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TABLE 60.-Statistics of art instruetion for 1885–86; from replies to inquiries by the United States Durcau of Education.

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| Ban Francisco, Cal. (130 Pine California School of Design.

Emil Carlsen. street). 2 New Haven, Conn

School of the Fine Arts, Yale Univer- Jolin F. Weir, N.A..

3 Urtana, Ill. (post-offico, Cham School of Architecture, University of N. Clifford Ricker, M. ARCH..
paign, Ill.).

Illinois. 4 Uibana, III. (post-office, Cham- School of Art and Design, University Prof. Peter Roos... paign, Ill.).

of Illinois.

80 Drawing from the antique, from life, from still-life, and

from landscape.
a44 Drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, and copper-

plate etching. A course in the history and criticism of art.
24 Elements of drawing, architectural drawing, architectural

designing, history and esthetics of architecture.
Elementary perspective, science of perspective, clay modl.

elling, modelling of ornaments, constructive designs,
water colors, art anatomy, study of drapery, oil painting,

sketching from nature.
132 Embroidery, drawing, painting.
643 Free-hand drawing, painting, modelling, mechanical and

architectural drawing.
61 Designing for fabrics, wall-paper, carpets, &c., and in

weaving (Jacquard loom).


3. Ba'timore, Md. (315 North Decorative Art Society..

Fanny Stockbridge, corre-
Charles street).

sponding secretary.
6 Baltimore, Ma

Maryland Institute for the Promotion Prof. Otto Fuchs, principal
of Mechanic Arts.

of School of Art and De

9 Eostou, Mass. (Garrison street). Lowell Free School of Practical. De Charles Kastner.

8 Boston, Mass.

Course in Architecture, Massachu.

setts Institute of Technology. Boston, Mass. Museum of Fine Arts.

Edward C. Cabot, chairman. Normal Art School of Massachusetts George H. Bartlett......

Il Northampton, Mass..

School of Art of Smith College.. Dwight W. Tryon....... 12 Springfield, Mass

Art Association Drawing Classes
ry Ann Arbor, Mich

University of Michigan, Department Professors Denison and
of Science and Art.

14 St. Louis, MO

St. Louis School of Fine Arts, Wash. IIalsey C. Ivcs.....

ington University.
1d Brock.yn, N. Y. (167 Taylor The Ladies' Art Association.. Mrs. S. J. Rafter, directross.

street, Brooklyn branch).
16 Ithaca, N. Y

Cornell University, courso in archi. Rev. Charles Babcock, A. M.,
tecture and industrial ait.

professor of architecture.

New Yck, N.Y. (Cooper Union Cooper Union Night Schools of Sci- George W. Plymton

ence and Art.
a Noticcuding students mentioned in other parts of the university catalogue.

Mechanical and free-hand drawing, pen and ink drawing,

geometrical drawing, topographical drawing, lettering,

ornamentation, sketching.
8180 Drawing, modelling, painting, perspective, architectural

and mechanical drawing, composition and wood carving.
See the Ladies' Art Association of New York City.
Free-hand and linear drawing, perspective architecture,

designing, modelling, p'otography.
1,281 Persmective, mechanical, architectural and form drawing

b All students in the institute are taught drawing.

TABLE 60.--Statistics of art instruction for 1885–86, 8C.-Continued.

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22 Syracuse, N. Y.

College of Fine Arts of Syracuse Rev. Charles W. Sims, D.D.,

LL. D., chancellor.
23 Cincinnati, Ohio.
Art Academy of Cincinnati

A. T. Goshorn, director
Columbus, Ohio (15 East Long Columbus Art School..

W. S. Goodnough
25 Toledo, Ohio

Toledo Manual Training School R. H. Miller

287 Oil painting, life and cast drawing, wood-engraving, pho

tugraphy, water colors, crayons, india-ink.
Drawing Pencil, charcoal, pen and ink. Painting: Oil,
water colors, tapestry colors. Plaster-casting:

copper, silver, and brass Designing: Wall-paper,

china, &c. Decoration and house fornishing.
485 Drawing, painting, modelling,
23 Drawing from the antique, from nature, lessons in por.

