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for the temporary accommodation of the scholars. The work of remodelling was finisher in February, and the building again opened for the use of the school, as well heated and ventilated as any in the city. . For several years the need of a new highschool building has been urgently pressed, and in the latter part of 1885 a lont of $45,000 was authorized by the city council, but before a site for the building could be Blected the terms of those councilmen expired and the new members refused to be bound by the action of their predecessors; hence the school remains in a divided condition, part in the old building, others in the ball of a fire-engine house, and the remander in the city-council chamber. Despite these disadvantages its efficiency has vastly i acreased in the last year. Practical book-keeping has been introduced and is tangu li with great care and thoroughness, and the boys have been organized as a corps of cadets and armed with rifles purchased by private subscription. In all the schools a remarkably high average of attendance is maintained, due largely to the sentiment among the scholars forbidding absence except for urgent reasons. Music and dancing are under the control of special teachers.
Great Barrington's school session comprises 39 weeks, and its schools are primary, intermediate, grammar, and high. The course of study in the last named has been revised during the year and greatly improved. The present buildings bave been thoroughly overhauled, but they are still insufficient to meet the requirements of the town.
Greenfield's school committee were greatly embarrassed at the opening of the session of 1885–86 by the lack of accommodation for the large number of new scholars. By the opening of a new building, containing 4 rooms and 192 desks, all overcrowding was relieved and better arrangement of the classes made possible, by which the services of one of the assistant teachers were rendered unnecessary. Drawing and music are carefully taught by special teachers.
· Haverhill has always manifested a liberal spirit toward its schools, and the recommendations of its school board seldom go unheeded. The year 1885–86 is mainly notable as being the first in which a superintendent was employed and constant supervision by a skilled officer instituted. The good effects of this plau soon became apparent. More uniformity has been secured in the methods of teaching, and many improvements resulting from a radical change in the course of study are noticeable. The cost per scholar of maintaining the schools is unusually large, owing to the fact that the buildings are small and numerous, making it impossible to judiciously arrange and grade the classes. The school yards generally are in a bad condition, and the city council has been asked to devote a sum of money to their improvement. The ungraded district schools show a falling off in attendance; but this is explained by the increase of 462 in the enrolment in the city schools. In obedience to a Stato law evening schools are maintained; but since no law provides for compulsory attendance upon them, they have not been successful, except in the instance of the drawing school. This is carefully taught, and its pupils represent all classes and occupations. The training school is a valuable auxiliary to the school system, and from it nearly all the teachers of the primary grades are drawn. Vocal musio is in the charge of competent special teacher. Important and lasting improvements have been made in the systems of heating and ventilation in all the large buildings.
Lawrence schools are in fine condition, and their buildings in good repair. It is unfortunate that much of the power formerly vested in the school committee has been taken from them and given to a committee of the town council. A school building, begun over a year ago, was suficiently completed to be occupied by a school in May, 1886. Sewing is now a permanent feature of the middle grados. After an interim of two seasons the evening sehools were re-opened this year, and large classes are taught successfully. Drawing and chemistry are specially noted as being onthusiastically studied, principally by employés of the neighboring print works.
Leicester supports 15 schools, all of which are in a prosperous condition. At the beginning of this year one of the schools was badly overcrowded, but the erection of another building in the same district supplied all the accommodations necessary. The teachers are generally careful with their scholars and thorough in their teaching.
Leominster reports a marked improvement in its schools during the last year. The crowding at one school was remedied by remodelling the building, and at another by substituting improved desks for the cumbersome old ones previously used. The sanitary condition of the bigh-scbool building is bad and demands immediate attention.
