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ing, and the obstacles in the way of exclusive devotion to professional training, are fully presented by Hon. E. E. Higbee, State superintendent for Pennsylvania, in the following statement quoted from his report for 1686: "As yet our advanced high schools and colleges do not supply these schools with a sufficient number of students whose thorough literary attainments warrant a more exclusively professional course of studies. In fact, our normal schools are necessitated to do this preparatory academic work themselves. In this way they render themselves liable to the charge of being only academies with a quasi-professional annex. We have all along very much regretted the necessity of directing so much attention to the academic training of the students in these schools, and have carefully studied how to keep the purely professional element from being too much neglected without at the same time sacrificing the thorough literary instruction required. The largo supply of teachers required for the educational work of the State and the very low average of salaries given for educational labor make it impossible to lengthen very much the present term of study. Some with great earnestness have advocated the addition of another Fear. In due time this will come, and be of immense account in enlarging the sphere of professional studies and giving opportunity for more definite and continuous model practice, which, when rightly conducted, is of so much value. The literary instruction may have been given in harmony with the best principles which the present philosophy of school education is able to give, and in such form as to bring into view the very best methods which either the science or art of teaching furnishes. We are not calling this in question at all, but we must keep in mind that the students, at the very outset, are backward in their literary studies, and have but little knowiedge of psychology. Hence they are forced to make every exertion in preparing for their daily class work, and must be, of necessity, far more anxious about the matter of what is taught than about the manner or method of teaching it. They fear to spend any more time in the model school than is absolutely required by law. They make the minimum here the maximum if they can. In addition to this, being subject at the close of the course to a rigid State examination, covering all the academic studies pursued, they, with their professors, are tempted to sacrifice all efforts towards enlarging the course of professional studies through fear of the issue of the final examination test."
With the hope of devising some plan for relieving the normal schools from the diffculties so clearly set forth, Superintendent Higbee called a meeting of all the normalschool principals at Harrisburgh. As a result of their deliberations it was proposed to confine the usual examination for promotion from the junior to the senior class to academic studies, and to devote a larger part of the graduation year to professional training, a measure in line with the specialization taking place elsewhere.
There does not, however, appear to be any inherent incompatibility between the academic instruction and the professional training attempted in so many of the norDalschools of the United States. Both courses are successfully maintained in the training seminaries of Saxony, but with provisions as to time, and to the order and sequence of subjects, which secure to both courses their full effect. The more thoroughly the normal-school work of the United States is examined, the more evident it seems that, where professional training is not the sole purpose, there should be an extension of time and an increase in the teaching force and in the material equipment of the schools, if they are to reach approved standards of excellence.
GERMAN NORMAL SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS' SEMINARIES. The scheme of training adopted in the leading normal schools of the United States shows at least an approximation to that of the training seminaries of Germany, which have been so long the admiration of schoolmen. For the purpose of comparison a somewhat extended account of the German system is here presented.
Candidates for the teachers' seminaries in Prussia make special preparation for admission to the same either under authorized instructors or in preparatory schools. These schools may be private or State establishments, and, although no otficial uniform plan of studies has been prescribed for them, the branches of instruction are determined by the official programme of the examination for admission to the seminaries. These branches are as follows: religion, German language, arithmetic, elementary geometry, geography, history, physical and natural science, writing, design, music, and gymnastics. The study of a foreign language is optional. Candidates may be admitted to the seminary at 17 years of age, and may not be above 24 years
Aceording to the present regulations there should be annexed to every seminary 2 elementary schools, 1 having a single class, the other having several classes. Here the students in training practice the art of teaching under the direction of a special master, who is included in the teaching staff of the seminary. The course of study in the seminary is 3 years. In the lower class the students whose preparation has been made by different means must be brought into desired uniformity; at this stage
they do not participate in the exercises in the annexed schools. In the second class they continue theirown studies according to the programme and enter npon the practical work in the annexed schools; in the third class they complete their studies and receive mich directions as will enable them to work out their own ultimate dovelopment. At this stage the work in the practice school is increased, and imposes greater responsibility. The amount of time spent by each scholar of the third year in the practical work must not be less than 6 hours nor more than 10 honrs a week, and each one must have the opportunity of practical exercise in all the studies of the programme. The two lower classes spend 24 hours a week in their own lessons and the superior class 14 hours, not inclnding the hours devoted to the technical branches (design, writing, gymnastics, and music) and to the optional branches. At the end of the 3-years course the student undergoes his examination for office; if he passes he receives a provisional certificate. At the end of 2 years at the earliest, or 5 years at the latest, he presents himself for a second examination, which entitles him to a full cer. tificate.
