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While resident among us as fellows, or as fellows by courtesy (an honorary distinction without emolument), these honormen have been regarded as leaders among the students. They have been recognized as holding an intermediate position between the faculty and the great body of pupils; they have been efficient members of the various literary and scientific associations; they have occasionally given lectures on special topics to which they were devoted. The principal features in the method of appointment here adopted have been followed in other institutions both in this country and in Great Britaip.
SCHOLARSHIP SYSTEM AT JOHNS HOPKINS. A
Report of President Gilman for 1885–'86, pp. 16, 17. The founder of the university in his will made use of this language : "I further request the trustees of said university to establish, from time to time, such namber of free scholarships in said university as may be judicions, and to distribute the said scholarships among such candidates from the States of Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina as may be most deserving of choice because of their character and intellectual promise, and to educate the young men so chosen free of charge.” The best method of carrying out bis wishes has been a matter apon which some difference of opinion has prevailed, and different modes of appointment have from time to time been adopted by the trustees. Our records show that 235 students from the three States named have received free tuition during a part or the whole of their course of stndy among us. One hundred and filty of these were appointed Hopkins scholars.
As experience was gained in the bestowal of these scholarships, it was generally admitted that they ought to be awarded not as a charity to the needy but as an honor to the meritorious. Accordingly, during recent years, examinations have been held, and the scholarships have been given to those among the applicants who showed the highest attainments. All the Hopkins scholarships carry free tuition, and some of them designated as honorary have an additional stipend.
There is a third class of scholarships, 10 of which are open to the bachelors of arts of this university and 10 to graduates of this or of other institutions who may be engaged in the prosecution of their work among us. These appointments are likewise bestowed as honors.
No other prizes have been offered, and no formal announcements have been made of the comparative standing of the students. Records are kept by the several instructors and are reported at appointed times to the collective authorities. The results of bis examinations are known to every student, and are annually communicated to the parents. But these checks are chiefly valuable as a warning to those who are in some way negligent and deficient. The students generally, undergraduates as wel as graduates, do not require the stimulus of comparative marks and competitive,examinations. They are encouraged to study for the sake of the knowledge and power which they will acquire, and not for the sake of surpassing their comrades,
There has been a remarkable freedom from boyish manifestations of a mischievous spirit. The accessibility of the teachers and their abstinence from annoying and potty supervision, have doubtless contributed to a good understanding with their pupils. Other reasons for the prevalence of good order might be suggested, but whatever the cause, it is a pleasure to record the fact that during the first ten years of our academic history there has never been a breach of decorum requiring the action of the faculty.
NOTES FROM UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE CATALOGUES. The following notes from the catalogues of universities, colleges, and science schools present particolars which do not admit of tabulation. The statistical record of these institutions will be found in Tables 39, 43, and 44:
ALABAMA. At the University of Alabama there are 2 general departments of instruction, the academic department and the department of professional education. In the former there are 10 and in the latter 3 schools. The schools of the academie department are 80 arranged as to form the classical, scientific, and engineering courses, leading to the degrees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and bachelor of engineering. The "department of professional education” fits its students for the practice of law, and may be completed in 9 inonths by diligent study. The endowment of the university, which has been fixed at $300,000, and from which an annual income of $24,000 is received, was obtained by the sale of a township of land set apart for a seminary of learning when the State was admitted into the Union, Military discipline prevails. ->
At Howard College, Marion, special attention is paid to English composition and elocution.
The board of trustees of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, Auburn, passed a resolution in August, 1885, adding the words "Alabama Polytechnic Institute” to the
usual title, to signify the increased facilities for practical instruction in the sciences. A course in pharmacy was established during the year, and its students will occnpy all their time in the laboratories of the chemistry and natural history departments. The department of mannal training will embrace a 3-years course when completed, and will afford thorough instruction in wood and iron working.
The Arkansas Industrial University has just passed through an eventful year. At the meeting of the Board of Trustees in June, 1085, all the chairs of the faculty were declared vacant, the president alone being retained. The year 1885–86 opened with au entirely new faculty of 7 instead of 9 professors and a materially altered course of study. The new turriculum embraces 4 technical and 3 general courses, the fornier being the agricultwal, normal, engineering, and business courses, and the latter the English, general science, and language. Post-graduate courses were also ar. ranged. Mechanical engineering bas been added during the year, and mining engineering will be introduced during the coming year. The normal department, suspended during 1884-'85, has been revived, and as now conducted is highly successful. Without an additioval appropriation from the Legislature a school for manual training has been organized on a limited scale, and the results, as far as may be judged in the short time, have been satisfactory. Free-hand drawing is obligatory upon all students except seniors. Successful experiments have been made in the dormitory system, and the State has been asked to furnish additional buildings for its general adop
tions The young ladies are required to take physical exercise daily under instructors, ^ and the males are organized as a corps of cadets. A preparatory department, under
1 professor and 5 assistants, is connected with the college. A new heating apparatus for the building has been supplied at a cost of $8,000, and general repairs have been made.
