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6. Portugal drawn into the war (March 9, 1916) through her long-standing alliance with Great Britain.
7. Roumania, encouraged by Allied successes early in 1916, and treacherously pressed thereto by Russia, attacks Austria-Hungary in order to gain Transylvania (Aug. 28, 1916.)
8. Further spread of the war: United States declares war on Germany, April 6, 1917 (see chapter ix).-Greece deposes King Constantine and joins the Entente Allies (June 12, 1917).—Siam, China and Brazil enter the war against the Teutonic Allies; Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, Ecuador, etc., sever diplomatic relations with Germany. (See War Cyclopedia, under "War, Declarations of." II. WORLD-WIDE CHARACTER AND IMPORTANCE OF THE
1. The most widespread and terrible war in history. A score of countries involved; compare the size of the belligerent areas and populations with those remaining neutral, of the States arrayed against Germany with those on her side.
"At least 38,000,000 men are bearing arms in the war -27,500,000 on the side of the world Allies and 10,600000 on the side of the Central Powers-according to latest War Department compilations from published reports in various countries. These figures do not include naval personnel strength, which would raise the total several millions. Against Germany's 7,000,000, Austria'a 3,000,000. Turkey's 300,000 and Bulgaria's 300,000, are arrayed the following armed forces: Russia, 9,000,000; France, 6,000,000; Great Britain, 5,000000; Italy, 3,000,000; Japan, 1,400,000; United States, more than 1,000,000; China, 541,000; Roumania, 320,000; Serbia, 300,000; Belgium, 300,000; Greece, 300,000; Portugal, 200,000; Montenegro, 40,000; Siam, 36,000; Cuba, 11,000, and Liberia, 400."-(Associated Press dispatch, Oct. 22, 1917.)
2. Universal disorganization of commerce and industry. Widespread suffering even in neutral countries. Problems of food-supply, coal, and other necessaries of life.
3. Importance of the issues involved: Government of the world by negotiation, arbitration, and international law, vs. reliance upon military force, and the principle that "might makes right."-Humanity vs. "frightfulness."-Democracy and freedom vs. autocracy and
III. INNOVATIONS IN WARFARE DUE TO THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND INVENTION.
1. New developments in trenches and trench fighting. Vast and complicated systems of deep and narrow trenches, inter-communicating; underground refuge chambers of timber and concrete; elaborate barbed wire entanglements; shell craters fortified with "pill boxes" of steel and concrete as gun emplacements. Defended by men with magazine rifles and machine guns; use of hand grenades, trench mortars, sapping and mining; steel helmets and gas masks. "Camouflage," the art of concealment. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Barbedwire Entanglements," "Camouflage," "Trench Warfare," etc.)
2. Great guns (German 42-centimeter mortars, etc.) used
to smash old fashioned steel and concrete fortifications and bombard towns twenty-two miles distant. Enormous quantities of high explosive shell, fired by thousands of guns, for days at a time, used to destroy wire entanglements and trenches. "Barrage" (barrier) shellfire used to cover attack; definition and use of "creeping barrage"; excellence of French "75's" (quickfire cannon with calibre of 75 millimeters-about three inches; British "tanks" (huge caterpillar motors, armored and armed with machine guns and rapid-fire cannon); poison gas and liquid fire; etc., etc. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Barrage," "Forbidden Methods of Warfare," "Gas Warfare," "Shells," "Tanks," etc.) 3. Great development of aeroplanes for scouting, directing artillery fire, etc. Use of captive balloons. Zeppelins used mainly for dropping bombs on undefended British and French towns; their failure to fulfill German expectations. Devices for combating aerial attacks. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Aviation," etc.)
4. Great development of the submarine and submarine warfare. Use of submarines against warships perfectly legitimate; employment against merchant shipping also entirely proper under certain limitations. Devices for combating submarines. (See War Cyclopedia under "Submarine," etc.)
5. New problems of transport and communication. Great use of motor trucks and automobiles for moving troops and supplies; increased difficulties of supply owing to great numbers of soldiers engaged, and enormous quantities of shells fired. Use of wireless telegraph and telephone. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Motor Transport.")
6. Mobilization of civilian population in all countries and national control of industry, food production and consumption. Increased participation of women in war work. In this conflict not merely armies but nations are engaged against one another; and the side with the greatest man-power, the best organized production and consumption, the largest financial resources, the staunchest courage and the closest co-operation between its allies will win. (See War Cyclopedia, under “Civilian Tasks," "Food Control," "Fuel Control," etc.)
