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In the case of tanks which have been in use only for general cargo or like purpose, the operation of cleaning the tank is not so drastic, and the steaming process will likely not be necessary, but in all cases, in order to eliminate all grounds for claims for contamination, etc., it is necessary that the shippers and the surveyors called in to certify the tanks as fit to receive and carry the oil be satisfied in all respects and the latter's certificate to that effect obtained before any oil is shipped.

Since some vegetable oils solidify at ordinary temperatures, the tanks used for their carriage must be fitted with heating coils to liquefy the oil when it is to be pumped out upon arrival at destination. Usually, the oil is pumped out by the consignee's own equipment. What the pumps cannot remove is collected by hand and put in barrels, which should be supplied by the consignee. SOLIDIFYING POINTS OF VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL OILS

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Vellum. A fine kind of parchment used for bookbinding, etc. It is usually packed in tin-lined cases, which should be given careful stowage as the commodity is of considerable value.

Verdigris.-The green rust of copper, or a green crystallized substance obtained from copper, used as a pigment in dyeing. It is poisonous and should be carefully stowed away from foodstuffs.

Vermicelli.-A form of macaroni. Should be stowed with dry goods, well away from damp or odorous goods and green or fresh fruit, which will seriously damage the quality of vermicelli.

Vermilion. A bright-red pigment obtained by grinding cinnabar to a fine powder. Dry stowage, as for cinnabar, which see. Vermin exterminators.-See Insecticides, liquid.

Vetiver oil.-An essential oil used in making perfumes. Shipped largely from the Netherlands Indies, French Africa, and France. See Essential oils.

Vicuna skins.-The skins of the vicuna, which have a fine and valuable fur. Shipped in bales from Chile and Peru, and should be given careful stowage. See Furs.

Vinegar.-A form of acetic acid. When packed in bottles in cases, it requires ordinary stowage as for bottled goods. When shipped in barrels, it should be given good barrel stowage well away from articles which it might damage by taint or leakage.

Viscacha skins.-A fur skin shipped from Argentina, usually in bales. See Furs.

Vitriol, oil of.-See Sulfuric acid.

Vitriol, green.-See Copperas.

Vomica nuts.-See Nux vomica.

Wallaby skins.-The skins of a small kangaroo, shipped from Australia. See Skins, also Furs.

Walnuts. Shipped in bags chiefly from Italy, Rumania, Syria, Chile, Japan, and France. See Nuts.

Walnut meat (shelled walnuts).-Usually packed in cases, which should be stowed in a cool, well-ventilated place, well away from engine and boiler-room bulkheads.

Waste, cotton.-See Cotton waste.

Waterproofed clothing.-See Oiled textiles.

Wattle bark and extract.-An extract used in tanning. Shipped in bags from East Africa and South Africa. Dry stowage. See Barks. Waxes. Various waxes are shipped in oversea commerce, important ones including beeswax, carnauba wax, Japan wax, paraffin wax, white and yellow wax from China, and wool wax. All waxes should be stowed in a cool place, as they melt and run when subjected to heat. Refined waxes, moreover, are frequently shipped in the form of slabs and, if these are heated and softened so that they adhere to one another, there is likely to be sufficient damage to cause claims. Many manufactured liquid waxes are classed as combustible liquids. For these, see Dangerous Goods.

Whalebone.-Shipped in cases and bundles. A valuable commodity, and should be stowed in the ship's special cargo locker, away from greases, oils, and acids.

Whale oil.-See Fish oils.

Wheat. See Grain, chapter IX.

Whisky.-See Alcoholic Liquors, chapter IX.
White lead.-See Paints.

White wood oil.-See Eucalyptus oil.

Whitening (whiting).-A substance like chalk, but softer, used as a covering medium for ceilings, etc. It is usually shipped in barrels or bags, and should be given dry stowage. Nearby goods should be protected against the dust given off by whitening during handling. Wines.-See Alcoholic Liquors, chapter IX.

Wire, barbed.-Usually packed on reels, which should be kept apart from oils and wet cargo. The reels are very useful for filling broken stowage and are commonly used for this purpose.

Wire, galvanized. This and bright wire are usually packed in coils covered with burlap, and should be kept dry and carefully stowed to keep the coils from being crushed.