CALIFORNIA. The University of California was founded by an act of the Legislature approved March 23, 1868. The museums are excellent, and the scientific and mechanical appa. ratus is constantly being improved. With the special appropriation of the State of $10,000 a new students' astronomical observatory was completed during the year and well equipped with all instruments necessary to the study of astronomy, including a fino telescope of 6-inch aperture. A metallurgical laboratory has been erected and is now being titted up with a 15-horse-power engine and all appliances used in metallurgyand assaying. An experimental laboratory for mechanical work has just been completed and provided with engines and appropriate machinery. The famous Lick Observatory will be, when completed, under the charge of the regents of the university and will form a department of the institution. A gymnasium has been presented, and a sum of money has been received from the Stato during the year for its enlargoment and better equipment. Among the new departures in 1885–86 in methods of instruction are noted the introduction of extensive vacation work in topographical surveying and practical railroad work for the class in civil engineering, lectures by the professor of agriculture on the chemistry and analysis of wines; the revival of the course in botany; a course in Spanish. Military science is taught throughont.
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, has under its control the College of Medicine, Los Angeles, the Chaffey College of Agriculture, Ontario, and Maclay College of Thcology at San Fernando. The two last have been opened during the last year, both baviug been endowed by donations from private individuals. The in. struction in the College of Agriculture is the most practical possible and is designed
as a training school for scientific farmers. Cor teachingere il riscia be introduced.
At the Pierce Christian College, College City, a course of the " theory and practice
Hesperian College, Woodland, expended about $5,000 in improvements upon buildings and grounds during the year 1885–86.
The facilities of Napa College, Napa, were increased during the year by the erection of a new building, three stories high, 175 by 80 feet in its dimensions, and costing, $10,000. A well-equipped gymnasium has been provided, and daily exercise is required of all students.
Santa Clara College, Santa Clara, pays special attention to English composition. An artificial lake for swimming and a gymnasium afford opportunities for pbysical es-> ercise.
The University of the Pacific, San José, has erected for the preparatory and business departments a new building at a cost of $45,000. The normal department offers a thorough training in pedagogy. The foundation has been laid for new courses ia law and theology. The cabinets of physical and mechanical ipparatus vero largely in. creased in 1885-'86 and are now considered excellent. An astronomical observatory has been equipped with a fine Alvan Clark telescope and other instruments necessary to the thorough study of astronomy.
COLORADO. The University of Colorado, Boulder, was incorporated by the Territorial Legislature in 1860. Durivg ihe year 4 new buildings have been erected, 1 to be used as a hospital, 2 as dormitory cottages, and the other as the president's house. The geolog. ical cabinet has been increased by the gift of one of the best arranged collections in the country, and the equipment of the chemical laboratory is said to be completo, having cost over $4,000. The course of study is divided into 5 departments, viz, the department of philosophy and the arts, the normal school, the conservatory of music, the preparatory school, and the department of medicine, which is located at Denver and issues a separate catalogue. The first-named embraces the usual collegiate course; in the normal school students are instructed in the branches taught in the common schools of the State, and in the best inethods of teaching; the conservatory of music offers instruction in all branches of the art.
The study of botany and horticulture at the Colorado Agricultural College is facilitated by a new greenhouse containing over 10,000 plants, embracing 500 varieties. The farm and experimental grounds cover 240 acres. Military science is taught.
Colorado College, Colorado Springs, gives special attention to English composition and declamation.
CONNECTICUT. Yale College, New Haven, has 4 departments of instruction, designated faculties of theology, medicine, law, and philosophy and the arts, the last named including the courses for graduate instruction, the undergraduate academical department, the un. dergraduate section of the Sheffield Scientific School, and the school of fine arts. The system of elective courses for the junior and senior years has been expanded during the year, and for 1886-'87 91 such courses are offered, with still further expansion in, contemplation. A course of 12 lectures on special topics in political economy was delivered last winter, and during the same period the students of tho Sheffield School listened to a series of lectures upon military science by officers from the United States Engineer Corps at Willets Point, New York Harbor. During the year the faculty bas taken steps, with other New England colleges, towards forming a standing.committee on entrance examinations, with the object of securing greater uniformity in that respect in the colleges and more efficient co-operation in the preparatory schools. Important accessions have been made to the Sloano memorial physical laboratory, and arrangements made for special investigation into the subject of atmospheric electricity, Seventy-five thousand dollars have been donated for a new chemical laboratory, and its erection will soon be begun. Lawrence College, a handsome and well-appointed building to be used as a dormitory, is approaching completion, and another building on the campus for religious purposes will soon be ready for use.