Lowell schools have been completely re-organized and regraded within the last year. of the primary schools especially is this true; instead of officially designating as a "school” the occupauts of each room, as was formerly done, each building or each set of boildings receives the name, hence the apparent reduction in the number from 82 to 28. The grammar-school districts have been altered to conform more nearly to the needs of school population and the efficiency of schools of this grade increased by the addition of another year to the course without increasing the number of studies. In the high school the classes have been re-arranged and two more teachers added, 80 that now one-fourth more time may be devoted to each class than was possible before
the introduction of the new method. These changes have necessitated alterations or additions to a vumber of the buildings, particularly those occupied by the grammar schools, and nearly $15,000 have been expended in that way. The evening schools show a noticeable improvement this year over last, both in the number and the quality of those in attendance and their progress is considered exceedingly satisfactory. Lowell adopted the free text-book system as early as 1881, and that year the system cost $2.16 per scholar, but this year only 78 cents per scholar have been thus es. ponded. The year 1885–86 is notable for the absence of the niany unpleasant incidents betwoen the school committee and the committee of the city council on lands and buildings. The differences between these two committees were reconciled at the beginning of the year and nothing has occurred to mar the harmony of their relations.
Malden schools received from the city council $2,450 less than the amount computed to be necessary for their successful conduct this year, and certain consolidations were the necessary result. The new West building was completed and publicly dedicated early in 1880, and forms an important addition to the school facilities of ibe town. The study of the Euglish language has receivedl special attention in all the schools. Only one of the evening schools was opened this year, but sessions weru held four times a week instead of two, as formerly. Drawing is in the charge of a skilled specialist, and is mado an especially important part of the course.
Marblehead owns 12 school-louses, one of which has just been repaired and its yard graded and beautified. The teachers are said to bo competent and faithful, and the scholars generally diligent. Music is taught by a special teacher.
Middleborough has made this year a new departure in putting all schools under the control of a superintendent, and the wisdone of the move has already been shown by the more complete organization and greater efficiency of the schools. A number of cbanges have been made in the course of study of the high school, more prominence being given to the English language and literature.
Milford enjoys ample school accommodations. The buildings have all been put in thorough repair within the last year. Owing to prevalent sickness the attendance fell off greatly during the winter months, and it became necessary to dispense with one of the teachers. As an experiment a special drawing teacher was employed this year, and such success has been achieved that her services are now considered absolutely necessary.
Montaguo has, during the year of 1885–86, erected 3 new school-houses with a total seating capacity of 300, and it is claimed that now no town in the State is more amply supplied with buildings. The 27 teachers employed are as rule competent, and are highly commended.
Needham schools have steadily grown in numbers and efficiency for years past. The attendance was largely increased this year, and soon after the beginning of the school year it became necessary to open a new school, making a total of 14 now maintained by the town. In response to the popular wish that niore attention should be paid to the lower grades, tho time required for the completion of the grammarschool course has been increased during the year to 9 years.
New Bedford'8 school population increases with the rapid growth of the city, and the accommodation of the large pumber of new scholars this year has been a serious problem. The opening of two parochial schools has taken 1,200 pupils from the public schools and in their vicinity there is no undue pressure, but in other parts of the city the buildings are taxed to their utmost capacity. A new grammar school has been added to the system and it is already comfortably full. A new system of teaching, similar to that in vogne in the large colleges, has been inaugurated in the high school and much of the inconvenience from overcrowding is thus relieved. Each teacher is now a specialist in a particular branch aud comes in contact with pupils of every grade, instead of controlling all the classes of a certain grade, as was formerly the case. This change necessitated the employment of an additional teacher, but the benefits derived componsate for the extra expense. Within the last year the curriculum of this school has been greatly changed and much less latitude allowed the students in the selection of the studies to bo pursued. A reform has been insti. tuted in the method of employing teachers for the primary grades, and 10-weeks gratuitous teaching as assistant to an expert is required of every applicant. The eveving schools have passed the experimental stage and are now established upon a sound footing. The instruction in drawing is excellent.
The Necton schools are uncomfortably full although a new 4-room house has been opened in the last year. An unwholesome condition exists in some of the buildings, and the city authorities are earnestly requested to remedy the efects at once. The no-recess plan has been in operation three years merely as an experiment with good success and its permanent adoption has been recommended.