spective, drawing and painting from life-models, land

scape, and still-lite.
437 Architecture, sculpture, painting, engraving, modelling,

etehing, photography.
399 Oil painting and drawing from life, perspective, decorative

design, water-color painting, sculpture, wood-carving.
163 Drawing from copy, models, casts, the antique, and nature,

decorative design, water colors, oil painting, mod. lling,

wond-carving, architectural and mechanical drawing:
200 Free-hand drawing, mechanical drawing, drafting,

architectural drawing, machine drawing, geometrio

365 Free-band, architectural, aad mechanical drawing and oil

231 Drawing from the antique, portrait and landscape painting.

etching, modelling, wood-carving, wood-engraving, flower
painting, china decoration, thorongh courses in the indus-

trial and fine arts; also instruction given in anatomy.
218 Drawing, painting, modelling, and designing for industrial

purposes, thorough technical instruction in carving and

in textile manufactures.
139 Drawing from casts, anatomical drawing, drawing from the

antiguc, flower painting, oil painting drawing and paint.

ing from life.
230 Model drawing, charcoal drawing, painting from nature,

sculpturo and design, free-band, mechanical, and archi.

tectural drawing. Soe The Ladies' Art Association of New York City.


26 Philadelphia, Pa.

Franklin Institute Drawing School... Wm. H. Thorne.
27 Philadelphia, Pa. (s. w. corner Philadelphia School of Design for Emily Sartain

Broad and Master streets). Women.

28 Philadelphia, Pa. (Muscum, The Pennsylvania M119eum and School William P. Popper, presi. Memorial Hall, Fairmount of Industrial Art.

Park; school, 1836 Spring

Garden street).
29 Pittsburgh, Pa

Pittsburgh School of Design for Wo- Annie W. Henderson.
30 Providence, R. I. (Hoppin Rhode Island School of Design....... G.C. Anthony, registrar

Homestead Building, 283

Westminster street). 3/ Washington, DC (branch Tho Ladies' Art Association.

N. W.)


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Heretofore the schools and colleges which make military education their chief object, or a very prominent part of their instruction and discipline, have been dispersed through several tables in the reports of this Office. Here, however, they have been brought together in Table 61, page 609.

While many of the colleges, and even secondary schools, of this country are offoring optional courses and stadies to their pupils, the purpose and theory of these schools lead them to preserve with singular tenacity the rigid discipline and severer studies which have been found most efficient in producing the consummate soldier, the highly trained man who combines self-reliance with obedience, energy with self-restraint. The principles underlying this system are so well stated by a superintendent of one of these schools that the following paragraphs from his remarks are quoted:

“The system of government in this institution happily conspires to help you in this work, not by diminishing your responsibility but by defining and enforcing it; and this makes it necessary that I should enter into some explanation of the main features which characterize its peculiar government.

“In the views here taken of the office of a public school it is maintained that, in the general principle of its government, to be effective it must be parental.

"The security which a young man enjoys at home results, in a great degree, from the fact that his parents control his liberty by exercising their own judgment over his entire conduct. They keep supervision over his dress, his associations, his amusements, his indulgences, his studies, and his duties.

“The school, to be parental, must exercise a like control, and the young man at school needs it the more because of the danger resulting from the waywardness and want of judgment which characterizes him at this age.

"Again, the authority of the parent is not only thorough, but it is absolute; and the authority of the school, which takes the place of the parental, must be absolute also.

"It is enough for a child at home to know what a parent commands, and it should be enough for the young man at school to know the law which governs it, to decide at once his compliance with it.

“His course of study is marked out to him, and is not left to his own caprice or unmatured judgment. His hours of study and of recreation and of sleep are prescribed for him with due regard to health. His food and raiment, his personal order as well as deportment, are made the subjects of specific direction and control.

"And this government is not only thorough, it is absolute. All military government must be. Indeed, we can form no idea of any well-regulated government for the young that is not or ought not to be absolute. The principle of subordination, commencing in the domestic circle, should oxist until the young man has acquired tho 3ge, experience, and wisdom to take care of himself; and then he goes into the world the better fitted to make a good citizen, from the very fact that he has been taught the duty of obedience.

“But while the authority is absolute it is not arbitrary. It is based upon long experience. There is not a regulation in this institution that has not been the result of a necessity, founded upon this experience, and therefore essential for the purposes which render government in a school necessary at all."

OTHER MILITARY INSTRUCTION. In addition to the schools and colleges mentioned in the table, the United States Artillery School at Fort Monroe, Va., the Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leav. enworth, Kans., and the Naval War College at Newport, R. I., also afford practical training in several important branches of the military art.