IV. EXAMPLES OF GERMAN RUTHLESSNESS AND VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW.
1. War from the standpoint of International Law.
"From the standpoint of the international jurist, war is not merely a national struggle between public enemies, but a condition of juridical status under which such conflict is carried on. It consists of certain legal rules and generally recognized customs, most of which have been codified and embodied in international treatiesthe so-called Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907which nearly all the members of the international community, including Germany, have signed and ratified. Now, if we were to take up the Hague Regulations in detail, we should find that Germany has violated again and again practically all of them. A bare list or enumeration of the proved and well authenticated instances of violation of international law by Germany in this war would, in fact, fill many volumes. If these were accompanied by some description or commentary, I
verily believe that the Encyclopaedia Britannica would not contain all of them."-(Prof. A. S. Hershey, in Indiana University Alumni Quarterly, October, 1917)
"Germany does not really wage war. She assassinates, massacres, poisons, tortures, intrigues; she commits every crime in the calendar, such as arson, pillage, murder, and rape; she is guilty of almost every possible violation of international law and of humanity-and calls it war."—(Ibid.)
2. The German war philosophy. Conception of "absolute war"; ruthlessness and "frightfulness" advocated as means of shortening war, and hence justified as really humane; doctrine that "military necessity" is paramount over every other consideration. International law regarded as a selfish invention of weak states seeking to hamper the strong. Principle of "Deutschland über Alles."
"Whoever uses force, without any consideration and without sparing blood, has sooner or later the advantage if the enemy does not proceed in the same way. One cannot introduce a principle of moderation into the philosophy of war without committing an absurdity. It is a vain and erroneous tendency to neglect the element of brutality in war merely because we dislike it." -(Karl von Clausewitz, Vom Kriege, I, page 4.)
"War in the present day will have to be conducted more recklessly, less scrupulously, more violently, more ruthlessly, than ever in the past. . . Every restriction on acts of war, once military operations have begun, tends to weaken the co-ordinated action of the belligerent. The law of nations must beware of paralyzing military action by placing fetters upon it. . Distress and damage to the enemy are the conditions necessary to bend and break his will . . . The combatant has need of passion. . it requires that the combatant . . . shall be entirely freed from the shackles of a restraining legality which is in all respects oppressive."-(General von Hartmann, "Militärische Notwendigkeit und Humanität," in Deutsche Rundschau, XIV, pp. 76, 119-122.)
"Since the tendency of thought of the last century was dominated essentially by humanitarian considerations, which not infrequently degenerated into sentimentality and flabby emotion, there have not been wanting attempts to influence the development of the usages of war in a way which was in fundamental contradiction with the nature of war and its object. Attempts of this kind will also not be wanting in the future, the more so as these agitations have found a kind of moral recognition in some provisions of the Geneva Convention and the Brussels and Hague Conferences. The danger that in this way he [the officer] will arrive at false views about the essential character of war must not be lost sight of . . . By steeping himself in military history an officer will be able to guard himself against excessive humanitarian notions; it will teach him that certain severities are indispensable to war, nay more, that the only true humanity very often lies in a ruthless application of them..
"Every means of war without which the object of the war cannot be obtained is permissible . . . It follows from these universally valid principles that wide limits are set to the subjective freedom and arbitrary
judgment of the commanding officer."-(Official publication edited by the General Staff, Kriegsbrauch im Landkriege; in translation by J. H. Morgan entitled The German War Book, pp. 54-55, 64.)
All the foregoing extracts are quoted in E. Laviase and C. Andler, German Theory and Practice of War, pp. 25-29. See also, D. C. Munro, German War Practices, Introduction; War Cyclopedia, under "Frightfulness," "Kriegs-Raison," "Notwendigkeit," "War, German Ruthlessness," "War, German View," etc.; Garner and Scott, German War Code.
