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SALARIES OF TEACHERS. The table showing teachers' salaries in several foreign countries answers inguiries frequently received at this office. Presumably the items are desired for use in conparative statements, which are, however, hardly warranted in the present state of our information. The trne average salary in any country would be the quotient of the total amount paid for salaries divided by the number of teachers employed, which is evidently the only uniform method that could be employed for the computation. Those familiar with the facts are well aware that the methods actually employell differ widely, the factors which enter into the computation being even more varied than the results. Some investigations are in progress by this office, which, it is hoped, may bring out estimates of greater relative value than those now available. Mean. while the information should be used with discrimination and caution. The notes appended to the table indicate, in some measure, the great diversity of conditions involved in the estimates. Table 90.-- Annual salaries of elementary teachers in foreign public and State aided schools.
a Salaries vary in different divisions of Austria. The highest rates are in Lower Austria, the lowest in Voralberg. Teachers receive additions to their salaries at stated periods. In 7 diridions wonen receive as much as men. b According to law the minimum for teachers is $107.70 (300 fiorins) : for assistant teachers, $71.80. The teacher also has house and garden ; the assistant, money for room iri. The average salary in 1884 stood: teachers, $160.11 ; assistants, $103.03. c Minimum, 1,000 francs, by law of 1876. About 535 teachers get over 2,000 francs salary. el School masters are divided into four categories with the minimum salaries as specified. A yearly addition of $19 is granted to all teachers holding the higher certificate (brevet superieur) and the same sam yearly to all teacbers who have gained the silver medal for proficiency. a General average for teachers throughout Prossia: In Berlin teachers got as high as $491; in rural districts, some assistants get only $11.08. house, or money for rent. s Also hondo; assistants get house and firewood. F! Average of eer: tificated mastery. g Average of certificated mistresses. h Average of principals. i A nev law (of February 11, 1886) equalizes pay of teachers in city and country schools; the lowest salary is not to be less than 700 lire, $135.10. Principals. k Teachers, I City. m Country, n Estimated. o Protestant rural schools. p This appears to be the average : $322 in the cap. ital: $188 province. The statement reads: The salaries of teachers are quite small; in the provinces $187.60 ; in the capital, $321.60. ç A general average for all Switzerland. The lowest salary in Canton Zurich is $238 with houso, land and Arewood. Few teachers get
as little as this,
as the districta Add to the Cantonal fund. In Zurich, city teachers receive $714 to $785.40. Basal city gives the highest salary—833. The lowest salaries are in the mountainous cantons where there are only winter schools
locluding residence. • Pupil teachers not included
TABLE 91.-Comparative statistics of elementary education in seven foreign cities.
«With suburbs, estimated.
b If certain pupils educated in private and special institutions are included, the city of Berlin paid for 135,194 pupils in elementary grades, and this made the expenditure
For boys, 229; 162 lay, 67 belonging to religions orders. For girls, 594 ; 459 lay, 135 belonging to religious orders. Total, 823; 621 lay, 202 belonging to religious orders.
The office is not in possession of further particulars relating to these schools. For the same year, 1884, the number of maternal schools was 191, having, December 31, an attendance, 13,201.
There are also 185 private primary schoots (27 of them subsidized with 1,245 pupils, and 830 in average attendance), which brings the number up to 18, 801. Average g Elementary.
TABLE 92.-Attendance at European universities—PART III.
a Distributed among the several faoulties.
SCIENCE AND ART INSTRUCTION IN GREAT BRITAIN. The following information is derived from the thirty-third report of the Science and Art Department, whose operations embrace the United Kingdom:
Science instruction.—During the year 1885 the schools and classes of elementary science, in connection with the department, irrespective of the training colleges, were attended by 78,810 persons, an increase of 474 over the same for 1884. The number examined was 54,241; the number of papers presented (each paper being the examination in a separate branch of science), 97,238 ; passed, 68,340.
The total amount paid on the result of these examinations was £63,364 138. 1d., an increase of £6,831 10d., as compared with 1884. In addition to this elementary work, 145 classes were examined in connection witb 42 training colleges, the payment in results amounting in the same to £5,748 108. Grants for fitting up laboratories were made to 16 schools, amounting, altogether, to £1,112 188. 5d., while the grants in aid of the purchase of apparatus, diagrams, and examples amounted for the year to £1,146 28. 70.
The aid granted to local teachers of science classes in the country, to enable them to improve themselves by attending the classes and laboratories in institutions in their neighborhood where advanced instruction in science is obtainable, has been continued and extended. Special arrangements are made at Owens College, Manchester; Firth College, Sheffield; Mason College, Birmingham; tho Yorkshire College, Leeds; and the University College, Dundee, to enable the teachers to attend certain courses of instruotion, and three-fourths of their fees for day classes and one-half for evening classes are defrayed by the department.
