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are graduates must apply to this board, which shall issue certificates signed by all its members, and entitling to practise in the State, to all who furnish satisfactory proof of having received diplomas or licenses from legally chartered institutions in good standing

Non-graduates may receive such a certificate only on satisfactorily passing an examination before the board, of an elementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test their qualifications as practitioners.

MISSISSIPPI.

(Act approved February 28, 1882.) No person may practise medicine in this state unless he has passed an examination by a board of censors. There is a board of censors, composed of two sanitary commissioners, for each Congressional district, who hold quarterly sessions. Applicants for license are examined only in the following branches of medicine : Anatomy, chemistry, obstetrics, materia metlica, physiology, pathology, surgery, and bygiene. The names of those whose examinations are satisfactory are forwarded to the State Board of Health, which board issues thereupon to such persons licenses to practise in the State.

No discrimination can be made against any applicant on account of the system of practice he may advocate. A holder of a liconse must have it recorded in the ottico of the circnit clerk in the county in which he resides. No license may be issued to peripatetic quacks nor travelling charlatans.

MISSOURI.

(Act of July, 1883.) Every person practising medicino in Missouri must possess a certificate from the State Board of Health. The State board sball issne certificates, signed by at least five of its members, and entitling to practise ibroughout the State, to all applicants who shall furnish satisfactory proof of having received diplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions in good standing, of whatever school or system of medicine. Applicants not graduates nor licentiates are to receive such certificates apon passing a satisfactory examination before the State board, the examinatiou to be of an elementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test the qualifications of the candidates. Every person holding a certificate must have it recorded in the office of the county clerk in the county in which he resides.

(The standard of recognition of medical colleges adopted by the Board of Health is the same as in Illinois. The granting of certificates to non-graduato applicauts is viewed with disfavor. Medical schools showing a percentage of graduates to matriculates of 45 or over are required to offer a satisfactory explanation of such excess to the board.)

NEBRASKA. (Act approved March 3, 1881, and amended February, 1883.) Every person intending to practise medicine in this State must register as a plysiciao with the clerk of the county in which he or she intends to practice. No person shall be entitled to registration unless he or she (1) be a graduate of a legally chartered medical college or institution baving authority to grant the degree of doctor of medicine, or (2) can show evidence of having passei a satisfactory examination be. fore medical boards of other States created for the purpose of such examination. No person can recover fees for medical services unless registered.

(A committee of the State Medical Society reported in 1882 that this law was virtually a failure, in so far as the protection of the people against quacks was concerned, since it provided no tribunal for determining the genuineness or value of diplomas and licenses.)

NEVADA.

(Act approved January 28, 1875.) No person may practise medicine or surgery in this state who has not received a medical education and a diploma from some regularly chartered medical school. The diploma of a person intending practise must be exhibited to, and a copy of it filed with, the recorder of the county.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Every medical society organized under the laws of the State shall eloct a board of censors consisting of three members, who shall bave authority to examine and license persons to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, and no person suull practise i hose branches until he has received a license froin sone such board. Licenses shall be issued, without examination, to all persons who furnish evidence by diploma from some medical school anthorized to confer degrees that they havo pusteci some prescribed course of study and have been duly examined. Licenses way be revoked for

cause. No person may practise dentistry who is not duly authorized to practise surgery, unless such person has received a dental degree from some institution authorized to confer the same, or has obtained a license from the New Hampshire Dental Society.

No license is valid until recorded in the office of the clerk of the county where the holder intends to practiso.

NEW JERSEY.

(Act approved March 12, 1880.) Every person practising medicine or surgery in tbis State must be a gradnate of some legally chartered medical college or university in good standing, or some medical society having power by law to grant diplomas. Such person, before commencing practice, is to deposit a copy of his or her diploma with the clerk of the couuty in which he or she resides. No person, unless qualified as above, may collect fees for medical or surgical services.

NEW YORK.

(Act passed May 29, 1880.] The degree of doctor of medicine, lawfully conferred by any incorporated medical college or university in this state, shall be a license to practiso physic and surgery within the State after the person holding it has been duly registered in the clerk's office of the county where he intends practising. A person holding a diploma, conferring upon him the degree of doctor of medicine, from an incorporated medical school without the State, must exhibit it to the faculty of some such school within the State with such other evidence of his qualifications as they may require. Their indorsement of the diploma will make it a license to practise in the State after the bolder has been registered as above. No one may practise under twenty-one years of age.

NORTH CAROLINA.

(Law of April 15, 1859.) No person shall practise medicine or surgery unless duly licensed by the Board of Medical Examiners of the State of North Carolina.

This board consists of seven regularly graduated physicians, elected for terms of six years by the State Medical Society from among its members, unless the General Assembly choose to elect them. They shall examine all applicants for license in the following branches of medical science: Anatomy, physiology, surgery, pathology, medical hygiene, chemistry, pharmacy, materia medica, therapeutics, and the practice of medicine, and shall issue licenses, signed by at least four of their unmber, to such as may be found competent.