North Adams reports a deplorable sanitary condition in many of its school-houses requiring immediate attention. A supposed lack of funds caused the closing of the ovening schools after a session of 7 weeks. The evening drawing schools are in a bigh state of usefulness under the charge of a skilled specialist.
Peabody schools have bad another prosperous year, during which the erection of a handsome edifice, costing with its sito $9,500, has been the most conspicuous event. Soon after its completion the building was badly damaged by fire, but prompt measnres were taken to rebuild it, and it was again ready for its occupants in May last. The older houses are in good repair, a considerable sum having been spent upon their improvenient during the year. "Much attention is paid to vocal music, and a special instructor is employed.
Pittsfield also rejoices in increased school accommodations. A substantial bnilding with 8 rooms and 392 desks was opened at the outset of the school year, and the closing of 2 old stractures will soon follow. A scbool of industrial and mechanical drawing receives an annual appropriation from the town, but its attendance is small, and its nrefulness limited. An evening school was first opened this year, and excellent results bave been obtained. Music receives the attention of a specialist.
Randolph supports 15 schools beside the bigh school, which is partly maintained by the income from a large fund bequeatlied by a former citizen of the town. Thirtyeight weeks compose the school year. The corps of teachers remained unchanged through the entire year, conducing greatly to the usefulness of the system.
Rockland reports a prosperous condition of the schools, with no especial change in the policy of their management. Two evening schools have been established in the last year, and the results obtained are so satistactory that they are now considered a permanent part of the school system of the town. A new building is in course of orection, bat its completion bas been greatly delayed by severe weather.
Southbridge bas passed throngh its first year with its schools under the supervision of a superintendent. Many changes and consolidations have been made, and the system improved. One building has been closed, and its pupils sent to other schools, and the number of teachers in the high school reduced from 3 to 2, all owing to the decreased number in attendance, cansed largely by prevalent sickness.
Springfield has begun the work of industrial training. In March last the city council appropriated $1,000 for the purpose of equipping an experimental school and of employing an instructor therefor. The basement of the high school has been fitted op for the purpose, and a course of instruction arranged covering the use of all tools used in wood working. A vacation class will be taught after July 1, and with the opening of the fall term the school will regularly begin its work. Sewing was taught in the schools 2 years ago, but not until this year have its results been 80 satisfactory that it was considered wise to introduce it extensively. Drawing, penmanship, and music, are taught by specialists. Extensive alterations and improvements have been made in the building, nearly every one owned by the city receiving its share of the money thus expended.
Stonehan's interest in drawing was greatly increased after the visit of an agent of the State, who assisted the teachers in their work. More prominence is now given to that art in the school course. At the opening of the fall term the schools were badly crowded, and the opening of a new primary school was resorted to as a relief. The school regulations and course of study have been greatly altered for the better within the last year, and the methods of teaching show a marked improvement.
Stoughton schools have done good work in the last year, nothing worthy of especial note bas occurred, and everything seems to favor the increasing prosperity of the system. The time of graduation and promotion has been changed from the end of the winter term to the end of the spring term, to conform to the custom of the majority of the schools in the State.
Taunton High School building was dedicated and formally opened September 2, 1885. An increasing interest in education is apparent on the part of the citizens, and the future of the schools seems unusually bright.
Wareham supports 1 high school, 2 grammar, 2 primary, 1 interinediate and 10 ungraded schools. Three hundred and ifty dollars have been spent in repairing the Narrows school-house and in enlarging it to accommodate the increased number of scholars in attendance. Special attention was given to light and perfect ventilation.
Feymouth owns 23 school-houses, many of which are old and dilapidated, and it is almost impossible to keep them all in good order with the means at hand. By means of lectures and private subscription, money has been raised to beautify several of the school yards with flowers and shrubs. The pupils take great interest in these improvements, and the effect is seen in increased love of order and neatness. A new sehool solar camera has been provided from the lecture fund, and its benefits are received by all the schools. The daily sessions have been shortened to 5 hours, and, after a thorough trial during the year, it is considered expedient to adopt the plan permanently.