They have been organized by the War and Navy Departments for the professional advancement of the officers in the two services, and are supported by appropriations expended under the direction of the Departments to which they are attached.

The oldest of these enterprises is tho Artillery School at Fort Monroe. It was established late in 1867 or early in 1863,2 for tho practical instruction of artillery, sabaltern officers and selected enlisted men in "the copstruction and service of ail kinds of artillery and artillery material, and in gunnery and mathematics as applied in the artillery service." The course also comprehended lectures upon “the organization, use, and application of artillery; the duties of artillery troops in campaigns and sieges; the construction of guns, carriages, and other material, and upon military law and military history.” This course occupied a year, and was continned without material change until 1875, when it was extended somewhat and the time lengthened to two years.

i Col. Francis I. Smith, LL. D., iu “ The Inner Life of the Va. Mil. Inst. Cadet." Address to the Oops Sept. 10. 1866.

Ry G: 0. 99, A. G. O., War Dept., Nov. 13, 1867. 6.0. No. 89, A. G. O., Oct. 21, 1875.

So satisfactory were the results of this Artillery School that in 1831 a similar school of application for the infantry and cavalry arms was ordered to be establisied at Fort Leavenworth, Kans.,' and was formally announced as open in January, 1842.

The fifty subaltern oflicers composing the earliest students were examined as to their previous acquirements, and divided into two classes; of these the lower class reviewed geometry and trigonometry, general and American history, &c., while the upper class devoted itself to a thorough study of signals, field fortifications, field maneuvres and operations, military and international law, &c., with practical in. struction in surveying and reconnoitring by means of itineraries and field-notes.

The instruction in these schools is obviously of special value to such officers as may not be graduates of West Point, and these are always detailed for it in advance of other officers.3 Certificates are issued to all officers who complete the course satisfactorily. A board of three officers, designated by the commanding general of the Army, attends the final examinations of each outgoing class, certities to the Secretary of War the individual standing of officers who liave taken the course of iastruction, and makes suitable recommendations upon matters requiring his action or atreution.

It should be added that the Artillery School at Fort Monroe confined its training mainly to the use of heavy guns. An appropriation will be requested from Congress during the present year for the establishment of a school for light artillery and cavalry, to be situated, preferably, at Fort Riley, Kans.

The Naval War College at Nowport, R. I., arose from an order of the Secretary of the Navy, dated May 3, 1884, which directed a board of naval officers, desiguated thereby, to report upon the whole subject of a post-graduate course of instruction for officers of the Navy. In compliance with the recommendation of the board, a general order of the Secretary of the Navy, dated October 6, 1884, formally established the school.

The scheme of instruction, as recommended by the board, comprehended the following subjects:

A: The science and art of war, viz: 1, strategy and tactics; 2, military campaigns; 3, joint military and naval operations from the military point of view; 4, management of seamen in military operations; 5, elements of fortifications and'intrenchments; those to be taught by an officer of the Army; also, 6, naval strategy and tactics; ,7, naval campaigus; and 8, joint military and naval operations from the naval standpoint.

B: Law and history, viz: 1, international law; 2, treaties of the United States; 3, rules of evidence; 4, general naval history; and 5, inodern political history.

The first session of the college opened September 3 and closed September 30, 1885. This was very much less than had been anticipated or provided for, but circumstances macle such a course unavoidable. The lectures given were confined to marine international law, military science, and the art of waval warfare. But the interest excited and the results attained, even at the very beginning, bave manifestod the wisdom of establishing the college.5

iG.0. No. 42, A. G. O., May 7, 1884.

3G. O. No. 86, A. G. O., Ang. 4. 1884. *G. 0. No. 8, A. G. O., Jan. 26, 1882.

*G. 0. No. 125, d. G.O., Dec. 28, 1883. 5 Report of the Secretary of the Navy, 1885, and accompanyiv, papers.


TABLE 61.-Sialislics of colleges and schools of military instruction for 1885–'86; from replies to inquiries by the United States Bureau of Educalion.

ED 86-39

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a Seo also account of the Naval War College in the text of this appendix.

b Includes board. c See also accounts of the practice schools for artillery, and for infantry and cavalry, in the text of this appendix. d Congressional appropriation.

e State students; others, $375.

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