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EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

FOREIGN EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS.

Wherever popular education has been accepted as a public trust permanent records of its condition and progress are maintainod and official reports of the same published at regular or irregular intervals. By its system of exchange this office comes into possession of these reports, and a brief suminary of their contents has been a feature of its own annual report. As the chief particulars relating to elementary education may be grouped under the same heads for all countries, the effort is here made to reduce foreign information on this subject to tabular form as affording the most convenient and most impressive mode of representation. The educational statistics employed have been taken from the latest official reports received at this office, excepting when otherwise stated. On account of differences in the legal school age the ratio of school attendance to total population affords the only available basis for comparing the school attendance of different countries. Where the latest census antedates by several years the year of the school report, estimates of the whole population for a nearer date have been employed when attainable. The fact is indicated by a foot-note. Such estimates have been taken from the educational reports or from the Statesman's Year Book for 1887.

Comparatively few countries report the statistics of school population. In England and Scotland it is customary to include only six-sevenths of the population in estimating the number of children for whom provision should be made in State aided elementary schools. As the omission of one-seventh of the population in these estimates is misleading when the statistics are tabulated with those of other countries, the numbers showing the entire child population of the specitied ages, as given in the official reports from those countries, are used in this table. Care has been taken to confine the table to the statistics of elementary schools, i. e., schools helow the highschool grade, which are substantially the same for all countries. In a fow instances the distinction is not clearly preserved in the original reports, and the totals of enrolment and teachers possibly include high schools. It is certain, however, that in these cases, which are few, the totals are not greatly affected thereby. A glance at the columus setting forth the number of schools and the school enrolment will show that the word school, or its foreign equivalent, has various applications. It sometimes signifies the scholars in charge of one teacher and sometimes a collection of such bodies, forming a series of grades in one building,

The statistics of school population and enrolment in Hungary include the youth 6 to 15 years of age, wbich are accapingly given as the limits of the school age. In fact attendance upon elementary schools in Hungary is obligatory from 6 to 12 years of age, inclusive, and upon the review" continuation" schools from 12 tu 15. The latter may be day, evening, or Sabbath schools. In them the branches pursued in the ordinary elementary schools are reviewed and somewhat extended.

The column of expenditure is the least satisfactory in the table, as it is known to involve different items for different countries. The only basis on which the cost of elementary education in different countries may be fairly compared appears to be that of teachers' salaries, the item common to all, viz, teachers' salaries. Unfortnoately, as a role, this is not separately reported. The totals, as given in the table, include, in addition to teachers' salaries, cost of supervision, incidentals, office expenses, &c. In no case, however, have the expenses for buildings or other permanent improvements been included. The best comparativo view of expenditures would bo afforded by distinct statements of teachers' salaries, cost of supervision, and incidentals. Tho hope is entertained that before the next report is issued the time and the inforniation at the disposal of the office may suffice for the presentation of expenditure under these three heads.

In the following countries, represented in the table, the elementary schools are free schools: France, Italy, Switzerland, Algeria, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Argentine Republic, Chili, Ecuador, Victoria, Queensland, and New Zealand. In these the cost of elementary education is defrayed by State and local funds. In the remaining countries a portion of the cost is met bý tuition fees.

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TABLE 89.- Comparative statistics of elementary education in foreign countries—Part I.

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Austria-Hungary:

Austria

Hungary.
Belgium
France....
Germany:

Prussia
Würtemberg
Saxony
Saxe-Weimar
Hamburg (free city).

Bremen (free city).
Great Britain, &c.

England and Wales.
Scotland .....

Ireland
Italy......
Japan ..
Netherlands
Russia in Europe (including Finland)
Finland...
Switzerland........
British India

Bombay Presidency
British Burmah.
Algeria ......
Cape Colony
Canda

British Columbia
Manitob
New Brunswick .........
Novi Beolla.
Ontario
Prince 16dward Laland ...........
Quebec

a23, 031, 218

1885 199.00 Dr. Gautsch von Frankenthurn, minister of public instruction and ecclesiastical affairs. a16, 355, 686

1884 131.00 a5, 853, 278

Dr. August Trefort, minister of pablic instruction and ecclesiastical att..irs.

1885 515.00 38, 218, 903

Monsieur Thonissen, minister of interior and of public instruction.

1886 187. 00 27, 279, 111

1880 199.00
1,995, 168

Dr. von Gossler, minister of ecclesiastical affairs, of publie instruction, and of modical affairs.
1885 260.00

public instruction.

