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in the United States who are able and willing to prolong the education of their chil. dren beyond the elementary stage. As the feature is maintained year after year in so many schools voluntarily patronized by the intelligent and well-to-do classes, it is safo to assume that po great evil is found to result therefrom.

The practical recognition of moral training as an essential part of general education is characteristic of a very large proportion of the schools comprised in Table 28. Nearly 50 per cent. of them are professedly nnder the auspices of some one of the religions denominations, while in many of those wbich are reported as non-sectarian moral iostruction bas a well-defined place. On the whole these schools may properly claim to have made the formation of moral character by diroct efforts as prominent in their purposes and procedure as they have the intellectual development of their pupils. Investigations of their history directed to this special subject can hardly fail to draw forth information of great and general pedagogical value.

It is to be regretted that the public high schools of the country have received as yet no adequate representation in the statistics collected by this Office. They perform a large and important part of the work of secondary instruction, and they have certain advantages, arising from the fact that they are parts of an organizeil system, and, as such, subject to close scrutiny and anthoritative supervision. These are conditions exceedingly helpful in the maintenance of a strong educational work, and peculiarly desirable in the grade of work which, above all others, should be diso ciplinary. Their importance is so clearly recognized that efforts have been made from time to time, in various States, to bring the private secondary schools under some directing and controlling agency. The regents' examination and certificates do this measurably for the secondary schools of New York State. The system of affiliation between secondary schools and State nniversities, adopted in a number of States after the precedent afforded by Michigan, operates to the same end.

Ainong private organizations which materially promote the efficiency of the secondary schools of particular States, or sections of the country, must be noted the Massachusetts Association of Classical and High School Teachers, which beld its nineteenth annual meeting in April, 1836; the Associated Principles of the High Schools and Acad. emies of the State of New York, which was organized in December, 1885; the Modern Language Association, which dates from December, 1884; and the New England Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools. The discussions of these several associations exercise a great influence upon the conduct of secondary instruction, and are the direct cause of many practical measures for its improvement.

PREPARATORY SCHOOLS. In the older States of the country, and more particularly in New England, there has been a noticeable tendency to specialization in schools of secondary grade. The tendency is illustrated by the establishment of distinct classes of pnblic secondary schools, as in the city of Boston, where there are 4 central high schools, viz, one classical and one non-classical for each sex. The same tendency is also observable to some extent in the development of private schools of corresponding rank, and has given rise to the classitication of schools of secondary grade in Tables 23 and 29. As, however, the requirements for admission to college have increased on the side of English studies, there has been a corresponding extension of the curriculum of

college preparatories,” so that the distinction between these and secondary scbools in general, so far as such distinction exists at present, is in degree rather than in kind.

From the table it appears that the number of schools reporting under the head of preparatory is 198, having 1,447 instructors and 21,625 students. Seventy per cent. of the schools, with 72 per cent. of the number of scholars reported as preparing for college, are in the New England and Middle States, which is about the proportion that has been maintained ever since the classification was adopted.

The pernianent character of a largo proportion of the preparatory scliools, and the comparative fullness with which they have reported to this Office, suggest the possibility of drawing valuable conclusions from the data which they have afforded during successive years.

In the analysis of these data we are, however, embarrassed by irregularities affecting the final result. For instance, since the preparatory schools keep in close upion with the colleges, it might be expected that their rocord would reflect such changes as may have taken place in the college requirements. But a school may report the dfstribution of pupils one year according to the inquiries sent out by the Office, and another year omit the classification altogether, thereby diminishing the value of comparisons, which depend always upon the completeness with which thọ class of schools involved is represented.

Proper allowance being made for deficiencies in the returns, some importance may be attached to a few studies based upon the statistics. From the comparison of the table before us with the corresponding table for 1830 it appears that there were 89 schools reporting in both years. or these only 60 report the distribution of pupils, with results which are here summarized.

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The totals show, for students in the classical course, net decrease of 3557, or 14 per cent. ; in the scientific course, net increase of 346, or 49 per cent. ; in other courses, net increase of 421, or 75 per cent.

The ratio which the number of students in each of the three courses bore to each other at the respective dates is as follows:

1880.

1885-'86.

Ratio of scientific students to classical .......
Ratio of scientific and classical students to others.....

Per cent. Per cent. 273

48 84

75

If these inquiries be limited to the New England and Middle States, from which, as previously stated, the majority of the preparatories are reported, it appears that 90 per cent. of the net decrease in the number of students reported in the classical course and 97 per cent. of the increase in the number reported in the scientific course inust be credited to that section. In addition to the schools reporting the distribution of students for both years the table before us includes 49 schools organized since 1880 and 49 organized prior to 1880, but not tabulated that year, which report the distribution of pupils for the corrent year.