Wire netting.-Is commonly packed in rolls which may be used for filling broken stowage, but should not be overstowed with heavy goods or other articles that would crush the wire.

Wire rope.-See Rope.

Witherite.-A heavy mineral sometimes mistaken for lead ore be cause of its weight; also called barolite. See Ores.

Wolf skins. Shipped in bales chiefly from U. S. S. R. See Furs, also Skins.

Wolfram. An ore from which tungsten is obtained. See Tung

sten ore.

Wood filler, liquid.-A combustible liquid. See Dangerous Goods. Wood oil.-See China wood oil.

Wood pulp.-See Pulp.

Wood shavings.-A hazardous article. See Dangerous Goods. Wood stain, liquid.-Frequently an inflammable or combustible liquid. See Dangerous Goods.

Wool.-Wool is an important cargo and is shipped from a number of countries, the principal ones being South America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, United States, and North China. The sizes. and weights of the bales used in the different countries vary greatly. Argentine and Uruguayan bales vary from 700 to 1,000 pounds in weight; New Zealand bales from 280 to 400 pounds; South African bales from 300 to 900 pounds; Indian bales from 300 to 400 pounds; and Chinese bales from 400 to 700 pounds.

Wool is shipped in two conditions, as wool in the grease (greasy or unscoured wool), and as clean or scoured wool. The two kinds should not be stowed together, as the scoured wool is likely to be damaged by the greasy wool.

There is considerable danger of fire when wool is being carried. A Royal Commission appointed by the New Zealand Government in 1906 to inquire into the origin of fires on wool-carrying ships recommended "That wool should not be stowed with oil, fat, tallow, tow or flax; or in contact with packages containing such products; or in contact with other material more readily combustible than wool itself." It is further recommended that wet or damp wool should be rejected for carriage; wool should not be stowed on top of ore or moist or oily goods without thorough separation by means of planking, etc., neither should wool be stowed with or above maize or other cargo likely to heat and throw off moisture, since many claims have been paid because of sweat damage to wool, arising from the latter type of stowage.

Wool cargoes should be well dunnaged and matted, and should receive good ventilation during the voyage.

An important point in stowing wool is to see that no space is lost, and to this end the hold should be carefully measured to see which way the bales will stow to the best advantage, on their flat or their crown, or perhaps even some tiers each way, as by this method it is sometimes possible to save a large amount of space.

Wool grease. Shipped in barrels and drums and, though not liable to spontaneous combustion, it is oily and greasy and will maintain and increase combustion if a fire breaks out. It should be given wet stowage.

Wool waste.-Classed as a hazardous article. See Dangerous Goods.

X-ray film.-When such film has a cellulose acetate base, there are no restrictions as to stowage. When it has a nitro-cellulose base, however, it is highly inflammable. See Dangerous Goods. The same applies to X-ray film scrap.

Xylene.-An inflammable liquid. See Dangerous Goods.

Xylol.-An inflammable liquid. See Dangerous Goods.
Xylol bromide.-A tear gas. See Dangerous Goods.
Yacca gum.-See Gums.

Yegoma oil.-See Perilla oil.

Yerba maté (Paraguayan tea).-The dried leaves of a tropical tree much used as a beverage in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, and elsewhere. Dry stowage, well clear of other goods which might cause tainting damage.

Ylang-ylang or cananga.-An essential oil, used in perfumery, shipped chiefly from Madagascar, Netherlands Indies, and Philippine Islands. See Essential oils.

Zedoary (zadory) roots.-The roots of a Chinese and Indian plant used in medicine and for perfumery, and also yields a turmeric. Dry stowage, as for barks.

Zinc.-See Spelter.

Zinc arsenate.-A poisonous article. See Dangerous Goods.

Zinc arsenite, solid. A poisonous article. See Dangerous Goods. Zinc ash. This is likely to heat if it is wet or damp. Should be stowed in a dry place, away from all goods which may throw off moisture.

Zinc chlorate.-An oxidizing material. See Dangerous Goods. Zinc concentrates.-Shipped in bulk and bags chiefly from Peru and Australia. See Concentrates, also Ores, chapter IX.

Zinc dust.-A powder obtained by heating and grinding zinc or by cooling volatilized zinc, and used in dye-works and in galvanizing iron. Dry stowage.