3. German treatment of Belgium and other occupied territories (Northern France, Russian Poland, Serbia, etc). Evidence found in captured letters and diaries of German soldiers and in proclamations of German commanders, as well as in testimony of victims and witnesses. The violations of international law and the laws of humanity include:
(a) Deliberate and systematic massacre of portions of the civil population, as a means of preventing or punishing resistance. Individual citizens murdered (some while hostages); women abused, and children brutally slain. Several thousand persons were so killed, often with mutilation and torture. (See Munro, German War Practices; War Cyclopedia, under "Hostages," "Non-combatants," etc.) "Outrages of this kind [against the lives and property of the civil population] were committed during the whole advance and retreat of the Germans through Belgium and France, and only abated when open manoeuvring gave place to trench warfare along all the line from Switzerland to the sea. Similar outrages accompanied the simultaneous advance into the western salient of Russian Poland, and the autumn incursion of the AustroHungarians into Serbia, which was turned back at Valievo. There was a remarkable uniformity in the crimes committed in these widely separated theater of war, and an equally remarkable limit to the dates within which they fell. They all occurred during the first three months of the war, while, since that period, though outrages have continued, they have not been of the same character or on the same scale. This has not been due to the immobility of the fronts, for although
is certainly true that the Germans have been unable to overrun fresh territories on the west, they have carried out greater invasions than ever in Russia and the Balkans, which have not been marked by outrages of the same specific kind. This seems to show that the systematic warfare against the civil population in the campaigns of 1914 was the result of policy, deliberately tried and afterwards deliberately given up." (J. Arnold Toynbee, The German Terror in Belgium, pp. 15–16.) (b) Looting, burning of houses and whole villages, and
wanton destruction of property ordered and countenanced by German officers. Provision for systematic incendiarism a part of German military preparations. (See Munro, German War Practices; War Cyclopedia, under "Belgium, Estates Destroyed," "Belgium's Woe," "Family Honor and Rights of Property," "Pillage," etc.)
"It is forbidden to pillage a town or locality even when taken by assault . . [In occupied territory] pillage is forbidden."-(Hague Convention of 1907, Articles 28 and 47.)
(c) Excessive taxes ($12,000,000) a month, and heavy fines on cities and provinces, laid upon Belgium. Belgium robbed of its industrial and agricultural machinery, together with its stocks of food stuffs and raw materials, which were sent into Germany or converted to the use of the German army. This was according to a "plan elaborated by Dr. W. Rathenau in 1914 at Berlin, for the systematic exploitation of all the economic resources of occupied countries in favor of the military organization of the Empire." (See Munro, German War Practices, Part II; War Cyclopedia, under "Belgium, Economic Destruction," "Contributions," "Requisitions.")
" Coal, minerals, metals, chemical products; wood and various building materials; wool, flax, cotton and other materials for weaving; leathers, hides and rubber, all in every possible state of industrial transformation, from the raw material to the commercial product and the waste;  further, all machines, fixed and movable, and machine-tools (in particular, the American lathes which it is impossible to replace at present); transmission belts; wires for electric lighting and motor power; oils and grease products;  transport material, whether by road, railway or water, and an important part of the rolling-stock of local railway lines; all traction power, whether animal or mechanical; thoroughbreds and stud animals, and the products of breeding;  agricultural products, seed and harvests, etc., were successively immobilized, and then seized and removed from the country, as a result of legislative acts on the part of the civil authorities, following upon innumerable requisitions by the military authorities. The value of these seizures and requisitions amounts to billions of francs. Moreover, many of the measures taken were inspired not only by the motives of military interest denounced above, but by the underlying thought of crushing the commercial rivalry of Belgium. This was explicitly admitted in Germany itself by several authorities."—(Memorandum of the Belgian Government on the Deportations, etc.. February 1, 1917, pp. 7-8.)
The total exactions from Belgium, in money and materials, are computed to be "in excess of one billion dollars, or nearly five times as much as all the world has contributed to keep the Belgian people from starving to death." —(S. S. McClure, Obstacles to Peace, page 116.) (d) Forcible deportation of tens of thousands of Belgian
and other civilians to Germany, the men to serve practically as slaves in Germany's industries, and the women reduced frequently to worse than slavery. (See Munro, German War Practices; War Cyclopedia, under "Belgium, Deportations.")
"They [the Germans] have dealt a mortal blow to any prospect they may ever have had of being tolerated by the population of Flanders [which they were seeking to alienate from French-speaking Belgium]; in tearing away from nearly every humble home in the land a husband and a father or a son and brother, they have lighted a fire of hatred that will never go out; they have brought home to every heart in the land, in a way that will impress its horror indelibly on the memory
of three generations, a realization of what German methods mean-not, as with the early atrocities, in the heat of passion and the first lust of war, but by one of those deeds that make one despair of the future of the human race, a deed coldly planned, studiously matured, and deliberately and systematically executed, a deed so cruel that German soldiers are said to have wept in its execution, and so monstrous that even German soliders are now said to be ashamed.”—(U. S. Minister Brand Whitlock, in January, 1917.)
