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school trustees of the subdistricts as the choice of the community to be served. Teachers are paid at the expiration of each term of school by the county school commissioner, upon order from the county board of education."
The county commissioner (with such assistants as he may select) examines applicant for license to teach in the primary schools in tho following: Orthography, reading, writing, English grammar, geography, and arithmetic.
Those who propose to teach in schools of higher grado are examined in the studies belonging to such schools.
Under the present constitution there can be no schools of higher grade, except under local systems. The first (nighest) grade license is valid for three years; the second, two years; third grade, one year; fourth (lowest) grade, six monils (granted to those who are competent to teach only a portion of the legal branches); and in some particular subdistricts in which the children have mado but little advancement in obtaining an education.
All teachers must have licenses to teach,"bat certificates of proficiency and licenses to teach" granted by the North Georgia Agricultural College are good as licenses in the public schools of the Stato.3
LOCAL LAWS. Several counties, cities, and towns have special laws governing their school systems. In some instances taxes (in addition to those authorized by law) are levied and collected under authority bestowed by special laws.*
STATE FREE-SCHOOL SYSTEM. The constitution requires that provision be made for a thorough and eficient system of free schools whereby all children of the State may receive a good common-school edncation.
Every person having the control and charge of any child or children between tho ages of 8 and 14 years must send such child or children to a public or privato school for a period of not less than 12 weeks in each school year, unless such child or children are excused from attending school by the board of education or school directors of the city, town, or school district in which such cbild or children reside.
The penalty for non-compliance with the abovo law is not less than $5 nor. moro than $20.
Children are not to be excluded from school on account of race or color.?
LEGAL SCHOOL POPULATION. The legal school age is from 6 to 21 years. The board of trustees of each township shall prepare or cause to be prepared and forwarded, on or before the 15th of July preceding each regular session of the General Assembly, to the county superintendent or State superintendent, a statement showing the condition of the schools for the preceding biennial period, giving each year separately. One of the items shown by this report is “the number of persons under 21 years of age, with a separate enumeration of those above the age of 12 years who are unable to read and write."10
If the township trustees fail to prepare and forward, or have prepared and forwarded, the above statistics, the county superintendent shall employ a competent person to take the census. 11
MINIMUM LENGTH OF SCHOOL YEAR. Schools must be kept open at least 110 days in each year and longer if practicable.12 The school month is the same as the calendar month; but teachers are not required to teach on Saturdays, legal holidays, and days of thanksgiving and of fast appointed by the national or State authority.13
PRESCRIBED STUDIES. Schools established under the school laws shall be for the instruction of pupils in Orthography, reading in Eaglish, penmanship, arithmetic, English grammar, modern geography, the elements of the natural sciences, the history of the United States, pbysiology and the laws of health, and in such other brauches, including vocal music and drawing, as the directors or the voters of the districts may prescribe.14 Stat., seca. 12576 and 1271.
Act of Leg. approved June 29, 1885. 11 Ibid., sec. 21. *Ibid., sec. 1261. ? Ibid., approved Mar. 24, 1874.
12 Ibid., soc. 43. * Act of Leg., Feb'y 28, 1877. 8 Ibid., approved April 3, 1873. 13 Ibid., sec. 54. See Sch. Lars (1886), p. 41 et seq. Sch. Law, 1880, ecc. 48.
14 Ibid., sec. 50. "Const., art. 8, sec. 1..
10 Ibid., 800, 36.
STATE SUPERVISION. The State superintendent is elected quadrennially by the people, and must give bond for $25,000.
He keeps á record of all matters pertaining to his office; is ex officio member of State board of examiners for management of the State Normal University; counsels and advises with teachers; has the supervision of all the common and public schools in the State; is the general adviser and assistant of county superintendents; makes such rules and regulations as may be necessary and expedient to carry into efficient and uniform effect the school laws of the State; bas power to cause school money to be withheld from officers, townships, districts, or teachers failing to make reports as required by law; makes a biennial report to the Governor on or before the first day of November, preceding each regular session of the General Assembly."
