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which the public grammar or intermediate schools of the United States (as they are variously termed) make provision.
“ Schools of the second grade, or those wbich should carry education up to 16 years of age, would prepare youths for business, for several professions, for manufactures, for the army, for many departments of the civil service.” The commissioners express the opinion that “in such schools Greek should not be inoluded, except as an extra and under special regulations.
Latin would be a necessity in all but a very few of these schools since most of the occupations presuppose it in some degree, and many of the examinations prescribe it. To Latin one modern language ought to be added and thoroughly well taught; and in some of the schools two modern languages, according to the general character of the place and the usual destination of the scholars. English literature and the elements of political economy should not be neglected. The mathematics in these schools ought to be at once strictly scientific, and yet of a practical cast-not aiming at subtle refinements but at practical applications. It would be by no means expedient that mere rough and empirical methods should be substituted for strict mathematical reasoning; but the minds of the learners should be perpetually brought back to concrete examples instead of being perpetually exercised in abstractions. It would be possible to put algebra, geometry, and trigonometry within the reach of many of the boys, and to go even further with a few. Lastly, these are especially the schools in which it would often be worth while to lay great stress on practical mechanics and other branches of natural science. In all these schools it should be an absoluto rule that the elements ary subjects should be kept up; for the loss of these nothing can really compensate. English, for instance, should be carefully cultivated to the very last, and no boy should pass through a school of this kind without having acquired a good knowledge of a few of the best English authors. Arithmetic should never be dropped. The aim should be to reconcile the cultivation of the faculties with the requirements needed for business and for professions. Most of the schools of the first grade would make it their chief aim to prepare for the universities. The schools would therefore be generally classical schools.
But besides the classics," say the commissioners, “it is now generally admitted that English literature and the elements of political economy, modern languages, mathematics, and natural science ought to find a place in such schools as these, and that even if they be considered subordinate subjects they should be made a serious part of the business of the school. The masters teach them should be put on a perfect footing of equality with the other masters; the time allotted to them should prove that they are valued; the marks assigned to them in promotions, the prizes given for proficiency in them, the care taken in examining the boys' progress should be such as to stimulate the learners and provent all suspicion that while classics are a reality all other studies are a more concession to popular clamor."
The recommendations of the commissioners had reference to educational endowments, since these, being in some sense public property, are subject to public control, and hence most readily made the field of changes and experiments. Many of the recommendations are of local or national importance, but the following, as will be seen, are of general pedagogical interest. The commissioners recommend that the endowed schools be remodelled on the lines already described and the different grades distributed according to the demands of the country; that all the internal discipline of the school, the choice of books and of methods, the organization and the appointment and dismissal of assistants be intrusted to the headmaster; that a service of state inspection and examination be established.
Inspection they would have conducted by special and permanent officers, appointed by the central government. These inspectors should, annually, have the assistance of a court of examiners appointed by the universities or some similar independent authority. Apart from the recommendations for a particular class of schools, the coinmissioners express their conviction of the importance of suitable examinations by independent authorities for all classes of secondary schools. They dwell also upon the need of enlarged provision for the teaching of natural science and for such recognition of the subject as shall put it on an equality with the classics.
The recommendations of the commission as regards the reorganization and examination of endowed schools were embodied in a bill introduced into Parliament in 1869, but after inquiry before a select committee so much of the bill as related to examinations was abandoned. The amended bill became law and provided for the appointment of a commission of three persons, charged with the duty of preparing schemes for submission to the educational department. During the sixteen years that have elapsed since the passage of the act of 1869 the commissioners have dealt with no less than 750 schemes, of which only eight have been rejected by Parliament, and the work is still going on. One of the latest foundations that has been dealt with is Christ's Hogpital, more familiarly known as the Blue-Coat School. By the scheme "the governing body is to be reconstituted; the terms of admission are to be modified, and the total
number of scholars nearly doubled; the benefits which have hitherto been monopolized by boys are to be shared with girls; the hospital (i. 6., preparatory school) is to be removed to a healthy situation within easy reach of town."