(e) Fearful devastation of part of Northern France during Hindenburg's "strategic retreat" (March, 1917), including complete destruction of villages and homesteads, systematic destruction of vineyards and fruit trees, etc. (See Munro, German War Practices; War Cyclopedia, under "Destruction," "Frightfulness," "Hindenburg Line.")
"In the course of these last months, great stretches of French territory have been turned by us into a dead country. It varies in width from 10 to 12 or 15 kilometers [64 to 71⁄2 or 8 miles], and extends along the whole of our new position, presenting a terrible barrier of desolation to any enemy hardy enough to advance against our new lines. No village or farm was left standing on this glacis, no road was left passable, no railway track or embankment was left in being. Where once were woods there are gaunt rows of stumps; the wells have been blown up; wires, cables, and pipelines destroyed. In front of our new positions runs, like a gigantic ribbon, an empire of death."-(Berlin Lokalanzeiger, March 18, 1917; quoted in Frightfulness in Retreat, page 5.)
"Whole towns and villages have been pillaged, burnt and destroyed; private houses have been stripped of all their furniture, which the enemy has carried off; fruit trees have been torn up or rendered useless for all future production; springs and wells have been poisoned. The comparatively few inhabitants who were not deported to the rear were left with the smallest possible ration of food, while the enemy took possession of the stocks provided by the Neutral Relief Committee and intended for the civil population .. It is a question not of acts aimed at hampering the operations of the Allied armies, but of acts of devastation which have no connection with that object, and the aim of which is to ruin for many years to come one of the most fertile regions of France.-(Protest of the French Government to Neutral Powers, in Frightfulness in Retreat, pp. 6-7.) (f) Wanton destruction of historic works of art-library
of Louvain; cathedrals of Rheims, Soissons, Ypres, Arras, St. Quentin; castle of Coucy; town halls, eto. of Ypres and other Belgian cities. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Louvain," "Rheims," "Works of of Art," etc.)
4. Other violations of the laws of warfare on land. (a) Use of poison gas and liquid fire (both first used by the Germans); poisoning of wells; intentional dissemination of disease germs (anthrax and glanders, at Bucharest, etc.); bombardment of undefended towns by Zeppelins, aeroplanes, and cruisers; bombardment of hospitals, etc. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Bombardment," "Explosives from Aircraft," "Forbidden Weapons," "Gas Warfare,”
"Poisons," "Roumania, German Treachery in," "Zeppelins," etc.)
(b) Civilians, including women and children, used as a screen by German forces; frequent abuse of Red Cross and white flag. (See Munro, German War Practices, under "Hostages and Screens." ""We waited for the advance of the Germans,' states a British officer; 'some civilians reported to us that they were coming down a road in front of us. On looking in that direction we saw, instead of German troops, a crowd of civilians-men, women, and children-waving white handkerchiefs and being pushed down the road in front of a large number of German troops.'-"They came on as it were in a mass,' states a British soldier, 'with the women and children massed in front of them. They seemed to be pushing them on, and I saw them shoot down women and children who refused to march. Up to this my orders had been not to fire, but when we saw women and children shot my sergeant said: "It is too heartrending," and gave orders to fire, which we did.'-'I saw the Germans advancing on hands and knees towards our positions,' states another; 'they were in close formation, and had a line of women and children in front of their front rank. Our orders at that time were not to fire on civilians in front of the enemy.' -(J. Arnold Toynbee, The German Terror in France, pp. 6-7.)
(c) Wounded and prisoners killed in many instances.
(See Munro, German War Practices; War Cyclopedia, under "Hun," "Prisoners of War," "Quarter," etc.) "28th August.-They [the French] lay in heaps of eight or ten wounded or dead on the top of one another. Those who could still walk we made prisoners and brought with us. Those who were seriously wounded, in the head or lungs, etc., and who could not stand upright, were given one more bullet, which put an end to their life. Indeed, that was the order which we had received."-(Diary of a German soldier, in Joseph Bédier, How Germany seeks to Justify her Atrocities, p. 45.)