Two members may issue a temporary license, good until the next regular meeting of the board. Regular meetings must be held at least once a year. Licenses may be rescinded for grossly immoral conducte

(It is the intention of the Board of Examiners to adopt a higher standard year by year. In 1886 each applicant for license was obliged to submit to examination in (1) surgery and surgical pathology and diseases of the eye and ear; (2) cbemistry and pharmacy; (3) anatomy; (4) physiology and medical hygiene; (5) materia medica and therapeutics;.(6) obstetrics, and diseases of women and children; (7) practice of medicine and medical pathology.')

OHIO.

[Revised Statutes of 1880.1 No person who has not attended two full courses of instruction of at least twelve weeks each, and graduated at a school of medicine, or who cannot produce a certificate of qualification from a State or county medical society, shall practise medicine in any of its departments within the State.

OREGON.

There is no law regulating medical practise in this State. The secretary of the Oregon State Medical Society said (1882): “We have had a bill of some kind before the Legislature at every session for the past ten years, and will continue to do so until we succeed.”

PENNSYLVANIA.

[Act of June 1, 1881.) Every person who practises medicine or surgery in this State shall be a graduate of a legally chartered medical school having authority to confer the degree of doctor of medicine; and snch person must be registered and file a copy of his or her medical diploma in the office of the prothonotary of the county in which he or she resides.

In 1886 there were 63 applicants, of whom 46 were licensed. They were obliged to answer satisfactorily 663 por cent. of the questious. In the future the standard will be raised to 70 per cent.

Any person proposing to practise and holding the diploma of a medical school with. out the State must submit such diploma to the inspection of the faculty of a medical school within the State, who, if they are satisfied as to the qnalifications of the appli. cant, shall indorse it, after which such applicant shall be entitled to register as above.

RHODE ISLAND. There is no law regulating medical practice in this State, except so far as provided in section 12 of chapter 85, Public Statūtes of Rhode Island, that overy physician shall cause his name and residence to be recorded in the town clerk's office of the town where he resides, and that he shall, without compensation, report all still births, contagious diseases, and results of vaccination. The physician is exempt from military and jury duty.

SOUTH CAROLINA.

(Act approved December 17, 1881.) 'The Medical Board of this State shall be composed of the physicians and surgeons constituting the local boards of health in the various counties. The degree of doctor of medicine lawfully conferred by any medical college or university in this State shall be a license to practise physic and surgery after the person to whom it is granted shall have complied with the following section of this act:

“Every person authorized to practise physic and surgery within this state shall, before commencing to practise, register in the office of the clerk of the county where he intends to practise his name residence, aud place of birth, together with his authority for so practising physic and surgery.

A person coming to the State may be licensed to practise physic or surgery, or both, within the State in the following wanner: If he has a diploma conferring upon him the degree of doctor of medicine, issued by an incorporated university, medical college, or school without the State he shall exhibit the same to the faculty of some incorporated medical college, or the Medical Board of the State, with satisfactory evidence of his good moral character, and such other evidence of his qualifications as physician as the medical college or board may require. If his diploma is approved by them they shall indorse it, and the indorsed diploma shall authorize bim to practise surgery and physic within the State. • No person shall practise physic or surgery unless he is twenty-one years of age.

TENNESSEE.

There are no laws bearing upon the practice of medicine in this State.

TEXAS.

The presiding judges of the district courts of the several districts shall appoint a board of medical examiners for their respective districts, to be composed of not less than three practising physicians of known ability, having certificates of qualification under the "Act to regulate the practice of medicine,” passed May 16, 1873, and said board of examiners to continue in office 2 years from their appointment.

It shall be the duty of said board to examine all applicants for certificates of qualification to practise medicine in the State, whether such applicants are furnished with medical diplomas or not, upon the following subjects: Anatomy, physiology, patho. logical'anatomy and pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and chemistry, said examination to be thorough.

When the board of medical examiners is satisfied as to the qualifications of the applicant it sball grant to him a certificate to that effect, which shall be recorded with the clerk of the district court of the county in which applicant resides, and shall entitle applicant to practise anywhere in this State.

Dr. W. J. Burt, secretary of the State Medical Association, writes: “We have laws, but they are not efficient.”

VERMONT. A practitioner of medicine or surgery who offers his services to the public shall obtain a certiticate from one of the medical societies of the State.

Medical societies, organized under a charter from the General A.ssembly, shall, at each anpual session, elect a board of censors, consisting of 3 members, who shall hold their office till others are lected; which board may examine and license practitioners of medicine, surgery, and midwifery.

Each board of censors shall issue certificates, withont fee, to physicians and surgeons who furnish evidence by diploma from a medical college or university or by certificate of examination from an authorized board.

The person to whom a certificate is issued shall cause the same to be recorded in the clerk's office of the county in which he resides, or, if not a resident of the State, in the county in which he obtains such certificate. This certificate shall be valid throughout the State after being duly recorded.

No person practising either of the branches of medicine or surgery sball be permitteil to enforce, in the courts, the collection of a fee in the practics of any of the branches for which he has not a certificate as provided in this chapter.

VIRGINIA.

(The law first became operative January 1, 1885.1 The Medical Examining Board of Virginia consists of 3 physicians from each Congressional district in the State and ? from the State at large, making 32 members, and in addition also 5 homeopathic physicians, members of the board, except homeopaths are nominated by the State Medical Society and appointed by the Governor.