In the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines, 230 students were under instruction, and in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, 88 students.
Art instruction. In the year ending August 31, 1885, instruction in drawing has been given to 810,079 children and pupil-teachers , of whom 530,236 were examined'at the annual examinations in 4,637 eleinentary schools. The grants on results in these schools amounted to £35,983, an increase of £2,854 over the grant in 1883–44. The grant made to the training colleges on account of examinations in drawing was £1,985 108., an increase of £135 above the same in 1884.
The departmeut also gives aid to art classes, which in 1885 numbered 488, having 23,410 students. For advanced art instruction there were 200 schools, with 18 branch classes, having in all 36,960 students. The National Art Training School had 656 students, and the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art, 476.
The grand total of persons taught drawing, painting, or modelling through the agency of the department was 879,719.
During the year the number of visitors to the South Kensington Museum was 899,813, and to the Bethnal Green Branch, 450,439.
PARTICULARS OF THE
The expenditures of the department during the financial year 1885–86 amonnted to £390,716 148. 11d., which were apportioned as follows: Expenses of administration, including central staff, office expenses, about £26,932; direct payments, prizes, &c., to encourage instruction in science, about £77,556 ; direct payments, prizes, &c., to encourage instruction in art, about £86,827 ; services common to both science and art instruction, about £52,217; institutions supported or aided by the state through the science and art departments, about £55,350 ; and South Kensington and Bethnal Green Museums, including expenses of circulation of science and art objects to country institutions, about £91,785.
RECENT HISTORY OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN GREAT
BRITAIN. In great Britain, as in other European countries, secondary education for several yoars past has been the subject of much discussion and investigation. The movement in that country is the more interesting to us because the conditions under which secondary instruction is there carried on resemble, in several important partioulars, those characteristic of the same work in the United States. A brief outline is here given of the most important events in the recent history of this department of educational activity in Great Britain.
In 1858 a royal commission was appointed to inquire into the condition of popular education in England, including a certain number of schools above the elementary grade.
In 1861 a second commission was appointed to inquire into the condition of the nine great public schools, a group of secondary schools of high order.
In 1864 a third commission, viz, British Schools Inquiry Commission, was appointed to inquire into the education given in schools not comprised within the scope of the two former commissions. The following statement in the introduction to the report of the third commission indicates the range of their inquiry ::
“The schools on which it is our duty to report occupy a very wide range, which, in fact, includes, with only nine exceptions, all schools which educate children excluded from the operation of the Parliaməntary grant. These schools are very different in their external constitution. We have, however, found it convenient to divide them into three classes only-endowed, private, and proprietary."
For purposes of comparison the commission authorized their assistant commissioner, Mr. Fearon, to inspect and examine the burgh schools in nine cities and towns in Scotland, and the resulting report not only presents detailed information with respect to these, but gives a very clear idea of the means of secondary education in Scotland generally. Other special reports were made by Matthew Arnold, who was authorized to inquire into the system of education for the upper and middle classes in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, and by Rev. James Frazer, M. A., who conducted an investigation in the United States and Canada.
Altogether, the reports of the commissions, more especially of the second and third, give a comprehensive view of the status of secondary education in Great Britain. With all the evidence before them, the third commission found that education, as distinct from direct preparation for employment, might be classified as that which is to stop at about 14, that which is to stop at about 16, and that which is to continue till 18 or 19; and for convenience they call these the third, the second, and the first grade of education, respectively. These distinctions correspond, they say, “roughly, but by no means exactly, to the gradations of society.". Mr. Fearon gave substantially the same divisions for Scotland, and they agree with those recognized generally in continental Europe. In the opinion of the commission, the most urgent educational need of the country was that of good schools of the third grade, or those which should carry education up to the ago 14 or 15, a class of schools with which Mr. Frazer reported the United States to be, so far as he observed, well supplied. “The organization of these schools," they say, "ought to be such as to leave the masters considerable freedom in the use of methods, but to define the chief aim and pur. pose clearly and precisely, and that aim should be thoroughly to satisfy the demands of the parents for good elementary teaching, and then, and only then, to add anything more."
For this object the schools might be attached to existing elementary schools or divided into two divisions, a lower and an upper. The upper division would then bo adapted to boys from 12 to 14 or 15 years of age, and would accomplish the work for
"Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charter House, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylors'. Harrow, Nurlig and Shrewsbury. In 1868 these had, according to the report of the Schools Inquiry Commission, a net aggregate income of £65,000. The number of their scholars was 2,956.
The total number of endowed schools (England and Wales) that came within the scope of their in. quiry was 820, having a net aggregate income, including exhibitions, of £277,000 a year. The number of scholars, excluding those in 198 schools that had become elementary, was nearly 40,000. The report also included 86 proprietary schools for boys and 30 for girls.