There will be established a boys' day school in London for 600 scholars and a girls' day school for 400, and a boy's boarding school with accommodation for 700 and a girls' boarding school accommodating 500. The scheme also provides that “three hundred free places in the science school, and two hundred free places in the girls' day school, shall be allotted to boys and girls, respectively, who, at the time of their appli. cation for admission, are, and for at least three years have been, in any of the public elementary schools of the metropolis and have passed the sixth standard."
n respect to other foundations, as to that of Christ's Hospital, the work of the esecutive commission has been directed chietly to the extension of the bounty and the judicious distribution of the new or the newly-organized schools. At the same time they have endeavored to promote instruction in science, and it is understood that in treating the remaining foundations they will increase their efforts in that direction.
The great deficiency of provision for science instruction had also been noted by the Public School Commission, who reported that the subject was “practically excluded from the education of the bigher classes in England." The Executive Commission, appointed to carry out such recommendations of the Public School Commission as were sanctioned by Parliament, ordered that science should be taught in the upper divisions of the schools, and that in school examinations it should be allotted not less than onetenth of the total marks,
On account of the views expressed by these commissions, the commission appointed in 1875, under the presidency of the Duke of Devonshire, to inquire into the state of scientific instruction in the country, collected a large amount of evidence from the secondary schools, as a result of which they said that “though some progress has no doubt been achieved, and though there are some excoptional cases of great improvement, still no adequate effort has been made to supply the deficioncy of scientific instruction pointed out by the commissioners of 1861 and 1864. We are compelled, therefore, to record our opinion that the present state of scientific instruction in our schools is es. tremely unsatisfactory. The omission from a liberal education of a great branch of intellectual culture is of itself a matter for serious regret; and, considering the increasing importance of science to the national interests of the conntry, we cannot but regard its almost total exclusion from the training of the upper and middle classes as little less than a national misfortune."
The indications are that further action will be taken by Parliament with referenca to the endowed secondary schools of England, but at present the matter rests at the point reached by the labors of the three commissions.
In Scotland secondary instruction is the professed work of the burgh schools or academies. At the same time many parochial schools carry the instruction of their pupils far beyond the limits of elementary instruction, while the four universities do much work that is essentially secondary. Here, as in England, there are many endowments intended to foster this grade of instruction; and here, as in England, the Government has seen the need of a careful investigation into the application and conduct of such endowments. Under the educational endowment act of 1862, commissioners were appointed to draft schemes for the more perfect fulfilment of the purposes of these foundations. The labors of this commission will undoubtedly do much to extend and improve the existing provision for secondary instruction, but the endowments with which they deal are by no means sufficient to meet the demands in this respect. As regards science instruction Scotland is behind England, and in Scotland, as in England, there has been a demand for some system of inspection and examination for the secondary schools, in response to which the Scotch Education Department has undertaken the service for the ensuing year, for all secondary schools, public and endowed. This brief ontline of who work of the English and Scotch commissions is sufficient to indicate the lines of movement with respect to secondary instruction in Great Britain.
Aside from the measures for increasing the number and perfecting the classification of secondary schools, the most important cousiderations engaging attention, as we have seen, are those of the extension of the curriculum in respect to science and the service of inspection and examination. It will be interesting to note evidences of recent progress in these respects. In this connection it must be remembered that the history of secondary education in England, at least, is essentially the history of individual schools, and that the character of each of these schools is inextricably involved with that of the social class by which it is chiefly patronized. Changes of curriculum in Eton or Harrow, or in the City of London School will not depend upon changes in public opinion or in general requirements so much as upon the extent to which these effect a particular and, possibly, a small social class.
Of the pine great public schools two only, Harrow and Merchant Taylors', of London, announce a " modern side” distinct from the classical. All, however, offer
1 Their jurisdiction only extended over soven of the nine schools previously enumerated
instructions in science, though, as a rule, it appears to be the minimum required under the statute.
The following table represents the distribution of the number of hours of study a week in Eton, not including, except when so stated, preparation of lessons ont of school. It is given as a rough average, the time-tables varying for different parts of the school:
TABLE 93.—Distribution of the hours of study at Eton.
