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Boulder, Colo

School of Pharmacy in the department of medicine of the University of Colorado.
Chapel Hill, N.C

Department of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina..
Cincionati, Ohio (southwest corner of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy

5th and John streets).
Memphis, Tenn..

Memphis School of Pharmacy
Washington, DC

Pharmaceutical College of Howard University

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SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS REGULATING TIE PRACTICE OF

MEDICINE. 1

ALABAMA.

(Act approved February 9, 1877. No person shall be permitted to practise medicine in any of its branches as a means of livelihood without having obtained a certificate of qualification, either from the Board of Censors of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama, or from the board of censors of one of the county medical societies, which are in affiliation with it. The standard of qualifications for tbe practice of medicine, together with the rnles for the goverument of the authorized boards of medical examiners, sball be determined from time to time by the State Medical Association. Countý probate judges shall keep a register of licensed practitioners.

The Board of Censors of the State Medical Association is composed of ten members, clected by the association. This board controls the county boards of censors, which are composed of five members cach.

The diplomas of medical colleges copfer no right to practise niedicino in Alabama; nothing docs that except the certificate of some medical board, based upon actual examination.

The county boards examine graduates of reputable medical colleges only; the State board alone examines non-graduates. Non-graduate applicants have become very few.

Persons proposing to begin the study of medicine aro examined by the county boards in English grammar and literature, general anıl United States history, and the elements of arithmetic, geometry, inorgauic chemistry, and physics.?

ARKANSAS.

(Act approved March 9, 1881.) No person may practise medicine or surgery as a profession without being registered in the office of a county clerk. Any person shall be allowed so to register who shall file a certificate of qualification signed by the majority of the county board of medical cxaminers of the county where he or she offers to register. County boards of oxaniners consist each of three persons, learned in medicine and surgery and dnly registered, who are appointed by the connty judges for terms of four years.

Each county board shall meet quarterly to examine all persons appearing before it who desire to practise medicine or surgery; any person satisfying a majority of such board that he or she is twenty-one years of age, of good moral character, and duly qualified to practise medicine and surgery, or either, shall receive a certificate of qualification entitling to aegistration, which latter must be in the county where the examination was held.

Any person who has been refused registration by any county board may apply for a re-examination by the State Board of Medical Examiners, which is appoivted by the Governor, and consists of five members learned in medicine and surgery, and duly registered. If, upon re-examination, snch person shall be found qualified to practise, the board shall grant him or her a certificate entitling to registration in any county in the State.

No person desiring to practise medicine shall be excluded therefrom on account of any particular system or school that he may desire to practise.

(A bill requiring all practitioners to be graduates of reputable medical colleges recently passed the state senate, but failed in the house.)

CALIFORNIA.

(Acts approved April 3, 1876, and April 1, 1878. The Medical Society of the State of California, the Eclectic Medical Society of tho State of California, and the California State Homæopathic Medical Society, and po other corporation or persons, shall each appoint annually a board of examiners of seven persons, who must be regular graduates. These boards shall issue certificates to all persons desiring to practise medicine or surgers who furnish satisfactory proof of baviog received diplomas or liccuses from legally chartered medical institutions in good standing, and (since 1876) to no others. A certificate must be signed by all ibe members of a board, and shall entitle the holder to practise in any part of the State. Tbe holder inust have it recorded in the office of the county clerk in the county where ho residos.

1 This summary has been compiled from the Fifth and Eighth Annual Reports of the Illinois Stato Board of Health. The provisions of tho several laws defining the status of physicians who weru already in practise at the time they were passed have been omitted.

2 ID 1885 sixty sots of examination papers were prepared by the county boards. Of these, two were from applicants for the study of medicine, one of whom was unsuccessful. of the fifty-eight applicants for the practice of medicine, seven wore unsuccessful. One non-graduate passed a successful examination.

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The board of examiners must refuse certificates to persons guilty of unprofessional conduct, and must revoke the certificates of holders so guilty. In all cases of refusal or revocation of a certificate the applicant may appeal to the body appointing the board.

(The present law is said to be unsatisfactory, as many persons have been licensed who are totally and notoriously unfit to practise medicine. On the other hand, it has served some good purpose in San Francisco, where several convictions have been had. Its constitutionality has been tried and affirmed in the supreme court.)

COLORADO.

(Act approved March 14, 1881.) Every person practising medicine must have a certificate signed by a majority of the State Board of Medical Examiners. This board is composed of nine practising physicians, graduates of medical schools of undoubted respectability, six of the regular, two of the homæopathic, and one of the eclectic school, appointed by the Governor for terms of six years.