Zinc ethyl.-A colorless liquid which takes fire on contact with air. Its carriage is not permitted. See Dangerous Goods.

Zinc nitrate.-An oxidizing material. See Dangerous Goods. Zinc permanganate.-An oxidizing material. See Dangerous Goods. Zinc white.-Usually shipped in drums or kegs. Should be treated as wet cargo, the containers stowed on end, and well chocked off. Heavy cargo should not be stowed on top of this commodity, as it might crush the containers and cause serious leakage.

Zirconium sand.-A mineral, also known as "Zirkelite." It yields zirconia, which has great heat-resisting qualities and is used as a refractory and in the ceramic industry. It is shipped in bags, chiefly from South Africa. Stowage as for bagged ore. See Ores, chapter IX. Zirconium ore.-Used in making certain kinds of steel. It is shipped from India. Brazil, Australia, and Egypt, usually in bags but sometimes in bulk. See Ores, chapter IX.

Zirconium metallic, dry.—An inflammable solid. See Dangerous Goods. Zirconium metallic, sludge.-An inflammable solid. See Dangerous Goods.

Zirconium metallic, wet.-An inflammable solid. See Dangerous Goods.

Zirconium nitrate.-An oxidizing material. See Dangerous Goods. Zirconium picramate wet with 20-percent water.-An oxidizing material. See Dangerous Goods.



The stowage, care, and preservation of ship's stores is a problem distinct from the stowage of cargo, being governed in large measure by considerations that need not be taken into account by the master or ship's officers when stowing cargo. It has seemed desirable, however, to republish here the instructions for the "Care and Preservation of Supplies," contained in the United States Federal Standard Stock Catalogue, and used by the United States Navy.



[NOTE: (1) Stowage Precautions-Section II, Part 3 of the Federal Standard Stock Catalogue--have been revised and expanded herein. (2) In this revision of Stowage Precautions, all items of clothing and of provisions which heretofore have appeared in the general alphabetical list have been transferred to the main captions "Clothing" and "Provisions" where they will be found arranged alphabetically as in the Federal Standard Stock Catalogue.]

When carried on

Acids. Should be protected against high temperatures. shipboard, should be stowed on steel deck. Acids of either inflammable, combustible, or penetrating nature should, when practicable, be stowed above deck in lead-lined lockers especially constructed for the purpose, and acids which cause spontaneous combustion by contact, should not be stowed in the same compartment. Acids should be plainly labeled in such a way as to prevent their being mistaken for other material. The tops of carboys should be protected by wooden battens to prevent breakage, and stoppers of carboys should be secured to prevent spilling in handling.

Alcohol. Should be stowed in metal tanks, and when practicable, stored in separate storerooms in order to avoid a fire hazard. When carried on shipboard, in small containers, should be stowed preferably on weather deck. Alcohol for torpedoes should be stowed in new or perfectly clean containers.

Aluminum-ware.-Should not be cleaned with lye, potash, or other strong alkali. Should be cleaned with a good neutral soap and hot water. May be kept bright by the use of steel wool and lather of good soap. If dented, should be straightened on a wood form.

Ammonia.-Should be stored so as to guard against leakage. It affects vegetable colors in textiles and should be kept isolated from other supplies.

Ammonium carbonate. This drug deteriorates under storage conditions through loss of NH, and CO2, gradually becoming opaque, and is finally converted into friable porous lumps or a white powder. Stock should be limited to six months' supply and should be examined frequently for deterioration.

Anchors and cable, chain.-Should be thoroughly protected with a waterproof coating, applied by dipping if possible, otherwise by spraying or with a brush.

Apomorphine hydrochloride.-This drug is subject to deterioration, as evidenced by change of color to green. CAUTION.-Apomorphine hydrochloride must be rejected if it at once imparts a marked emerald-green color to 100 parts of distilled water when shaken with it in a test tube. Stock should be limited to six months' supply.

Arsphenamine and neo-arsphenamine.-These drugs deteriorate under storage conditions; such deterioration is accelerated by exposure to atmospheric air and is evidenced by a change in color from bright yellow to a dull or dirty yellow color. Care should be taken to examine each ampule before use for

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