The gymnasium has proven to be wholly insufficient for the large number of students, and plans have been made for a new building with lockers for 1,600 men, and furnished with all things calculated to make it attractive.
The endowment of the Sheffield Scientific School is inadequate, and in 1885–86 it was necessary to expend $55,000 of the $60,000 received for salaries alone, leaving but $5,000 for all purposes of administration. It is deemed advisable to lengthen the conrso in this school from 3 to 4 years, but until its income is increased this will be impossible. Many additions have been made to its equipment during the year, the most important being a dynamo-electric machine from Diuvich and the engine necessary for its operation.
DAKOTA. The University of Dakota, Vermillion, was first opened for students in September, 1883. As early as 1862 the Territorial Legislature decreed that a college should be located at Vermillion, and subsequently appealed to the Federal Government for an appropriation of land. This was granted in 1881,72 sections of public lands being set apart for the use and support of a university when Dakota should be made a State. In 1832 $10,000 were raised as a beginning to a building fund, and a legislative act passed in 1883 founded the university. À normal course is a feature of the curriculum, and its students are taught the theory and practice of teaching, together with the branches that usually form the common-school instruction of the Territory. During the year 500 new books were added to the library.
The University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, dates its inception from an act of the Legislature approved February 17, 1323. The foundations for an astronomical observatory have been laid, and the superstructure will be completed at an early day. A normal course of 3 years has been arranged, and an additional year will soon be allotted.
PELAWARE. Delaware College, Newark, possesses ample accommodations for more than double the number of students vow in attepdauce, since its buildings bave been enlarged and improved. Of the three regular courses, the literary and scientitic courses cover
4 years and the agricultural 3. The physical and chemical laboratories are adequate for all purposes of illustration.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Georgetown College, West Washington, was founded in 1789 and chartered 1815. The entire course of study, including the preparatory department, requires 7 years. The philosophic cabinet has been renovated and enlarged during the year, important addi. tions being made to the electric department particularly. The astronomical observatory is well equipped. Organizations for athletic sports are encouraged, and facilities are offered for physical exercise and bathing. Medical and law schools, located in Washington, are maintained by the university.
A business course has recently been instituted at Howard University.
The State Agricultural College, Lake City, offers 5 courses leading to the degrees of A. B. and B. S. For those unable to take a full course in scientific agriculture a limited special course is prepared and made as practical as possible, each student being required to do manual labor for 2 to 3 hours daily. At their last meeting the trustees of the college passed a resolution recommending ite consolidation with the University of Florida.
The University of Georgia, Athens, comprises 4 departments, the academical department, the State college, the law department, and the medical department at Augusta, and controls 4 branch colleges in various parts of the State. Since the city of Athens recently donated $25,000 for the erection of physical and chemical laboratories, and the State appropriated $15,000 to furnish it, it is said that the facilities of the university in this respect are now superior to those of any other institution in the State, if not in the South. All the chemical work of the State is now done here by the professor of cbemistry. The law course is completed in 1 year, and its graduates are admitted, without examination, to practice in any court of the State
except the supreme court. < Clark University, Atlanta, for colored students, imparts instruction in theology,
business, music, the regular college branches, and industrial pursuits. A training class for nurses will be organized in October, 1886. Steps are being taken towards the erection of a new building for the industrial department.
ILLINOIS. The University of Illinois, Urbana, embraces in its course of study 4 colleges, which are in turp divided into 10 schools. The graduates of a number of selected high schools are admitted to the freshman class without examination. Important additions have been made to the equipment of the mechanical laboratory during the year, and it is now claimed that in the matter of museums, scientific collections, laboratories, &c., few, if any, of the Western colleges are superior to thjs.
The physical apparatus of Hedding College, Abingdon, has been improved during the year and additions made to the laboratories.
Wheaton College, Wheaton, possessed originally an endowment of $40,000, but this was recently increased by gifts amounting to about $6,000. Important changes were made at the beginning of the year in the course of study, and those studies were adopted which are best calculated to discipline the mind. The library was increased by donations during the year, and it is now beyond the capacity of its building. Additions were also made to the physical apparatus.
Shurtlet College, Upper Alton, has raised the requirements for admission and arranged a higher curriculum. The time required for the preparatory department is, therefore, 1 year more, and the college is this year without a freshman class, only 3 having been enrolled.
A conservatory of music was established in January, 1886, for Augustana College, Rock Island.