Dr. von Silcher, ministerial director and president of department of ecelesiastical affairs and
3, 179, 168

1885 469.00 Dr.C. F. W. von Gerber, minister of state and chief of department of ecclesiastical affairs and

public instruction. Director, F. F. Petzholdt.
313, 946
1885 221.00 Dr. Guyet, president of "Commission supérieure pour les affaires du culte et de l'instruction

catholique.
518, 620

1885 3, 504.00
166, 392

The "Oberschulbehörde," Dr. G. H. Kerchenpaner (burgomaster), presiding oflicer.

1885 1, 698.00 The “Scholarchat," Dr. A. Pauli (senator), chief officer. 627, 499, 041

1885 427.00 | Committee of council on education. b3, 907, 736

1885
131.00 Vice-president for Scotland, Earl Dalhousie; lord president for England, Earl Spencer; vice-

president for England, Sir Lyon Playfair.
04, 918, 338

1885 151.00 Commissioner of national education in Ireland.
28, 459, 628 Dec. 31, 1881 257.00 Signor Michele Coppino, minister of public instruction.
37, 547, 650

1883 253.00 Arinori Mori, minister of public instruction. a4, 336, 012 Dec. 31, 1885 343.00 Dr. J. Heemskerk, minister of the interior. 87, 105, 089

1882 42.00 Actual Privy Councillor Delyanoff, minister of publio instruction.
a2, 176, 421

1884 16.00
2,846, 102 Dec. 1, 1880 179.00
205, 093, 375

1881 228.00
6, 941, 249

1881 94.00 K. M. Chatfield, director of public instruction.
3,736, 771

1881 42.00 P. Hordern, director of public instruction.
459, 5462

1881
43,310,4125

27.00
e325,000

1885 2.00 Langham Dale, superintendent general of education.
49, 459

1881 .14 S. D. Pope, superintendent of education. 65,954

1881 .53 J. B. Somerset, superintendent of education for the Protestant schools. 333, 182

1883 12.00 William Crooket, chief superintendent of education. 40,672

1881 21.00 David Allison, superintendent of oducation. 1, 223, 228

1881 10.00 George W. Rona, minister of education. 108, 801

1881 B1.00 D. Montgomery, chief superintendent of edyrestkom. 1,850, 027

1881 7.00 Hon. Geloon Ouimet, superintendent of education.

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134.00 Thomas Capper, Inspector of schools.
87.00 R.J.L. Guppy, superintendent of education.

8.00 Don Mauro Fernández, minister of commerce, agriculture, finances, and public instruction.
28.00 A. Batres, minister of public instruction.
6. 00 Dr. Don Francisco Castellon, minister of foreign affairs and public instruction.
6.00

Dr. D. Eduardo Wilde, minister of justice, worship, and public instruction.

Dr. Benjamin Zorrilla, president of national council of education.
9.00 Señor E. C. Varas, minister of justice, worship, and public instruction.
4.00 J. Modesto Espinosa, minister of interior, foreign affairs, and publio works; Don Carlos R. Tobar,

under seeretary, reporting on edncation.
8.00 Sefior Aureliano, minister of justice, ecclesiastical affairs, and public instruction; Señor Don

Jacobo A. Varela, national inspector of primary instruction.
12.00 His excellency Walter M. Gibson, president of the board of education.
3. 00 W.J. Trickett, minister of public instruction.
.50 B. B. Moreton, secretary for public instruction.
.35 John A. Hartley, B. A. B.Sc., inspector general of schools, minister of education.
11.00 Charles Henry Pearson, minister of pnblic ingtruction.

John A. Cockburn, minister of education,
5. 00 Robert Stout, minister of education.
5.00 J. W. Agnew, minister of education.

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fEcuador reports for 6 (out of 11) provinces.

TABLE 89.-Comparative statistics of elementary education in foreign countriesPart II.

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6, 650

62
267
35

Austria-Hungary:
Austria
1883-84 6-143, 161, 113 16, 337

2, 603, 073
Hungary .......
1884

41,507 11, 460 52, 967
6-15 270, 917

1, 800, 731
Belgium..

23, 158
1884-85 6-12

4, 805
178, 402 147, 254 325, 656

8, 094 France .