The 49 schools of the former group report a total of 788 students in the classical conrse, 868 in the scientific, and 2,198 other or unclassified. Of the whole number of the schools here considered 29 are in the New England and Middle Atlantic States, and report the distribution of pupils as follows: Classical course, 5:33; scientific course, 287; other students, 1,102. ^ In other words, tbe excess of scientific students over classical students in the schools of late date is not to be credited to the New England and Middle States. Moreover, the decrease of classical students in the schools of this section involved in the con parison of 1880 with 1885–86 is very nearly made up by the excess of classical stadents over scientific students in the new schools, the numbers being, respectively, 337 and 246.

The 49 schools of the second group (i. e., those organized prior to 1880 but not tabalated at that date) report totals as follows: Number of students in classical course, 42; in scientific conrse, 492; in other courses, 2,988.

Ilere the excess of scientific students over those in the classical course for the whole conntry is less than the excess reported from the schools located in the New England and Middle States, the numbers being, respectively, 64 and 126.

These figures indicate an increasing demand for scientific instruction and for the preparation of young men for the superior schools of science, which particularly affeet the preparatory schools of the Now England and Middle Atlantic States.

The figures cannot, however, be held to confirm the statement repeatedly made that the ratio of students prepariog for the classical course in college, as compared with the whole population of the New England and Middle States, is declining.

There is ground for the belief that the increasing application of science to the arts and industries is inducing a greater number of young men to prolong their studies beyond the elementary stage, which in no way militates against the idea that the

classics attract as large a proportion of students as ever. The discussion must be regarded as merely tentative, and final conclusions be waived until similar investiga tions can be extended to all classes of secondary schools and to a sufficient number of each class to insure that the results shall be truly representative of past tendencies and present conditions.

The following is a comparative summary of the number of institutions for secondary instruction (exclusive of high schools, preparatory schools, and departments of normal schools, and of institutions for superiorinstruction), making returns from 1876 to 1886, inclusive (1883 omitted):

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No. of institutions. 1, 229 1, 226 1, 227 1, 236
No. of instructors..

1, 264 1, 336 1, 482 1, 588
5, 999

1, 617 5, 963

1. 440 5, 747 5, 961 No. of students.... 106, 647 98, 371 100, 374 108, 734 110, 277 122, 617 138, 384 152, 354 160, 137 151, 050

6, 009 6, 489 7,449 7,923 8, 186 7, 566

TABLE 24.-General statistical summary of pupils receiving secondary instruction.

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987

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156

399

153 2, 115

92 2, 107

10 137 705

25 703

20

55 530 622 275

34
30

12

0

4, 013 3, 353 6, 568 1, 261 4. 865

475

678 14, 639 13, 851 7, 025 9, 955

67

536 305

714 209 254

100 331 408 45

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185 239 800 130

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153

214

1,016
4,328
2, 036
1,572

599
972

420
1, 680
1,021
12, 538
3, 673
1, 597

50 1, 448

515 116

801 2,184 8, 252

856

314 1, 769

77

13

38

197 110 237 338

2,119 2, 377 3, 072

827 2,055

475

424
11, 797
6, 183
3, 581
5, 998
1, 216
6,057
2, 148
3, 002
2, 185
3, 921
2, 251
1,493
3, 297
6, 624
917

70
1, 839
3, 485
18, 851
10, 558
3, 895
2, 145
7,089

135 3,480 7, 126 5, 165 2, 779 3, 408

499 2, 564

501 1, 024

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Alabama
Arkansas
California
Colorado.
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia..
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa.
Kangas
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine
Maryland..
Massachusetts.
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Nevada
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York.
North Carolina
Ohio...
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Veraient.
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Dakota
District of Columbia.
Idaho.
Indian Territory
Montana.
New Mexico.
Utah
Washington
Wyoming...

Total

440

8, 691 3, 738 5, 752 3, 884 18, 567 6, 647 3, 857 4, 467 11, 281 2,061

237 3, 281 7, 232 33, 315 11, 377 14, 077

3,024 17, 639

126

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132

43 570 213 203

291

40 2, 469

540 1, 941

012 1, 253

1, 534

40
62

82

7, 747

227
6, 133
1, 204

276
836
516

406
1,085

100 1, 865

CO

303 394 100

1, 486

744 246 201

40 202 173

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300

26 218 45

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123 107 807

83 159

162

5, 236 10, 460 6, 525 3, 423 6, 143

732 5, 763

876 1, 263

46 998

3 1,087 1,637 1, 142

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2,586 276, 693

a In 471 cities.

6 Strictly normal students are not included.

TABLE 25.--Statistical sunımary of students in preparatory courses.