“Prudence Hall," a dormitory 55 by 110 feet in dimension, has been recently completed and affords accommodations for 120 students of Chaddock College, Quincy.
The library of Illinois College, Jacksonville, has been enlarged, and now contains all the books of reference required by the students. A fund of $1,000 has been donated during the year for the purchase of improved instruments for the physical laboratory
Important changes have been made in the scientific course of Knox College, Galesburgh, to take effect at the beginning of the next year, by which an additional year of preparation will be inade necessary. On February 3, 1836, there was dedicated a handsome addition to the ladies' department of the college, which is said to be unsdr. passed in attractiveness and comfort.
Eureka College, Eureka, has been improved by the union with it of Abingdon College. All the apparatus, libraries, museums, &c., of the latter institution have been trans
ferred to Eureka College, whose facilities have thus been almost doubled. The most important innovation of the year has been a course of lectures upon biblical subjects by the vice-president of the college.
The University of Chicago contemplates making important changes in the courses of study, some of which will go into effect during the next year. The Union College of Law, whose diploma is equivalent to admission to the Illinois bar, is connected with this university.
To the Indiana University, Bloomington, the year covered by this report has been one of unusual prosperity. The quality of work done and the number of students in attendance were sources of pride to those in charge of the institution, who claim that the satisfactory condition is the result of the new methods of management and the adoption of the system of electives and specialties. Since the completion of the three new buildings the preparatory department has occupied the old “main building” and has severed its connection with the Bloomington High School. The museums constantly receive additions, and all of them, excepting that of botany, are said to be reasonably complete. Frequent lectures upon scientific and literary subjects are given by noted lecturers and specialists.
De Pauw University, Greencastle, continues to increase the extent of its work and its facilities for accomplishing it. The fine new buildings were sufficiently completed at the beginning of the fall term to be occupied as designed, and their accommodations have already been taxed to the utmost. A considerable sum has been expended in making these improvements, and necessarily the annual expenses of the institution have been more than doubled. Valuable additions have been made during the year to the faculties of the various schools. A distinguished artist assumed charge of the school of art at the beginning of the year, and the school of music and the school of theology each received an additional professor. Assistants were also provided for the professors of Greek, Latin, and inathematics. The normal school is under the direct supervision of the professor of didactics, and the training is entirely professional, the school being co-ordinate with the other professional schools of the university. The McKim observatory forms the astronomical department, and its instruments have nearly all been mounted and ready for use. Liberal donations have been received during the year, Hon. W. C. DePauw, heading the list of generous contributors.
The library of Franklin College, Franklin, has been increased by 465 volumes during the year, and additions have been made to the physical apparatas.
Within the year a new library has been provided and an additional professor employed for Hanover College, Hanover
10WA. The State University, Iowa City, comprises the collegiate, law, medical, homeopathic medical, dental, and pharmaceutal departments. No incidents of especial importance have occurred within the period covered by this report, and no radical changes have been made either in the policy of the management or in the curriculum. Courses of study are in preparation for those graduates who desire to take the master's degree. Candidates for admission are received upon examination, or upon certificate from accepted schools without examination. The astronomical department is being made more interesting by a collection of meteorites now being formed.
Of the other colleges in the State the following have made provision for the training of teachers: Cpper loroa University, Fayette; Iowa College, Grinnell; Lenox College, Hopkinton; Simpson College, Indianola; German College, Mount Pleasant; Western College, Toledo; Tabor College, Tabor; Central University, Pella; Penn College, Oskaloosa ; Cornell College, Mount Vernon; Iowa Wesleyan College, Mount Pleasant; Amity College, College Springs; Luther College, Decorah; University of Des Moines, Des Moines; Parsons College, Fairfield; and Oskaloosa College, Oskaloosa. In the majority of these the “normal course” consists of but little more than the studies of lower classes, often of the preparatory department only, with the addition of the study of pedagogy; but in some cases, including Simpson Centenary College, the junior class must be reached before the student is allowed to begin even the study of didactics. Norwegian Luther Col. lege received during the year a legacy of $5,476.56 in cash and one quarter-section of land, the income of which is to be divided among deserving students; $750 have been received from other sources for like purposes. At Iowa College, Grinnell, loans averaging $50 per annum are made to poor students from funds donated for the purpose.
KANSAS. The University of Kansas, Lawrence, is required by the provisions of the act of incorporation to maintain departments of science, literature and the arts, law, elementary instruction, music, and pharmacy. A department of medicine is contemplated in the act, but as yet only a preparatory course has been provided for. Except a foto required branches, much freedom is allowed to the students in the selection of studies, though a certain amount of work is necessary before a degree can be obtained. /As.