Classics and ancient
English and English
14 hours avor. | History, in. 4 hours average 2 hours average 4 hours average 1 hour average age in school. cluded with in school in school. in school. in school.
and compos. 6 hoars average
ition with out of school in classics. pupils' room.
2 hours average
of exercises out of school.
1 hoar average 1 hour average 2 hours average 1 hour average of exercises of exercises of exercise of exercises out of school. out of school. out of school. out of school.
Hartow, which announces a modern side, presents a time-table from which the following is taken, representing the work of classes in three grades of the school :
TABLE 94.—Distribution of the hours of study at Harrow.
Oat of the eight largest endowments included in the inquiry of the Endowed Schools Commission, two, the Manchester Grammar School and the Bedford Modern School, were selected by the Technical Commission of 1881 as types of the class of secondary schools that afford the best preparation for technical study.
The following weekly time-tables indicate the distribution of studies in these : TABLE 05.-Distribution of the hours of study at the Bedford Modern School and the Mar
chester Grammar School.
and and lau.
Total Relig. Duniver ion.
Bedford Modern School...... Latin 4 6 to 8 2 to 4 and 2 6 to 7
laboratory Manchester Grammar
School: Classical side..
5 Modern side...
None. Science side
a7 | Node.
a Boys on the science sido learn either classios or modern languages, but not both. This time-table was taken from a return submitted to the House of Commons in March, 1885, in accordance with an order of the House, given in response to a request from Sir John Lubbock. In his speech delivered at Birmingham on the occasion of the unveiling of the statue of Sir Josiah Mason, Mr. Lubbock gave the following general analysis of the return:
"Two hundred and forty schools have sent returns, and it appears that in fifty-four of them, or over twenty per cent., no science whatever is taught; in fifty, one hour is devoted to it per week; in seventy-six, two hours or less than three; while out of the whole number only six devoted to it as many as six lours in the week. It is clear, therefore, in spite of all which has been said, very little progress has been made in this respect. Our schools are generally more industrious, but, remarkable as it may appear, Latin and Greek absorb more time than ever. In fact, in spite of all that has been said, our school system shows little improvement, and the distribution of hours is still that which has been condemned by a series of royal commissions, and which I believe hardly any one (not himself a classical master) could be found to approve."
In common with other earnest advocates of science, Mr. Lubbock attributes the unsatisfactory state of the study in the class of schools considered largely to the influence of the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board. He says:
“The Public School Commission provided in their regulations (which have the effect of an act of Parliament) that in all school examinations the proportion of marks to be assigned to natural science should be not less than one-tenth. But the Oxford and Cambridge board ignore this, contending that their examinations are not school er. aminations; and as a matter of fact out of the whole number of schools examined by them less than 200 boys passed in any branch of science.
“It is greatly to be desired that Oxford and Cambridge would require a knowledge of the elements of science from every candidate for a degree. Till this is done I fear that science will always be neglected in our public schools.”
In the absence of any system of public inspection or examination for secondary schools particular interest attaches to the examinations maintained by the two great universities and by the College of Preceptors.
The Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board examine such schools as hare a regularly constituted governing body or prepare a fair proportion of their boys for the universities. It also grants certificates to boys under education at schools who are examined under its authority. Since 1882 the board has examined girls under the same regulations slightly modified. The examinations are held twice in the year, viz, in July and December.
From the report of the examination beld in July, 1886, it appears that the total number of candidates for higher certificates was 864, of whom 488 were successful. For the lower certificates there were 425 candidates, of whom 240 were successful.