1884-85 6-13 4,652,8513 166, 12321

Sh4, 403, 53021

913, 0223
Germany:

11,067, 857)
Prussia
1882 -14 j4, 815, 974 33, 040

4, 339, 729
Würtemberg
1885-86

59, 917 6-14

153, 975 169, 040 323, 015 Saxony

14, 400 1884 6-14

2, 154 262, 886 270, 990 533, 876
Saxe-Weimar

2, 118 8, 768
1883-84 6-14
25, 596 26, 123 51, 719

771 13 784
Hamburg (free city)

1885-86 6-14

n 117 01, 0595 26, 959 26, 553 63, 512

837 400 1, 237 Bremen (free city) 1883-84 6-14

12, 026 12, 443
24, 469

.434
Great Britain, &c.;
England and Wales

1885 p5-14 5,727, 2887
1993-14 7, 140, 9435| 19, C63

4, 465, 8183, 406, 076 27, 925 57, 105 r85, 030
Scotland
1885 5-14 807, 019 3,081

612, 094 471, 175 6, 254 4,641 110, 895
Ireland
$-13 999, 657 7,036

0712, 51221
101, 075, 60431
502, 454

x12,048
Italy

1882-83 6-12

42, 390 972, 882 810, 542 1, 783, 424 Japan 1883

19, 702 23,951 43, 653
8-14 5,062, 000 29, 680 2, 192, 524 1,000, 075
Netherlapis

3, 192, 509
1884-85

25, 871
6-12

612 '20, 483

24, 066 2311, 062 2282, 694
Russia la Europe (including Finland)

3593, 056
1882

812,554 34, 600 217, 214
6-14
28, 329 1, 177, 504

362, 171 1, 639, 075 Finland .....

19, 011 1884-85 7-10

4, 878 24,380 376, 145 835 27, 104 22, 770 Bwitzerlaoil.

49, 874 1881-82

1, 009 0-14

4, 886 British Iudia.

218, 191

215, 889 434, 080 1881-82

5, 840 2, 525 82, 953

8, 805 Bombay Prosidency

2,062, 057 1885-80

7, 038 301, 680 28, 0631 410, 734

k9, 752 5,096, 893
2, 318 m4, 335, 020
310

123, 308
176

2
1

85

49

42
7

1885

688

2124

80
37
61
4

3, 234 632, 124,828

856 u4, 604, 359

470 44, 349, 773
z9, 410 9, 508, 869
6, 569

7, 537, 668
3575 5, 872, 447
3, 9GO 5,378, 838

548
1, 236 2, 852, 855
3, 073 2, 004, A58

601. 100

42

108

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1, 557 203, 175

667 311, 256

623 211, 021
2, 336 214, 050
1, 461 212, 619

235 378

200, 063

139

8, 475

6, 943

1, 158

143

a Expenditures in 1885-'86, according to information received from Mr. Edmund Jussen, United States consul-general in Vienna. b Includes higher primary and burgher
Bchools. c There are only 10 State normals, with 767 pupils; the others are normal sections and " écoles normales agréées," which were re-established by law of Septem-
ber 20, 1884. dlp 1883 for primary instruction only. e Estimated for 1886. s Public. g Private. h Excluding duplicates and including enrolment in ma-
ternal school. iOf the entire number 3, 453,071 were between the ages of six and thirteen. jIn 1881. k In 1885-'86. I Teachers' positions; number of teachers
not given. m Includes amount for Fortbildungschulen (1,892 in number) and for the two deaf and dumb institutions. n Schools. o Classes.

p Legal. Enu.
merated. r Includes 23,414 pupil teachers. 8 Includes expenditure for night schools with 23,750 pupils. t Includes 3,693 pupil teachers. u Includes ex-
penditure for night schools with 9,509 pupils. v Enrolinent for results. w Total enrolment. 3 Includes 640 work mistresses and temporary assistants.

y Total
income. z The governmental normals are 69 in number with 5,969 pupils; the rest are provincial, comunal, and private. Also 64,017 pupil teachers.

2 Includes public, subsidized private, and private schools. 3 State normals only. * Includes infant schools. % Total. 6 Protestant. » Protestant schools only. & Winter term. Summer term. 10 Provincial grant for year ending December 31, 1885. 11 County fund for eight months ending June 30, 1885. 12 Summer term, 1886. 13 With statistics for 1885. 14 Oblig. 15 En. 16 Expenditure by Government. 17 Total income for all schools. 18 Ecuador reports for 6 (out of 11) provinces. 19 Includes small number of private pupils and teachers. 20 Includes high and normal school teachers. 21 Includes 452 pupil teachers.

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