STATE TAX AND STATE SCHOOL. The common-school fund consists of, first, an annual appropriation of one million dollars; second, the interest on what is known as the school fund propor, being 3 per cent. upon the proceeds of tho sales of the public lands in the State, one-sixth part excepted, and, third, the interest on what is known as the surplus revenue distributed by act of Congress, and made a part of the common-school fund by act of Legislature March 4, 1837.
The Stato auditor of public accounts apportions the annual school fund (money) among the different counties in proportion to the number of children in each, under 21 years of age, and issues his warrant to the superintendent of schools of each county upon the collector thereof.
There warrants are received by the State treasurer in payment of amounts due to the State from county collectors.
Neither the General Assembly, nor any county, city, town, township, school district, or other publio corporation, shall ever make any appropriation in aid of any church or sectarian purpose, or to help support any institution of learning controlled by any church or sectarian denomination; nor shall any grant or donation of land or money or other personal property over be made by the State or any such public corporation to any church or for any sectarian purpose.3
EDUCATION OF TEACHERS. Two State normal universities (Illinois State Normal University and Southern Illinois Normal University), whose objects are to qualify teachers for the common schools of the State, by imparting instruction in the art of teaching, and all branches of study pertaining to a common-school education ; in the elements of natural sciences; in the fundamental laws of the United States, and of the State of Illinois, in regard to the rights and duties of citizens, and such other studies as the board of education may prescribe.
The Illinois State Normal University is managed and supervised by the board of education of the State of Illinois, whose members hold office for six years.
The Southern Illinois Normal University is managed by a board of five trustees appointed by the Governor for four-year terms.
To each of these universities each county may send two pupils free of expense, and each representative district is entitled to gratuitous instruction for a number of pupils equal to the number of representatives in said district.4
A county may establish a normal school and levy taxes and appropriate moneys for the support of such, and also for the purchase of grounds, buildings, and furniture for the same; or two or more counties may unite in establishivg a normal school.
The management and the control of such schools are vested in a county board of education, consisting of not less than five nor more than eight members, elected by the board of supervisors or county court for three-year terms, subject to partial annual change.
The county superintendent must hold an annual teachers' institute, continuing in session not less than five days, for the instruction of teachers and those who may desire to teach, provided two or more counties may hold an institute together.
Instruction in these institutes is free to all who hold valid teachers' certificates ; others attending them must pay a registration fee of $1, unless they have paid an er. amination fee and failed to obtain a certificate.6
EDUCATION OF DEFECTIVE, DEPENDENT, AND DELINQUENT CHILDREN. An act “to regulate the Stato charitable institutions and the State Reform School, and to improve their organization and increase their efficiency," approved April 15, 1875, makes it the duty of the State superintendent to visit such of the charitable institutions of the State as are educational in their character, and to examine their 1 Sch. Law, sec. 1 et seq.
4 Act Leg., Feb. 18, 1857, and March 2, 1869. 2 Ibid., sec. 68 et seq.
6 Ibid., March 16, 1869. 3 Const., art. 8, sec. 3.
* Ibid., sec. 51.
facilities for instrnction, and the several superintendents of these institutions are required to make such reports to him as he may prescribe,
EDUCATION IN HIGHER AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES. Any township may, by a majority vote of its electors, establish a high school, or two or more adjoining townships or parts of townships may join in establishing a high school.
It is the duty of the president, principal, or other proper officer of every organized university, college, seminary, academy, or other literary institution, heretofore incorporated or hereafter incorporated in the State, to make out, or cause to be made out and forwarded to the office of the State superintendent, on or before the 15th day of August in each year, a report showing tho value of real estate owned by the corporation; the amount of other funds and endowments; the number of instructors; the number of students; the studies pursued, and the books used; the course of instrnction; the terms of tuition; and such other matters as may be specially required by the State superintendent.
COUNTY SUPERVISION. The county superintendent is elected every year by the qualified voters of the county. He must executo a bond of not less than $12,000.