Woburn public schools show a large decrease in enrolment this year, as the result of the opening of a large parochial school in their midst. The public schools in its Deighborhood were so depleted that 10 were discontinued. Two new schools, however, were opened in other parts of the town, leaving a total reduction of 8.' As a matter of course these reductious diminished the cost of maintaining the system, and
84,000 of the appropriation reinained unexpended at the close of the year. The even. ing school was operated this year with more success than ever before, but its results are still far from satisfactory. A number of changes have been made in the course of study, and many improvements in the methods of teaching are noticeable.
Worcester's school appropriation amounts to more every year than any other item of current expenditure. With a steadily increasing school population it is necessary to spend an average of $30,000 per annum in the erection of new buildings alone. The corps of teachers has increased this year from 234 to 267.
MICHIGAN. Battle Creek schools are amply provided with overything necessary for the successful prosecution of their work. The high school is well supplied with philosophical apparatus and a well-equipped laboratory. No noteworthy changes are reported dur ing the last year.
Cold Water reports a number of changes in text-books, generally relating to math. ematics. During the year special efforts have been made to develop a fondness for good literature in the children of the lower grades with good success. Physiology and hygieno has been introduced, but has not been taught systematically, and but little good seems to have resulted.
Detroit school district has been increased in size during the year of 1885–86 by an act of the State Legislature extending the city limits. A great deal of additional school property, therefore, will come under the control of the city board of education, but sufficiênt time has not yet elapsed for a complete investigation of the accommodations and needs of the new territory. The prevalence among the school children of minor contagious diseases has greatly affected the attendance, especially in the lower grades, but nevertheless all the schools are reported as being more than usually effective and prosperous, and the year past has been characterized by a steady improvement, especially in the methods of teaching. The plan of the training school has been materially altered for the better. With one exception all the schools are graded as primary, grammar, and high. The ungraded school was established in 1883 for truants and incorrigibles, but subsequently it was attended by others of their own accord, and is now a large and prosperous school. Eighty-nine thousand two hundred dollars were appropriated this year for repairs and new schools, and the amount was expended principally in making additions to houses already standing: Eleven lots have been purchased, at a total cost of $5,500, for future uses. Only 1 specialist is employed, and his attention is devoted to drawing. An evening school is in operation and meets the expectations of its founders.
Flint public schools embrace a course of study requiring 12 years for its completion. The school year is composed of four terms of 10 weeks each. A special teacher is employed for reading.
Grand Rapids reports that the year of 1885–86 has been one of unusual prosperity in the schools. The graduating class in the high school was the largest in its history, and a general increase in enrolment appears. It is said that the most approved methods of instruction are in use, particularly in the system of teaching foreign languages. A new plan of furnishing text-books to the children now prevails, whereby the benefits of the system are retained, and at the same time the superintendent is relieved from the annoyance of distributing them. The special teacher in permanship has been dispensed with, the regular teachers assuming the responsibility. Special. ists are employed to teach drawing and music. A new building containing 12 rooms has been completed, and its use greatly facilitates the working of the system, since it relieves a great deal of overcrowding and renders a better classification possible.
Ludington schools are in session 40 weeks every year. They are regularly graded as primary, grammar, and high. The high school possesses a well-selected library of 2,000 voluines.
MINNESOTA. Duluth is fully alive to the necessity of ample school accommodations, as is slowu by the building of 2 additional school-bouses, commodions in every respect. One, the high-school building, is still in the process of erection, the other was completed and occupied in January last; the 2 will represent a cost of about $45,000 when completely furnished. A portion of the school property was condemned for railroad purposes and sold during the last year, for $3,326; perinission has been obtained, however, to use the building thereon for school purposes until January 1, 1887. Truancy increased to an unbearable extent during the first of the school session, but the employment of a trnant officer proved to be an effective remedy for the evil. The no-recess plan has beeu tried this year and has worked satisfactorily.