"By leaps and bounds we got across the clearing. They were here, there, and everywhere hidden in the thicket. Now it is down with the enemy! And we will give them no quarter . . . We knock down or bayonet the wounded, for we know that those scoundrels fire at our backs when we have gone by. There was a Frenchman there stretched out, full length, face down, pretending to be dead. A kick from a strong fusilier soon taught him that we were there. Turning round he asked for quarter, but we answered: 'Is that the way your tools work, you--,' and he was nailed to the ground. Close to me I heard odd cracking sounds. They were blows from a gun on the bald head of a Frenchman which a private of the 154th was dealing out vigorously; he was wisely using a French gun so as not to break his own. Tender-hearted souls are so kind to the French wounded that they finish them with a bullet, but others give them as many thrusts and blows as they can."-(Article entitled "A Day of Honor for our Regiment-24th September, 1914," in the Jauresches Tageblatt, 18th October, 1914; facsimile in Joseph Bédier, German Atrocities from German Evidence, pp. 32-33.)
"After today no more prisoners will be taken. All prisoners are to be killed. Wounded, with or without arms, are to be killed. Even prisoners already grouped in convoys are to be killed. Let not a single living enemy remain behind us."-(Order given 26th August, 1914, by General Stenger, of the 58th German Brigade; testified to by numerous German prisoners. See Bédier, German Atrocities, pp. 28-29, 39-40.)
"When you meet the foe you will defeat him. No quarter will be given, no prisoners will be taken. Let all who fall into your hands be at your mercy. Just as the Huns a thousand years ago, under the leadership of Etzel [Attila], gained a reputation in virtue of which they still live in historical tradition, so may the name of Germany become known in such a manner in China that no Chinaman will ever again dare to look askance at a German."(Speech of the Kaiser to German troops embarking for the Boxer War in 1900; reported in Bremen Weser Zeitung and in other German newspapers; quoted in London Times, July 30, 1900.)
"It is forbidden .. to kill or wound an enemy who, having laid down his arms and having no means of self-defense, gives himself up as a prisoner; to declare that no quarter will be given."-(Hague Convention of 1907, Article 23.)
(d) Inhuman treatment of British captives in German prison camps, at Wittenberg and elsewhere. (See Munro, German War Practices; War Cyclopedia, under "Prisoners of War," etc.) The British treatment of German prisoners, on the other hand, was humane and correct.
5. Submarine warfare waged in disregard of international law. Sinking without warning of the Falaba, Cushing, Gulflight, Lusitania, Arabic, Sussex, etc; ruthless destruction of lives of innocent men, women, and children. Great extension of submarine warfare after February 1, 1917. Policy of "sinking without leaving a trace" (spurlos versenkt). Instructions to sink even hospital ships. Utter disregard of the rights of neutrals. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Lusitania Notes," "Submarine Warfare." "Spurlos Versenkt," "Visit and Search," etc., and under names of vessels.)
"The new policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind, whatever their flag, their character, their cargo, their destination, their errand, have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board, the vessels of friendly neutrals along with those of belligerents." (President Wilson, speech of April 2, 1917.)
6. Practical extermination of the Armenian nation by the Turks, evidently with German sanction (1915-16). (See War Cyclopedia, under “Armenian Massacres.”)
"In order, I was told, to cover the extermination of the Armenian nation with a political cloak, military reasons were being put forward, which were said to make it necessary to drive the Armenians out of their native seats, which had been theirs for 2,500 years, and to deport them to the Arabian deserts. I was also told that individual Armenians had lent themselves to acta of espionage.
"After I had informed myself about the facts and had made inquiries on all sides, I came to the conclu
sion that all these accusations against the Armenians were, in fact, based on trifling provocations, which were taken as an excuse for slaughtering 10,000 innocents for one guilty person, for the most savage outrages against women and children, and for a campaign of starvation against the exiles which was intended to exterminate the whole nation
"Out of convoys which, when they left their homes on the Armenian plateau, numbered from two to three thousand men, women, and children, only two or three hundred survivors arrive here in the south. The men are slaughtered on the way; the women and girls, with the exception of the old, the ugly, and those who are still children, have been abused by Turkish soldiers and officers and then carried away to Turkish and Kurdish villages, where they have to accept Islam. They try to destroy the remnant of the convoys by hunger and thirst. Even when they are fording rivers, they do not allow those dying of thirst to drink. All the nourishment they receive is a daily ration of a little meal sprinkled over their hands, which they lick off greedily, and its only effect is to protract their starvation.”—(Dr. Martin Niepage, The Horrors of Aleppo, Seen by a German Eyewitness, pp. 3-6.)