He keeps record of all land sales ; of all moneys received, loaned, and paid out; and makes financial report to the county board ; apportions money to townships according to the number of resident children under 21 years of age; visits schools; examines teachers;' advises school officers and teachers; assists in the management of county teachers' institutes; examines the accounts of township treasurers ; may employ assistants; may loan money, not interest, belonging to the county fund ; reports to the State superintendent on or before the 15th day of August before each regular session of the General Assembly, or annually if so required. 3
Åll bonds, notes, mortgages, moneys, and effects which have heretofore accrued or may hereafter accrue from the sale of the sixteenth section of the common-school lands of any township or county, or from the sale of any real estate or other property, taken on any judgment or for any debt due to the principal of any township or county fund, and all other funds of every description which have been or may hereafter be carried to and mado part of the principal of any township or county fund, are set apart as the principal of the township or county fund respectively, and no part thereof shall over be expended for any purpose whatever, but shall be loaned out and held for use, rent, or profit.
The interests, rents, issues, and profits only, arising from the principal, shall be distributed for school purposes.*
TEXT-BOOKS. The district school directors direct what branches of study shall be taught and what text-books and apparatus shall be used in the several schools, and enforce uniformity of text-books therein; but shall not permit text-books to be changed oftener than once in 4 years.
LOCAL SUPERVISION. Each Congressional township is established a township for school purposes; but fractional townships may be consolidated.
The business of the township is done by 3 trustees, elected 1 annually for 3-year terms by the legal voters of the township.
These trustees are successors to the trustees of school lands appointed by the com-
The trustees must hold regular semi-annual meetings in April and October, and
and must give to the county saperintendent an annual statement of such loads; must keep the township fund loaned at interest; must make a semi-annual statement, and also an annual exbibit of the fiscal affairs of the township to the board of trustees; and must mako semi-annual statements to each listrict or part of district in the town. ship, showing the condition of the account of such district or part of district.
Each district elects 3 school directors, 1 each year, for 3-year terms.
The directors ascertain the amount of speciai tax to be levied in their district; aro liable as directors for balances due teachers; adopt and enforce rules and regulations for the management and government of schools; appoint and dismiss teachers; fix course of study; may purchase at the expense of the district text-books to be loaned to indigent children, who shall return them at the close of the session; may suspend or expel pupils; bave supervision and control of school-houses and school-house sites.
The clerk of the board of directors must mako an annual report to the township treasurer or treasurers.”
In all school districts having a population of not less than 2,000 inhabitants and not governed by any special act in relation to free schools there is elected, iustead of the directors provided by law in other districts, a board of education to consist or 6 members and 3 additional members for every 10,000 inhabitants, elected in the same manner as the school directors for 3-5car terms; such boards have the power and it is their duty, in addition to the powers and duties of school directors:
1. To establish and maintain free schools not less than 6 nor more than 10 months in each year. 2. To repair, improve and furnish school-houses. 3. To buy or lease sites for school-houses with the necessary gronds. 4. To establish schools of differ. ent grades and make regulations for admission of pupils into the same. 5. To levy annual tax for the support and maintenance of free schools, bat it is not lawful for such board to purcbase or locato school-house sites, purchase, build, or move schoolhouses, or levy a tax to extend school beyond 10 months in each year except on petition of a majority of the voters of the district. 6. To examine and employ teachers and fix the amount of their salaries. 7. To employ a superintendent, or superintendents, when expedient. 8. To lay off the district into subdistricts. 9. To visit schools, to establish such by-laws, rules and regulations as they may deom necessary, and to prepare and publish an annual report.
The township treasurer has charge of all funds and pays them ont on order of the board. In cities of more than 10,000 inhabitants the city treasurer holds the school funds subject to the order of the board of education, upon warrants countersigned by the mayor and city clerk.3
TEACIIERS. No teacher shall be authorized to teach a common school who is not of good moral character, and who does not possess a valid certificate of qualification. These cer. titicates are of two grades: First grade (highest), valid for two years, certifies that the bolder is qualified to teach orthography, reading in English, penmansbip, arithmetic, English grammar, modern geography, the history of the United States, the elements of the natural sciences, physiology, and the laws of health.
The second-grade certificate is valid for one year, and shows that tho holder is qualified to teach all of the following branches except the elements of the natural sciences, physiology, and the laws of health.
These certificates are granted by the county superintendent, may be renewed by his indorsement, or may be revoked by him at any time.
A diploma from the county normal school may be accepted by the county superintendont as sufficient evidence of qualification to entitle the holder to a first-class certificate.
The State snperintendent is authorized to grant State certificates to such' teachers as may be found worthy to receive them, which shall be of perpetual validity in overy county and school district in the State. (State certificates are granted only upon public examination.)
Teachers must keep registers of their schools; and must also make a schedule of the names of all pupils under 21 years of age attending their schools (and when pupils reside in two or more districts, townships, or counties, separate schedules must be kept for each district, township or county), and deliver the same to the directors.
Teachers' wages are payable monthly, and upon receipt of the schedules above mentioned; the directors make out and deliver to the teacher an order upon the township treasurer for the amount due said teacher.
Counties may levy a tax to support the county normal schools; townships may levy a tax for the support of township high schools, and districts, cities and towns (by the directors or boards of education), levy taxes for school purposes.
1 Sch. Law, sec. 55 ct scq.
Ibid., sec. 80 et seq.
No district, however, shall levy a tax for building school-houses, in any one year, greater than 3 per cent. of the taxable property, except to pay indebtedness proviously contracted."
INDIANA. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FREE-SCHOOL SYSTEM. Intelligence and virtue being the safeguarils of liberty and the bulwark of a free and good government, the State shall ever maintain a general, suitablo, and efficient system of free schools, whereby all persons in the State between the ages of six and twenty-one years may receive gratuitous instruction.”
TAXATION FOR SUPPORT OF THIS SYSTEM. The General Assembly shall provide by genoral laws for the support of common schools by taxes, which shall never excoed, in any one year, two mills on the dollar on the taxable property of the State; and by an annual per capita tas of one dollar, to be assessed on every male inbabitant of this State over the age of twenty-onó years: Provided, The General Assembly may, by general law, authorize school districts to levy, by a vote of the qualified electors of each district, a tax not to exceed five mills on the dollar in any one year for school parposes: Provided, further, That no such tax shall be appropriated to any other purpose, nor to any other district than that for which it was levied.3
The boundaries of school districts in condties of this State shall remain as estab. lished, except that the county court shall have power to alter the same whenever a majority of the citizens residing therein shall petition the court to do so. But no new school district shall be formed having less than 35 persons of scholastic age residing within the territory included in such new district, and no district now formed shall, by the formation of a new district, be reduced to less than 35 persons of scholastió age,
STATE SUPERVISION. A State superintendent of public instruction, elected for two years by the qualified voters at a general election, takes office the 15th day of March succeeding his election, on taking and subscribing the oath prescribed by law. 5
He is charged with the administration of the system of public instruction and a general superintendence of the business relating to the common schools of the State, and of the school funds and school revenues set apart and appropriated for their support,
At each regular session of the General Assembly, on or before the 15th day of Jandary, said superintendent must present a bienvial report of his administration of the system of public instruction, with (1) a brief exhibit of his labors, experience, and observation as to the operation of the system, and the remedy for observed imperfections; (2) of the amount of permanent school funds; of their general condition, the revenue derived from them and from other sources; estimates for the following two years, and estimated value of all other property for school purposes; (3) of his plans for better organization of the schools, and for the increase, sato investinent, and better preservation of permanent school frnds; (1) of the resalts of the year then cloging, as conpared with those of the yoar or years preceding, so as to indicate the progress made in public instruction ; (5) must furnish such other information as to the schools, their funds, revenues, &c., as he may think will be of interest to the General Assembly.?
He is also to visit each county in the State at least once during his term of offico, and examine the auditor's books and records as to the safety of school funds and revennes. The State snperintendent must exercise such supervision over the school funds and revenues as may be necessary to ascertain their safety and secure their preservation and application to the proper object; and shall cause to be instituted in the name of the State of Indiana all-suits necessary for the recovery of any portion of such funds or revenues. The superintendent is assisted by a State board of education, of which he is, ez oficio
, a member and president, his coadjutors in the board being the Governor, the presidents of the State University, of Purdue University, and of the State Normal School, with the superintendents of common schools of the largest cities of the State, as determined by the enumeration of children for school purposes reported by county superintendents. This board must elect one of its members secretary and treasurer, to have the custody of its records, papers, and effocts; such records, papers, and effects,
'Act of Leg., March 15, 1859,
ach. lawg, sec. 35 and 47. Const, article 14, sec. 1. "Ibid., sec. 3
*Code of 1885, secs. 6171, 6174.
Ibid., sec. 4410.