The College of Preceptors i instituted examinations of pupils of schools in 1854. From comparatively small beginnings the work has grown to large proportions and exercises a very marked influence upon a largo class of secondary schools. According to the report of the dean of the college the number of candidates at the midsummer examination, 1886, was 5,182, of whom 3,004 were boys and 2,178 girls. The total number examined at that time and the Christmas preceding was 13,966, of
At the meeting, July 21, the council reported that the new college building in Bloomsbary squara and Sonthampton street was structurally completed. It was expected that the interior decorations and fittings would be proceeded with so rapidly that the building would be ready for occupation in November.
whom 77.6 per cent. passed. The very full reports of these examinations, which, in general, include not only the prospectus and statistics, but an analysis of results, indicate quite clearly the aims and operations of a large part of schools of intermediate class in England. During the year the college has been engaged in revising its scheme of examinations. The main point of discussion was whether girls should contend for a first-class certificate on the same conditions as boys. At a meeting of the council helil November 17, 1886, it was determined to put the two sexes on the same footing, with a single resorvation conceded to the minority. Under this reservation girls may substitute an English subject for algebra or for Euclid. CAPITAL PROVISIONS OF THE NEW LAW RELATIVE TO THE ORGANIZATION OF PRI
MARY INSTRUCTION IN FRANCE. While this report has been in progress intelligence has been received from time to time concerning the debate in the French Chambers over the new law relative to the organization of primary instruction in France. The law received the signature of President Giéry, October 30, 1886. As the full text reached this Office while this matter was passiog through the press the principal provisions of the law are here noticed. These provisions relate to the laicisation, the qualification, and the nomination of the teaching force. In addition the law determines the administration of the system of primary instruction and fixes the essential conditions of publio and of private in. struction.
According to article 1 the schools to be classed as primary are as follows:
3. Superior primary schools, and tho olassos for superior primary instruction, annexed to the elementary schools, and called "complimentary courses."
4. Apprenticeship manual schools as defined by the law of December 11, 1880.
Not only are these various establishments classified together for the first time, but it is further provided that the Superior Council of Public Iostruction shall determino the division of the subjects of instruction among them and admission and leaving conditions for each. The progress made in respect to the employment of women as teachers is indioated by provisions of article 6. According to this the conduct and instruction of boys' schools is confided to men, but women are to have charge of schools for girls, of maternal schools, of infant schools, and of mixed schools. Heretofore the last paned have been in charge of men, excepting under special circumstances. Moreover, women may be employed as assistants in the schools for boys, provided they sustain the relation of wife, sister, or parent to the director of the school. The Departmental Council, provisionally, and by a decision always revocable, may permit a master to direct a mixed school, under the condition that he shall have, as an assistant, a mistress of needlework.
By article 9 provision is made for the medical inspection of the schools by authorized departmental or communal medical inspectors. Furthermore, the difficulties which have arisen from the complicated naturē of the inspection hitherto authorized in schools for girls having day and boarding departments are overcome by the preciso and simple provision of the new law, which declares that all the classes for young women in primary, boarding, or day schools, publio or private, conducted either by lay teachers or by religious associations, cloistral or not oloistral, are subject, 80 sur aj regards inspection and the supervision of instruction, to authorities estaba lished by the law.
In all the boarding schools for young girls, kept either by lay teachers or by religious bodies, cloistral or not cloistral, the inspection of the premises, destined for tho boarders, and of the internal affairs of the boarding house, is intrusted to women appointed by the Minister of Public Instruction.
To the obligations already imposed upon the communes with respect to providing school buildings, &c., the law adds that of heating and lighting the classrooms.
Article 18, rendered famous by the intense excitement which it caused during the debate, is as follows:
“No new nominations, either of instructors or of instructresses belonging to any religious order, shall be made in the departments where a normal school for men or for women has been in operation four years, in conformity with article 1 of the law of August 9, 1879."
In boys' schools the substitution of lay teachers for those belonging to religious fraternities shall be complete in five years from the promulgation of the present law. Second only in importance to the foregoing article, which has given to the law its peculiar character, are the provisions regulating the qualifications of teachers and the modes of their appointment. Henceforth no one can be admitted to the full position of teacher (instituteur titulaire) if he has not served at least two years in a public or private school, if he is not provided with the certificate of pedagogic quali
? The state schools wero secularized by the law of March 28, 1882. The present law is intended to exclude members of religious orders from the teaching force of state schools.