V. SUMMARY AND EXPLANATION OF GERMAN POLICY. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Der Tag," "German Military Autocracy," "Hegemony, German Ambition," "War, Responsibility for.")
"The German Government wages the war by methods which, judged even by standards till now conventional, are monstrous. Note, for example, the sudden attack upon Belgium and Luxemburg; poison gas, since adopted by all the belligerents; but most outrageous of the Zeppelin bombings, inspired with the purpose of annihilating every living person, combatant or non-combatant, over large areas; the submarine war on commerce; the torpedoing of the Lusitania, etc.; the system of taking hostages and levying contributions, especially at the outset in Belgium; the systematic exactions from Ukrainian, Georgian, Courland, Polish, Irish, Mohammedan, and other prisoners of war in the German prison camps, of treasonable war-service, and of treasonable espionage of the Central Powers; in the contract between Under-Secretary of State Zimmermann and Sir Roger Casement in December, 1914, for the organization, equipment, and training of the 'Irish brigade' made up of imprisoned British soldiers in the German prison camps; the attempts under threats by forced internment to compel enemy alien civilians found in Germany to perform treasonable war service against their own country, etc. 'Necessity knows no law."" (Dr. Karl Liebknecht, the German Socialist leader, in leaflet dated May 3, 1916. See War Cyclopedia, under "Liebknecht on German War Policy.")
"This war was begun and these crimes against humanity were done because Germany was pursuing the hereditary policy of the Hohenzollerns and following the instincts of the arrogant military caste which rules Prussia, to grasp the overlordship of the civilized world and establish an empire in which she should play the role of ancient Rome. They were done because the Prussian militarist still pursues the policy of power through conquest, of aggrandizement through force and
fear, which in little more than two centuries has brought the puny Mark of Brandenburg with its million and half of people to the control of a vast empire-the greatest armed force of the modern world.”—(Senator Elihu Root, speech in Chicago, Sept. 14, 1917).
For reading references on Chapter VII, see page 40.
VIII. THE UNITED STATES ENTERS THE WAR. I. STRUGGLE TO MAINTAIN OUR NEUTRALITY (1914-16). 1. American opinion at the outbreak of the war confused as to merits and issues in the controversy; conflicting sympathies of hyphenated groups. (See War Cyclopedia under "Hyphenated Americans," "United States, Isolation," "United States, Neutrality, 1914-17.")
2. Declaration of Neutrality of the United States, issued August 4, 1914. President Wilson's appeal for neutrality of sentiment. (August 18, 1914.) "Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned. . . It will be easy to excite passion and difficult to allay it." He expressed the fear that our Nation might become divided into camps of hostile opinion. "Such divisions among us might seriously stand in the way of the proper performance of our duty as the one great nation at peace, the one people holding itself ready to play a part of impartial mediation and speak counsels of peace and accommodation, not as a partisan, but as a friend." (See War Cyclopedia, under "United States, Neutrality, 1914-17.")
3. Alienation of American sentiment from Germany and Austria. Invasion of Belgium generally condemned; admiration for her plucky resistance and horror at German atrocities; Cardinal Mercier's pastoral letter of Christmas, 1914; Commission for Belgian Relief under American direction (Mr. Herbert C. Hoover); Germany's monstrous crime in sinking the Lusitania; execution of Edith Cavell and Captain Fryatt. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Atrocities," "Belgium's Woe," "Cavell, Edith," "Fryatt, Captain," "Lusitania," "Mercier, Cardinal,” etc.)
4. Was the neutrality of our Government a real neutrality? Lack of interest in the contest or of desire on the part of the people for the triumph of one or the other of the participants not necessary to neutrality of the Government. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Neutrality," "Neutral Rights," etc.)
5. Controversies with Great Britain over questions of blockade, contraband, and interference with our mails. Question of the applicability to the present emergency of the Declaration of London (drawn up in 1909 on the initiation of Great Britain, but not ratified before the war by any government.) Property rights alone involved in these controversies, which could be settled after the war by our existing arbitration treaty with Great Britain. (See War Cyclopedia, under "Blacklist," "Blockade," "Declaration of London," "Embargo, British," "Mails, British Interference with," "War Zone, British," etc.) 6. Controversies with Germany. Over our supplying munitions to the Allies, and her submarine sinkings (Falaba, Cushing, Gulflight, Lusitania, Arabic, etc.). Intrigues and conspiracies in the United States; the