Every applicant for the practice of niedicine in Virginia is required to pass a satisfactory examination before the Medical Examining Board before he can commence practice. Graduates and non-gradnates are subjerted to the same examination.

Any persou wishing to be xamined, with the view of practising medicine in Virginia, is required to fill out and file with the secretary of the board a form of application, stating age, residence, collage where graduated, and date of graduation. The application must be accompanied by a recommendation from 2 citizens of the county in which applicant resides and a fee of $5.

Examinations may be held by the board in session, which is held regularly twice each year, or during the reregs of the board by any 3 individnal members thermof whom the applicant may select. When before 3 individual examiners a separate and distinct examination on all the brauches before each examiner is required.

The examinations are in chemistry, anatomy, physiology, hygiene, niedical jurisprudence, materia medica and therapeutics, obstetrics, gynocology, practice of med. icine and surgery. The examiners report to the president, who issues the license.

WEST VIRGINIA.

(Act approved March 25, 1882.) The State Board of Health of this state shall consist of 2 physicians from each Congressional district, who shall be graduates of reputable medical colleges, and who shall have practised medicine not less than 12 years. They are appointed by the Governor, and hold their office for 4 years.

The following persons, and no others, shall he after be permitted to practise med icine in this State:

First. All persons who are graduates of a reputable medical college. Every snch person shall present his diploma to the State Board of Health; if it is found to be genuino the said board sball issue and deliver to him a certiticate to that effect, and such diploma and certificate shall entitle the person named in it to practise medicine in all its departments in this State.

Second. All persous who have practised medicino in this State for a period of 10 years prior to the 8tlı day of March, 1881.

Third. A person who is not a gradnate, and has not so practised, desiring to practise shall present himself before the Stató Board of Health, who shall examine him in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, pathological anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics.

If he is found qualified to practise medicine they shall grant him a certificate to that effect, and he shall thereafter have a right to practise medicine in the State.

Every person holding any such curtificate shall have it recorded in the office of the secretary of the State Board of Health.

An itinerant physician, desiri:g to practise medicine in this Stato, shall pay to the sheriff of every county in which he desiros to practise a special tax of $50 for each month he shall so practise in such county.

WISCONSIN.
There is no law regulating the practice of medicine in this State.

ALASKA.

There is no law regulating the practice of medicine in this Territory.

ARIZONA. It shall not be lawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this Territory unless such person shall have obtained a diploma regularly issued by a medical college in good standing, or unless such person shall have obtained a license from a board of medical examiners legally existing at the time, and properly qualified to issue such license.

Every person engaged in the practice of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics shall register in the county recorder's office of the county where he intends to practise his name, residence, and place of birth, together with a true and correct copy of his diploma or license.

DAKOTA.

There is no law regalating the practice of medicine in this Territory.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,

Section 5, of "Act to incorporate the Medical Society of the District of Columbia," contains the following:

“After the appointment of the aforesaid medical board no person not heretofore a practitioner of inedicine or surgery within the District shall be allowed to practise within the said District without having obtained a license, or the production of a diploma from a respectable medical college, or from a board of examiners established by law."

Dr. G. L. Magruder, treasurer of the society, writes: "The only law that exists in this District in regard to the practice of medicine and surgery is contained in the act incorporatiog the medical society. It seems to have been inefficient from the fact that no one has been designated to ouforce it.”

IDAHO.

There are no laws governing the practice of physic in this Territory.

MONTANA.

There are no laws regulating the practice of medicine in this Territory.

NEW MEXICO.

(Act approved March 2, 1882.) A Territorial board of medical examiners is established, which shall be composed of 7 practising physicians of known ability and integrity, who are graduates of some medical school, college, or university duly established by law, giving each of the 3 schools of medicine the following representation: The allopathic school, 4 members; the homeopathic school, 2 members; the eclectic school, 1 member. They shall hold office for 2 years from and after their appointment.

The board shall issue certificates to all who furnish satisfactory proof of having received diplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions.

All examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates shall be made directly by the board, and the certificates given by a majority of the board shall authorizē the possessor to practice medicine and surgery in the Territory of New Mexico.

Every person holding a certificate from a board of examiners shall have it recorded in the county clerk's office in every county in which he practisos medicine or surgery.

UTAH.

Thore is no law regulating the practice of medicine in this Territory.

WASHINGTON TERRITORY.
There is a law requiring the registration of physicians in this Territory.

WYOMING TERRITORY. No person shall practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this Territory who ha not received a medical education and a diploma from some regularly chartered mod-i cal school.

Every physician, surgeon, or obstetrician in this 'Territory shall file for record with the registrar of deeds of the county in which he or she is about to practise his or her profession a copy of his or her diploma.

Every physician, sargeon, or obstetrician, when filing a copy of his or her diploma or certificate of graduation, shall be identified as the person named in the papers about to be filed, by affidavit of 2 citizens of the county, or by his or her affidavit, taken before a notary public, which affidavit shall be filed in the oflice of the registrar of deeds.

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