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Alabama..
Arkansas
California
Colorado.
Connecticut..
Delaware.
Florida..
Georgia
Illinois.
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky.
Louisiana
Maine..
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshiro
New Jersey.
New York
North Carolina.
Obio..
Oregon
Peonsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina..
Tepnessee.
Texas
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Dakota
District of Columbia.
Indian Territory
Idaho
Montana
New Mexico
Utab.
Washington.....

Total.....

388

600 1, 395

38 216

380

958 1, 240

342 438

40 138 2, 586 2, 756 1, 638 2, 355 1, 155 1, 214 1, 399

518

500 2, 215

814 612

809 3, 221 449

51 593

977 5, 862 1, 615 2, 310

920 2, 607

221

865 2, 425

922 234 955

107 1, 337

428 289 100 27

3 296 313 258

205

337 1,998 1,037

153 208 828

1 164 778 356 199 80

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464
220
110
102
100
30
29

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307

123 107 807

83 159

223
141
108
100

102

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49, 572

TABLE 26.-Summary of statistics of schools for secondary instruction.

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120

43 14 39

8 58 19 27 32 58 11 14 31 69 11

18 274 97 73 76 239 51

78 203

183 23 40 10

51 141 1, 352 95

579 339 212 1, 205 412 854 253 181 422 396 359 17 252

34 103

10 494 22 156 146 37 314 124 992 522 158 51

45

Alabama.. Arkansas California....... Colorado. Coppecticut. Delaware Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana lowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana.. Maine Maryland.. Massachusetts. Michigan. Minnenota. Mississippi Missouri. Nebraska, Nevada. New Hampshire.. New Jersey New York North Carolina.... Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania. Rhode Island Sontb Carolina Tennessee Texas Vermont.. Virginia West Virginia.. Wisconsin Dakota District of Columbia.. Indian Territory.. New Mexico...... Utah Washington

Total

2, 119
2, 377
3,072

827
2,055

475

424
11, 797
6,183
3, 581
5, 998
1, 216
6, 057
2, 148
3, 002
2,185
3,921
2, 251
1, 493
3, 297
6, 624
917

70
1, 839
3, 485
18, 851
10, 558
3, 895
2, 145
7,069

135 3, 189 7, 126 5, 135 2,779 3, 408

499 2, 564

501 1,024

998

955 1, 637

819

597

335 1, 579

269 692 205

246 €, 331 2, 202

797 843

142 2, 006 1, 173 1, 108

882 1, 386

190

492 1, 379 2,714 205

16 1, 007 1, 472 9, 537 4,732 1,585

845 2, 705

31 1, 541 3,047 2, 292

553 1, 977

119 1, 396

134 087 517 389 121 232

103 50 45 89 103 32 39 55 184 46

0 42 122 478 198 113

29 219

2 41 108 02 52 76

8 80 14 32 16 33 18 19

38 745 54 3, 480 172 17, 221

500 170 10,852

2, 400 6 2, 550 124 29, 587 229 56, 135 224 9, 734 749 11, 223 132 6,336 150 20, 134

86 5, 202 199 16, 041

64 17, 967 178 33, 974 61

10, 625 104 5, 967

65 11, 987 337 | 30, 835 48 8,608

0 200 103 10, 114 158 27, 305 9:2 104, 687 541 25, 292 39 38, 836 69 4,615 129 55, 073

400 5 5,879 73 8, 803 58 11,140 100 6, 770 82 JG, 530

4,200 109 29, 039 64 1, 175

6, 525

3, 650 47 6, 116 56

1, 850 72 2, 968

$137,200

91, 200 407, 800

55,000 257, 500

72,000 90,000

491, 650 1,054, 400

221, 000 331,000 234, 000 [22, 700 139, 050 322, 623

626, 600 1, 755, 233

258, 400 180, 000 174, 250 865, 400 937, 300

25,000 227,000

461,000
4, 104, 896

572, 200
544, 800

321, 300
1,686, 100

680 173,400 318, 150 357, 050 321, 400 325, 500 50,000 374,500 113, 000 160, 500 317, 000

96, 000 129, 810 67,000

31 45 174 102 42 17 81

2 23 60

7 49 168 596 195 160

76 296

9 59 116 121 65 90 14 81 21 91 29

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21 35

16 38

15 10

223 141 108 100 296 313 37

24 98 20 17

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1, 440 3, 180 4,386 a151, 050 01, 391 15, 164 8,356 5,810 083, 036 20, 161, 734

a Large number not classified.

PREPARATORY SCHOOLS. Detailed statistics of preparatory schools will be found in Table 29. The following is a comparative statement of the statistics of these schools as reported to the Bureau from 1876 to 1886, inclusive (1883 omitted):

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105 114
114 123 125

130

157 369 179 107 736 796 818 818 860

871 i 1, 041 1, 183' 1,218 1, 434 12,369 12, 510 12,538 13, 561 13, 239 13, 276 15, 081 18, 319 17,005 21,031

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