, is our program; and that program, the only possible program, as we see it, is this:
“I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind, but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
“ II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.
“III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
“IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
“V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the Government whose title is to be determined.
“VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory, and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest co-operation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an
un hampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy, and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
“VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
“VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored; and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of AlsaceLorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.
“IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
“X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development.
“XI. Roumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan States to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guaranties of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan States should be entered into.
“XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guaranties.
“XIII. An independent Polish State should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.
“XIV. A general association of nations must be formed, under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guaranties of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small States alike." (War, Labor, and Peace, pp. 28-31.)
On February 11 the President made this further statement: