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TABLE 2.- Enrolment, attendanoe, duration of schools, and sittings-Continued.

State or Territory. a

Average
Enrolment Increaso Average Increaso

Increase Whole at

duration
excluding
daily at-

or
of schools

tendance duplicates. decrease. tendance decrease.

decrease. in days.

in days.

or

or

Total number af sittings.

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54, 962

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Per cent.

Per cont. Wisconsin

332, 327 | 1...3. 29 177, 004 | 1...1. 23 Alaska

322 Arizona

6,076 I...6. 59 14, 232 11 Dakota

c82, 8661..19. 96 District of Co lambia

32, 336 1..12.83 24, 021 | 1...3.11 | Idaho.

11,000

I... 9.59 d8, 000 1 Montana 11, 388 I..16. 90

e4, 465 New Mexico.. 4, 755

3, 150 ttah 31, 583 I...0.53 19, 437

I...4.06 1 Washington

28,000

I...0.07 617, 504
Wyoming.
I 2,907

1, 920
Total ... 11, 435, 297

7, 279, 616

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a See Table 1, p. 5, for year of report. C Actual total.

e In 1883-'84. b In 1884-'85.

d Estimated.

JU, S. Census, 1880. Table 1, presents the statistics of school enrolment, average attendance, and school provisions, so far as these are attainable.

The total enrolment, 11,435,297, shows increase as compared with 1884-'85 of 265,374, or 2.37 per cent. In two States, Alabama and Kansas, the increase in enrolment is above 8 per cent.; in two, Georgia and Oregon, it is between 6 and 8 per cent. Connecticut and Rhode Island show slight decrease. The increased enrolment in the Territories is especially noticeable, excepting in Arizona and Utah, where it is less than 1 per cent.

For a full understanding of the extent to which elementary instruction is diffused among the people the enrolment in private schools ought to be included in this survey. Returns under this head, more or less complete, have been made from 12 States. These statistics would increase the enrolment in 6 of the States by 10 per cent. or more, and by less than 10 per cent. in the remaining 6.

The average daily attendance, as reported for the entire country, is 7,279,616, an increase of 378,991, or 5.49 per cent. The fact of greater increase in this total than in that of enrolment undoubtedly points to greater regularity of attendance on the part of the actual pupils, which is an evidence of greater efficiency in the school systems.

The following are the States whose statistics afford this favorable indication: California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and South Carolina. To this list Utah can be added. The only other Territory in which entries are made under the head of increase of decrease is the District of Columbia, where the increase in average attendance was little more than one-fourth the increase in enrolment. Several States are omitted in the comparison between school enrolment and average attendance for the want of the necessary data. Among them are Arkansas and Michigan, which appear to keep no record of average daily attendance.

The item of whole attendance in days is presented in the table for the first time. As it has not yet been included in the inquiries of the office, the statistician could only insert the number whero it was found in the State reports. The importance of tho number as a means of estimating the precise relation of school attendance to school demand, in individual States, and tho amount of instruction enjoyed by the pupils in regular attendance, may be clearly seen by using it as the basis of computation in a aingle State. The whole attendanco in days reported from Illinois is 77,081,056. This number divided by population 6 to 14 years gives a quotient of 119.5; divided by the enrolment, a quotient of 103.7, and divided by the average, attendance, a quotient of 153. The first quotient (119.5) indicates the average number of days' instruction, upon the total reported, for every child 6 to 14 years of age; the second (103.7) the average number of days' instruction for every child enrolled; the last (153) expresses the precise average duration of the schools in days, giving to each school a weight proportionate to its average attendance.

The value of these several particulars as measures of the amount of elementary instraction afforded under the State system depends upon the standpoint assumed. It is hoped that their importance will be so fully recognized that State superintendents, or other chief officers of education, will hereafter use their utmost endeavors to maké the statistics apon which these several estimates shall be based full and accurate.

Of the 28 States and Territories which furnish data to determine any change in the duration of schools in days, 17 show an increase, many of them quite large, and only 11 a decrease. On the whole the tendency is obviously in the direction of longer terms.

The statistics showing number of school sittings are necessary for arriving at an exact kvowledge of the school accommodations of the country. This item has been obtained from the reports of three States and one Territory; hereafter it is proposed to include this also among the inquiries made by the Bureau.

TABLE 3.-- Teachers.

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8, 537

I... 42

I...

50

13, 815

6, 471 17, 359

5, 358 f3, 287

1, 176 63, 023 c5, 043

2, 352 8, 610 11, 392 5,023 3, 308

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I... 112
I... 150
D.. 90
I... 247

I...
D..

4, 042

11, 129

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Alabama.
Arkansas.
California
Colorado..
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kapsag
Kontucky
Louisiana
Maine..
Maryland
Massachusetts.
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska...
Nevada
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York,
North Carolina
Obio..
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhodo Island
Sonth Carolina
Tennessee
Texns
Vermont
Virginia .
West Virginia
Wisconsin.
Alaska
Arizona .......
Dakota ....
Dist. of Columbia.
Idaho....
Montana
New Mexico.
Utah
Washington.
Wyoming

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5, 490 I.... 98
3,691 I... 109
4, 444 I. 202
1, 304

I... 107
63, 038)
€3,016

024
1, 838 I... 185
e7, 700
20, 619
13, 343
23, 119
9, 387

347
$7,008

2,212 I... 92
5, 463
3, 546 I... 128
9, 070

I... 149
15, 326 D.. 32
6,813

234
7, 336
12, 967
8, 489

I... 797
214
3, 480 D..
3,816 I... 129
31, 325 D.. 74

5, 120
24, 620 D.. 8

1, 881 I... 160
23, 303 I... 439
1, 275

I...

38
3, 835 I... 62
7,307 I...

93
d7, 911
4,328

73
6, 785

I... 192
4, 925 I... 111
11, 018 I... 182

10
149 I... 1
5, 055

I... 310
570 I... 5
e350

377 I. 40
9164

011 D. 3
1, 100
970

2, 605

I... 236
49
404 D..

20
818

19
5, 952

09
3,118
10, 825

38
807 I.. 64
8,795 I... 324

172 2,091

28 4, 961

D.. 38

D..

15, 418

5,881

165 3,076 2, 998 25, 373

2, 002 13, 795

4,054 14, 508 1, 103 1, 744 2, 346

I...

D.. 46
I...

96
I... 115

18, 454 1, 985

D.

I... 90
I.. 131

31, 355
7,217

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Total

323, 066

a See Table 1, p. 5, for year of report.
bIn winter.
cIn summer.
d Returns imperfect.

e Estimated. f For white schools only. gU.S. Census 1880.

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Alabama
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut.
Delaware.
Florida .......
Georgia
Mlinois
Indiana...
Iowa
Kansas
Koptucky
Louisiana
Majne.
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Nebraska
Nerada
New Hampshiro....
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina...
Obio...
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Carolina
Tennesses..
Texas.
Vermont
Virginia.
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Alaska
Arizona..
Dakota.
District of Columbia.
Idabo
Montana
New Mexico
ntah
Washiagton
Wyoming

42 68 101 00 40 22 63 56

I...1 01
I...1 93

34 70
67 72
23 56
36 30

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0 00
D..2 31
D.... 18
I. 14
I.... 82

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1

a See Tablo 1, p. 5, for year of report.

e Outside of cities. b For white teachers only.

Approximately. c Salary per room.

Estimated d In cities.

X U. S. census 1880. Table 3.—The statistics relating to teachers emphasize certain marked deficiencies in the data attainable for use in this report. Continuity of service, if not the chief, is certainly ove of the chief conditions of efficiency in a teaching body. The rural schools of the United States suffer greatly from the want of such continuity; the evil is everywhere recognized, but too often in vague or partial showings. In respect to this, as to other conditions of the school system, it would undoubtedly be found that investigations resulting in exact information would have ultimate remedial effects. As the city school systems are comparatively free from the evils of frequeut changes in the teaching force, the changes occurring in a State during a year would represent with a sufficient degree of approximation the status of the rural schools in respect to the permanency of their teachers.

Obviously the difference between the number of teachers necessary to supply the schools and the number absolutely employed would indicate the number of changes during the year. By reference to Table 3 it will be seen that the two items are leported from five States. The percentages of change are as follows in four of these : Kansas, 9; Missouri 16; Ohio, 33; Wisconsin, 40.

In Oregon, the remaining one of the five, 1,985 is given as the number of teachers necessary to supply the schools, and 1,861 as the number absolutely employed, from which it would appear that 7 per cent. of the places remained vacant.

The total number of teachors is 2,409 larger than the previons year, being an increase of 1.1 per cent. So far as returns classified by sex have been received, the total number of male teachers is 104,249, female 191,439, the males being 35.24 per cent. of the whole. The States reporting an excess of male over female teachers are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Iodiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Of twenty-three States in which the change during the year of the average monthly salaries of teachers is recorded, there has been for males ån aggregate increase in ten States of $13.39, and an aggregate decrease in thirteen States of $23.75; for females an aggregate increase in eleven States of $8.06, and an aggregate decrease in ten States of $18, there being no change in Obio, and Wisconsin not giving the average salary of all female teachers. On the whole, the salaries of teachors, both male and female, have decreased during the year.

TABLE 5.--Receipts.

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$230,000 $175, 000 I..$36, 990 $105,000

445, 563 I..101, 678 1,884, 065 1,690, 705

3,574, 770 801, 818 D.108, 307 801, 818 228, 449 1, 206, 803 D..83, 004 ' 1, 435, 052 d 52,050

491, 185 278, 109 I...68, 646 769, 294
1,000,000 8, 239, 042 I..323, 965 9, 239, 012
1, 448, 447 | 2, 881, 619

4,330, 066
690, 223 | 4, 972, 278
2, 660, 617

2, 660, 617

34, 318

593, 437 671 292 242710 408, 160

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52, 341 239, 874 762, 403 350, 787

66, 000 733, 741

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Alabama
Arkansas
California..
Colorado
Connecticut.
Delaware
Florida..
Georgia
Illinois.
Indiana
Iowa
Kangas
Kentucky.
Louisiana
Maine..
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Alaska.
Arizona
Dakota.
District of Columbia
Idaho
Montana
New Mexico
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

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342, 491 703, 717 D... 1, 943 1,048, 208
481, 479 1,031, 240 I...34, 542 1, 512, 728

3, 376, 456 D...2, 854 3, 376, 456
1, 999, 862

1,999, 862
300,000 500, 776

800, 776 514, 3602, 942, 611 I ..34, 248 3,457, 001 f 42, 648

88, 508 470, 177 75, 721

545, 898
1, 396, 968 892, 448 I ...8,556 2,389, 416
2, 750, 000 9,918, 719

12, 669, 719
512, 061
35, 734

547, 795
1, 653, 332 7,440, 734

9, 094, 086
260, 262 131, 580

391, 842
g1,126, 000
111, 631 G36, 738

748, 369
h 402, 508

h 402, 508 s 139, 107 799 253

938, 360 487, 258 D..32, 572

487, 258 626, 806 605, 454

1, 232, 260 367, 725 785, 320 I. ..13, 786 1, 153, 045 i 61, 017 | 2, 614, 859 1..106,723 2,705, 878 j 15,000

13,000 10, 662 85, 760 ...5, 630

96, 422 59, 400 1,962, 322 I ...1,990 2, 021, 722 j282, 689 282, 689

565, 377
228, 333 I ..50, 017 228, 333
100, 171

53, 086 D...9, 522 153, 257
300,000

300,000

866, 776 4, 215, 415 2, 138, 428

131, 444

617, 472 2, 421, 740 13, 537, 948

671), 672 10, 420, 420

850, 961 10,703, 541

798, 263 h46), 913 1,077, 451

246, 337
74,571

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621, 370 1,437, 245 1, 153, 045 4,610, 690

13,000 114, 863 2, 021, 722

585, 377 147, 253 228, 333

32,171 221, 717 300,000 k 36, 161

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Total.

a See Tablo 1, n.5, for year of report.
b Excluding balance from previous year and the

pirocreds of bond sales.
c Including proceeds from bond sales.
d State appropriation; for wbite schools only.
For white schools only.

State apportionment.
g Stute appropriation.
h In 1884-83.
i For university.
j United States appropriation.
k United States Census, 1880.

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Alabama

$13, 869

$69 $727, 375 Arkansas..

I...$224, 616 $741, 244 $91, 781 $1 196

0$741, 244 $202, 294

714, 118 I....168, 950 California .......

$59, 798

I.
283, 006

866, 802
89, 460

137, 724

2,710, 622
Colorado....

I.... 136, 998

422, 843
(163, 048)

3, 505, 931

I..1...41, 707
497, 968 144, 335

c905, 623 D.
Connecticut ...............
216, 401 11, 062 30, 042 I.

.20, 104
965 1,188, 056 I.....21, 177
Delaware.......

1, 218, 098 346, 106 1, 791, 666 ... 60, 555

152, 591
Florida ....
46,000

54, 327 d215, 161
800
Georgia
(45, 687)

(339, 000)

e385, 800
Illinois

666, 303
1, 305, 503 |
38, 042

711, 930

6, 132, 866 I. Iodiana.....

235, 438

2, 659, 647 (1, 247, 727)

10, 136, 058 D ...62, 870
Iowa

3, 494, 927
716, 709

471, 544
15, 775

5, 214, 198 13, 696, 453

3, 696, 453 785, 378

1, 808, 033 Kansas ................. 51, 650

4, 660, 000 Kentucky

2, 213, 521 584, 723 93, 849, 017 .460, 365
Lonisiana .........

700, 700
Maine

379, 027
53, 143

450, 030
31, 633 D.....996
Maryland.
A 489, 084

1,099, 352 I. .12, 458
43, 402 I...15, 402
Massachusetto.

1, 298, 997 | I.....21, 110 1, 342, 309

1, 832, 383 | I. .87, 125 Michigan

87, 919 | D..51, 695 632, 950 43, 159

7, 151, 075 Minnesota

2, 841, 563 815, 296 673, 642

4,332, 968 D.
9,568

.395, 973
53,728 1...1,000 1,413, 474
Mississippi........

1, 467, 202 221, 578 2, 371, 990 D.
124, 000

..215, 554
816, 776
840, 776

840, 776
Missouri .........
(882, 410)

3, 107, 541 338, 645 4, 328, 596 I.
(783, 480)

67, 024
Nebraska..................
Nevada

1, 323, 297 9, 510

g2, 350, 869 D....367, 288 417

106, 874 New Hampshire.

11, 483
j63, 967

128, 285
17, 964 I. 324
New Jersey d.

454, 374 I......7, 533 472, 338

65, 098
370, 674
12, 643

k 601, 403 D.....11, 796
39, 179
New York.

1, 597, 005
2, 276, 455

1, 636, 184 402, 798 350, 672

2, 422, 299

9, 102, 269 I.. North Carolina

339, 319

1,533, 713
84, 341

13, 284, 886 D....296, 082
18, 432

527, 096
Ohio

545, 528
1, 190, 802

41, 249 671, 116
214, 445 | I....3,562
Oregon

6, 118, 609 I. .82, 920 6, 333, 054 1. $33, (093 1, 229, 041

9, 327, 549 10, 957

10, 530 D.....241 375, 158 I Pennsylvania

.32, 972
385, 688

1.000
1, 757, 437

1, 613, 68'i | I... 1, 130, 534
Rhode Island.

5, 760, 296 I .173, 815
mi 174, 586

12, 51, 204
4,955

10, 031, 937 .231, 532
South Carolina i
15, 128 ....1, 807 482, 147 I. .10, 935 497, 275

&i, 115 11, 078 1, 008

n 782, 967

46, 145
19, 685

373, 641
Tennessee

393, 326

20, 491
75, 534
10, 417

425, 903
20, 163 | I. ...1, 171 907, 661 31, 432 927, 824

33, 428

1,047, 223 I. ..33, 759 a See Tablo 1, p. 5, for year of report. e Returns incomplete.

jIncluding permanent repairs. tricts. 6 Excluding local funds expended by cities and dis. f Includes salaries of superintendents.

k Excluding interest on debt. g Inclading unclassified expenditures. c Including $100,261 paid on teniporary loans.

1 Including debt paid. h Includes tuel, rent, books, and incidentals. dIn 1883-'81.

m Including repairs. iIn 1884-'85.

n Including $23,036 for evening schools, not classified.

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