The board shall issue certificates entitling to practise in the State to all applicants who sball furnish satisfactory proofs of having received diplomas from some legally chartered medical institution in good standing. An applicant not having such diploma shall receive a certificate granting the same privileges upon passing an examination before the board in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and practice of medicine. The holder must record the certificate in the office of the county clerk in the county where he resides.

CONNECTICUT.

(Act approved April 12, 1881.) Any itinerant person, not an inhabitant of the State, who shall publicly profess to treat, or who shall treat, diseases or injury by any drug, nostrum, nanipulation, &c., must procure a license therefor. Selectmen in towns and the chief polico officer in cities may issuo such licenses upon the payment of twenty dollars for each day each license is to be in force. The penalty for non-compliance with this law hy any person is twenty-five dollars for each day it is so non-complied with.

DELAWARE.

(Act passed April 19, 1883.1 It shall not be lawful for any person to practise medicine or surgery in Delaware who has not graduated with the degree of doctor of medicine and receved a diploma from some medical college authorized to grant diplomas, unless in possession of a license from a board of medical examiners. This board is required to grant a license for practice in the State to any applicant who shall produce a diploma from a respectable medical college, or who shall, apon full and impartial examination, be found qualified for such practice.

Any person seeking to practise medicine transiently in this State shall appear before any clerk of peace and satisfy him that the provisions of the law have been complied with; whereupon such clerk shall, upon the payment of $200 per annum, issue to him a license to practiso throughout the State.

FLORIDA,

[Act approved March 7, 1881.) There shall be appointed by the Governor six boards of medical examiners, com. posed each of from three to five practitioners of five years' practice in the State, and located, respectively, at Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Pensacola, Key West, Ocala, and Tampa, who shall examine persons not graduates of medicine who may purpose to practiso medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in the State. Such examination shall include the branches of anatomy, operative and minor surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, and the general laws of health. The boards shall issae certifi. cates to that purport to persons found competent.

GEORGIA.

(Act approved September 28, 1881.] No person shall practise medicine in this state until he has been authorized to do 80 by a diploma from an incorporated medical college, and by registering, in the office of the clerk of the superior court in the county where he intends to practise, his name, residence, and place of birth, together with his authority for practising medicine. The person so registering shall make an affidavit stating whether such authority is by diploma or license, the date of the same, and by whom granted.

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ILLINOIS.

(Acts approved Vay 25 and May 29, 1887.) The State Board of Health shall consist of seven persons appointed for seven years by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the senate. This board shall meet at least twice a year. It shall issue certificates, signed by all its members and entitling to practise in the State, to all applicants furnishing satisfactory proof of having received diplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions in good standing. If an applicant is a non-graduate he inust undergo an examination, before the board, of an elementary and practical character, but strict enough to test his qualifications; if he pass it satisfactorily the board shall grant him a certificate as above. Certificates must be recorded in the office of the county clerks.

(Rules of the Illinois State Board of Health.] To be held in good standing by the State board, colleges must comply with the following schedule of minimum requirements:

1. Conditions of admission to lecture courses: (1) Credible certificates of good moral standing. (2) Diplomas of graduation from a good literary and scientific college or high school, or a first-grade teacher's certificate; or, lacking this, a thorough examination in the branches of a good English education, including mathematics, English composition, and elementary physics or natural philosophy.

2. Branches of medical science to be included in the course of instruction: (1) Anatomy. (2) Physiology. (3) Chemistry. (4) Materia medica and therapeutics. (5) Theory and practice of medicine. (6) Pathology. (7) Surgery. (8) Obstetrics and gynecology. (9) Hygiene. (10) Medical jurisprudence.

3. Length of regular or graduating courses : (1) The time occupied in the regular courses or sessions from which students are graduated shall not be less than five months, or twenty weeks, each. (2) Two full courses of lectures, not within one and the same year of time, shall be required for graduation with the degree of doctor of medicine.

4. Attendance and examinations or quizzes : (1) Regular attendance during the entire lecture courses sball be required, allowance being made only for absences occasioned by the student's sickness, such absences not to exceed twenty per cent. of the course. (2) Regular examinations or quizzes to be made by each lecturer or professor daily, or at least twice each week. (3) Final examinations on all branches, to be conducted, when practicable, by competent examiners other than the professors in each brancb.

E. Dissections, clinics, and hospital attendance: (1) Each student shall have dissected during two courses. (2) Attendance during at least two terms of clinical and hospital instruction shall be required

6. Time of professional studies: This shall not be less than three full years before graduation, including the time spent with a preceptor, and attendance upon lectures or at clinics and hospital.