Each seminary must be provided with a good library, a cabinet of physics, a chem. ical laboratory, and as far as possible with a collection of objects and material for illustration. The instruction is conducted in accordance with a plan which must be approved by the minister of public instruction. The following table shows the branches prescribed in the official programme and their distribution through the 3 years:
a In the third year the hour assigned to arithmetic is devoted to geometry.
There are also exercises in horticulture, in arboriculture, and in silk culture, which each seminary arranges at will.
The teachers' staff of a teachers' seminary consists of a director, a head master, four ordinary masters and an auxiliary master. The director is nominated by the King, the masters are nominated by the ininister of public instruction. The auxiliary master is chosen from the teachers who have passed their second examination. The director and ordinary masters may be taken from the rank of teachers, bnt it must bo teachers of secondary schools. "As a rule the directors are persons who bave passed the university examination in theology or philology. The salaries of the members of the staff are fixed as follows :
Seminaries for training women teachers are of recent establishment in Prussia. The obligatory branches of study in these are the same as for the men, omitting geometry and including needle-work. French is the optional branch.
The teachers' seminaries of Saxony ditier from those of Prussia in several important particulars. Candidates are admitted immediately from the popular schools, that is, at 14 years of ago and the course covers 6 years—the first years corresponding to thọ preparatory course which the student follows for admission to the Prussian seminary The official plan of studies for the seminaries of Saxony is as follows:
Harmony, obligatory in the first year, is optional for the rest of the course. The piano, organ, and stevography are optional.
The law requires that the director and at least a third of the teachers should have pursued superior studies and have passed a university examination. Saxony possesses two seminaries for training women teachers, bat instruction in these is not gratuitous. The course of study is 5 years, and the branches are about the same as in the seminaries for inen; more time, however, is devoted to lauguayo and literature and less to science and to music, the organ being omitted altogether. Needle-work is included, occupying two hours a week throughout the course. The examination and certificate granting are under the same regulations as those for men. It will be seen that with the exception of pedagogy and foreign languages the studies of the teachers' seminaries are thoso of the elementary schools. Instruction in these branches is carried farther and is of a higher order, but the subject-matter is substantially the same.
The principle constantly kept in mind is this: "that the instruction which the teachors in training receive should present a model of that which they will eventually give.”
FRENCH NORMAL SCHOOLS. It may be of interest to consider also the plan of the French normal schools, which have been modelled more or less closely upon those of Germany. As organized under the decree of 1881 the French normal schools present the same plan of a single undivided course. In the niain the studies are the same as those prescribed for tho elementary schools, but as in Germany the intention is to secure a broader and more comprehensive view of these subjects. The duration of the course is 3 years; candidates for admission must be at least 15 years of age and must have the certificate of primary studies (certificat d'études primaires).
The following programmes show the branches pursued and their distribution through the 3 years :
Normal schools for men.
a One hour a week during one semester.
c One hour dnring one semester. b Two hours during one semester, one hour during the other. done hour during the other semester.
Normal schools for women.
It is worthy of mention that in the amount of time given to thein langnages and iterature exceed mathematics in both German and French training schools.
THE SUBSEQUENT CAREERS OF NORMAL-SCHOOL GRADUATES. In his report for 1887, Hon. E. A. Apgar, superintendent of New Jersey, embodied the record kept by Prof. J. S. Hart, while he was principal of the Normal School of that State, which showed that during the period of his administration 98 per cent. of the graduates entered upon the work of teaching.
Mr. Apgar proceeded somewhat further in the inquiries with the view of ascertaining the length of time spent by normal graduates and students in the work of teaching,
From the facts collected he concluded that the average time for normal graduates was 47 years, or twice as long as they were required by their pledges, and the average time for undergraduates 27 years. In his report for 1885 and 1886, Chas. H. Allen, principal of the State Normal School, San José, Cal., states that “during the past 3 years an effort has been made to obtain the present address and occupation, and the amount of teaching experience, of every graduate of the normal school.”
In view of the approaching quarter-centennial anniversary of the school a special circular has been issued to graduates, whose purpose is thus set forth in the opening paragraph: "In July, 1887, the California State Normal School, at San José, will complete the first 25 years of its existence." Following the example of several Eastern normal schools and the suggestions of the United States Commissioner of Education, the board of trustees and the faculty of the school propose to celebrate this quarter-centennial anniversary by issuing a history of the school and the work of its graduates.
This can be done well only through tho help of all graduates, former members of the faculty and the board of trustees, and friends who may be familiar with any part of the history of the school."
The large number of graduates and others interested in the project who have responded already, gives the hopo of very full information as to the practical results of the school.
PUBLIC NORMAL SCHOOLS
The following is a comparative summary of public normal schools, instructors, and pupils reported to the Bureau for the years 1880–86, inclusive (1883 omitted):
PRIVATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. The following is a comparative summary of private normal schools, instructors, and papils reported to the Bureau for the years 1880–86, inclusive (1883 omitted):