Minneapolis expended during 1885–86, $118,881 in permanent improvements upon schoul property. Six new buildings have been opened, increasing the total number ot school rooms to 290. The total outlay for schools was $24,110 more than last year,
Three specialists are employed who supervise the study of book-keeping and penmanship, drawing, and music. A library of 7,474 volumes is maintained for the use of teachers and pupils.
St. Paul reports steady increase in the number and usefulness of its schools. Eightyseven thousand tive hundred and fifty-two dollars have been spent in the last year in improvements and new buildings, a large proportion of this being paid for the introduction into some of the older buildings of improved systems of ventilation and heating. The graduating class of the high school this year was the largest in its history. The teachers' training school is an important adjunct to the school system, and the majority of the primary teachers have been taken from it. Two thousand and seven pupils study German, and 10 special teachers find employment in teaching them. The evening schools are fairly sucoessful, 933 having been enrolled during the year.
MISSISSIPPI. Meridian is enthusiastic over the establishment and success of graded schools. Before 1885 the city's schools were in nowise better than those of the country districts around, and each year ended in disappointment and failure. At the beginning of 1885, however, the city was made a separate school district, and authority given to levy a school tax. Two graded schools were at once established, one for white and another for colored children, and the year just closed has been a prosperous one to them in every respect. The attendance has been so large that it has been necessary to appropriate $1,600 for additions to the present buildings. The school year is now 40 weeks, instead of the scant 5 months of former years, and the teachers are well paid and efficient.
Carthage reports few important changes in 1885–86. The primary-school work is now all done in the ward buildings, leaving the central building to be devoted to the high and grammar schools only. Slight changes have been made in the course of study and methods of teaching,
St. Joseph schools have been much more successful in 1885-86 than the year previous. Though the enrolment was only 8 more, the average daily attendance was nearly 300 greater than in 1884–85, and the per cent. of attendance increased to 94. The Garfield building is badly crowded, and a two-room annex is being erected to receive its overflow.
The southeastern portion of the city will soon enjoy additional school accommodations, since a suitable lot has been donated and a building erected upon it by publicspirited citizens, for which the board will pay in annual installments. The colored high school has completed its first and begun its second year. A fair degree of succoss has been achieved. Music, drawing, and penmanship are taught by specialists.
NEW HAMPSHIRE, Dover schools are not so liberally dealt with by the city government as they deserve. Only $700 were appropriated in 1885-86 for repairs, and that sum proved to be totally insufficient. New methods of heating and ventilation were introduced in the high-school building, but with that exception little could be done. An evening school has been operated, but was not well attended; and, indeed, irregularity of attendance seems to be the great evil that the school authorities have to contend with.
Manchester reports this year a decrease in enrolment in every school in the city except the high school. This is explained by the statement that the system of Catholio parochial schools has been during the year of 1885–86 more fully developed, drawing a large proportion of its scholars from the public system. Many of the public schools have been closed and their buildings turned over to the parochial schools. An annex has been added to the high-school building for a chemical laboratory. Elocution is taught by a special instructor, whose salary is paid from money realized from occasional public exhibitions. Music has been in the charge of the same specialist for 15 years, and is carefully and thoroughly taught. The evening schools attain an unusual' degree of success, owing to the earnestuess and zeal of the scholars in their work. The teachers' training school exerts a powerful influence apon the schools, since for several years past at least 50 per cent. of the lady teachers employed weré graduates of the training school.
Portsmouth reports show a great improvement in the matter of attendance, there being fewer cases of tardiness and truaney in 1885–86 than ever before. The accommodations provided for the scholars are neither ample nor comfortable enough, being heated and ventilated by methods that are susceptible of much improvement. A special instructor in penmanship has been employed in high grades since 1869 with so much success that in November last the instruction was extended to the primary and suburban sohools. Drawing was introduced in 1881, but has not been taught systematically, and little success has been attained. Sewing has been taught for many years.