7. Instruction: The college must show that it has a sufficient and competent corps of instructors and the necessary facilities for teaching, dissections, clinics, &c.

Graduates from institations not in good standing as above must supplement their diplomas by an examination before the board so as to conform to the minimum requirements.

Non-graduate applicants for licenses must pass an examination in the following subjects: Anatomy, materia medica, theory and practice, gynecology, physiology, pathology, obstetrics, chemistry, surgery, hygiene, and medical jurisprudence.

INDIANA.

There is no law regulating the practice of medicine in this Stato.

IOWA.

(Act to take effect January 1, 1887.) Every person seeking to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this State must obtain a Certificate signed by at least five members of the State Board of Examiners. If the applicant is a graduate of a medical school legally organized and in good standing, of which the board shall be the judge, he shall receive a certificate entitling him to practice in the State. If not a graduate from such a school, he shall submit to such an examination as the board may require. The examination shall be in anatomy, physiology, general chemistry, pathology, therapeutics, and the principles and practise of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics; and, if satisfactorily passed, the applicant sball receive a certificate as above. Upon each day of examination all candidates shall be given the same set or sets of questions.

The physicians and secretary of the State Board of Health shall constitute the board of examiners. The different schools of medicine in the State shall be represented in the board by one or m re members. Certificates must be recorded with the county

recorders. Certificates may be revukuil, buy a volo vi at least five members of the State ward, for folony or incompetency. The standing of a legally chartered medical college shall not bo questioned except by a liko vote.

KANSAS. Au act to regulate the practice of medicine in Kansas was passed iu 1879, but has since been declared unconstitutional. No examinations have been held under it since 1880.

KENTUCKY.

[Act approved February 23, 1874.) No person may practise medicine in any of its departments in this State who has not graduated at some chartered school of meaicine or who does not possess a certifcate from one of the district boards of medical examiners. These boards consist each of five physicians, regular graduates, appointed by the Governor for terms of four ye:urs, there being one for each judicial district.

Each board shall hold one regular annual session, and shall examine, in the follow ing branches, all applicants wbo desire to practise medicine: Chemistry, anatomy, physiology, obstetrics, surgery, and so much of practical medicine as relates to the nomenclaturo, bistory, aud symptoms of disease. The examiners shall grant to applicants found to possess a fair practical knowledge of the above branches certificates signed by at least threo members, entitling them to practise in the district. Certifi. cates shall designato the time and the branches tho holders are entitled to practise, and shall be issued for not more than five years nor less than one.

(Doctors Pinckney, Thompson, and J. W. Holland, of the State Board of Health assert that in all but a few counties or districts this law is a dead letter.)

LOUISIANA.

(Act approved Juue 26, 1882.) No person shall be allowed to practise medicine or surgery in any of their departmoots without first making affidavit before a judge, or justice of the peace, or clerk of a district court, or notary public in the parish whereiu he residce, of his having received the degree of doctor of medicine from a regularly incorporator medical institntion of respectable standing, such degree to be manifested by a diploma, which inust be indorsed as to the standing of the institution issuing it by tho State Board of Health.

The State board shall be required to certify the diploma of any medical institution of credit and respectability without regard to its system of therapeutics, and whether the same bo regular, homeopathic, or eclectic. Alfidavits so nade shall be registered n the office of the clerk of the district court of the parish. Tbe State Board of Health shall publish annually a list of all registered plysicians and surgeons in the Stato.

MAINE.

There is no law regulating medical practice in this State. Such a law passed the Legislature in March, 1887, but was vetoed by the Goreroor.

MARYLAND. The only existing act concerning the practice of medicine in Maryland is one providing for the punishment of any person who shall be concerned in producing an abortion.

MASSACHUSETTS.

No law has yet beon passed in Massachusetts to regulate the practice of medicine.

MICHIGAN.

(Act of September 7, 1883.) Every graduate of a legally authorized medical college shall be deemed qualified to practise medicine and surgery in Michigan, provided he files with the county clerk of the county in which he intends to practise a sworn statement setting forth the name and location of the medical college from which he graduated, date of graduation, length of time he attonded the same, and school of medicine to which he belours, which statement shall be duly recorded.

No physician shall be able to collect in any conrt pay for professional services reudered, unless duly qualified and registered as above.

MINNESOTA.

(Act approved March 6, 1883.) The faculty of the medical department of the University of Minnesota shall constitute the Board of Medical Examiners. All persons intending to practise medicine who

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