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brought to the United States under refrigeration at a temperature range of 35° to 38° F. Argentine plums are carried at 33° F. and are dunnaged with strip dunnage running in the same direction as the air flow in the compartment.

LOADING AND UNLOADING

The following suggestive comments on methods of handling fresh fruits in loading and unloading are taken from the bulletin, "A study of the Shipment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables to the Far East." 12

There should be no need to emphasize the necessity of careful handling of fruit boxes. It is evident that if the thin tops and bottoms of fruit boxes are subjected to pressure or rough handling, breakage of the container or bruising and crushing of the fruit or shattering from the stems will result. Even with strong containers, careless handling after a long carriage will invariably damage the contents of fruit and vegetable boxes. Yet the writer frequently observed at each of the ports visited in the Orient unpardonably rough handling of fruit by men whose interest and experience should have led them to exercise precaution.

During the loading and unloading, careful attention must be given to the manner in which fruits and vegetables are gotten on and off the ship. For fruit in boxes or crates, tray, rather than rope or wire, slings should be used for lifting the cargo in and out of the hatches. The "aeroplane" sling has come into use, and appears to be a good type, holding the boxes securely and yet not chafing or breaking them, or injuring the fruit with the ropes. The aeroplane sling consists of a rectangular platform fitted with ropes, passing from each corner through rings in the ends of spreaders to the hook on the tackle cable. The spreaders are comparable to 6-inch angle iron, the length of a box of fruit, placed over the side edges of the top box at each end to prevent the ropes from cutting into the boxes and to take the lateral strain. Nets extend from the spreaders to the floor of the platform at the two ends and ropes across the two sides.

It is possible that slings can be used for grapes in kegs packed with sawdust, but the kegs should certainly not be dumped or rolled out by lifting one side of the sling with the hoisting cable and pulling it from under. The sling should be disconnected if necessary and each keg lifted out and carefully placed on the dock before the sling is again hoisted to be returned to the hold.

Boards or skids should be placed in the square of the hatch upon which to land the goods; walking-boards for the men should be used to lessen possible damage to the cargo underneath.

The use of mechanical conveyors to carry the cargo on board and from the hatch to the part of the chamber where stowage is under way would lessen the possible breakage of containers. Boxes and crates should be of standard dimensions to permit best stowage.

Steamship companies whose vessels bring fruit under refrigeration to cold northern ports during the winter months usually make provision for preventing the fruit from being frozen after it has been discharged onto the pier and is waiting to be picked up by the consignee. The usual practice is to cover the fruit with canvas tents, the interiors of which are warmed by suitable heating devices.

GENERAL STOWAGE CONSIDERATIONS

The following observations on the stowage of fresh fruit cargoes are reprinted from Overholser: 13

When possible, the loading of any particular chamber should be performed in one operation until the chamber is fully stowed. The frequent opening and

12 Overholser, E. L. A Study of the Shipment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables to the Far East. University of California Printing Office, July 1930.

13 A Study of the Shipment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables to the Far East, pp. 28-30. 444742-42-21

closing of the chamber and the introduction of cargo at different times may tend to favor precipitation of moisture upon the cargo, and this "sweating" may result in damage. In loading the refrigerated holds of vessels, the fruit should be stored rapidly and in such a manner as to: (1) get as much fruit as possible in the space; (2) permit circulation of air around the fruit to cool it quickly to the desired temperature; (3) permit the ventilation necessary to remove gases given off by the fruit and to introduce oxygen; (4) arrange the containers firmly so that they will not be dislodged and thrown about by the motion of the ship in heavy seas; (5) allow ready discharge at the port of destination. Cooling air should be delivered over the top of the fruit, and suction should be accomplished by a wide trunk around the sides of the hold.

Before loading a refrigerated cargo, the heat should be removed from the air in the holds, from the insulation, and preferably from the cargo itself, by precooling. The greater the difference in temperature between the hot and cold sides of the insulation, the greater will be the amount of heat that will flow

[graphic]

Figure 68.-Stowing fresh fruit in a refrigerated compartment. Entire tray is moved directly to pile where fruit is stowed without rehandling. Note frost-covered pipes at left, also burlap-covered battens leaving air space and protecting fruit from contact with brine pipes. through the insulation. It is necessary under certain methods of construction. therefore, to provide means of allowing the heat to be carried off. This may he done by forming vertical air channels on the sides and bulkheads by cargo battens or at least 2 by 2 inch timber, securely fastened.

All air channels should be kept free, and no refrigerated produce should be Istowed in direct contact with the insulation, since if the air channels are not maintained, the heat or cold, as the case may be, passing through the insulation would be more likely to be transmitted to the produce, and possible damage result (fig. 68).

Dunnage, or strips of board, at least 1 inch and preferably 2 inches thick, placed between the layers of boxes as they are stacked in the holds, should be used to provide for air circulation and to tie the load securely in place and lessen possible damage when the vessel is laboring in a heavy seaway. It appears advisable to place dunnage battens between tiers. The provision of vertical air channels is also desirable. For example, about every fifth tier, counting fore and aft, a vertical air channel about 3 inches wide may be formed with proper dunnage battens.

Furthermore, at every fifth layer of boxes a double layer of battens should be laid with the bottom layer placed fore and aft to create horizontal airways at right angles to each other. The boxes must be stowed well clear of overhead,

side, and bulkhead grids. Suitable dunnage should be used to allow free air circulation; other methods, such as wider stacking, cut down on the carrying capacity of the vessel and increase the possibility of broken boxes resulting from shifting of the cargo.

When possible, the cargo should be stowed at the same height throughout the hold, rather than close to the ceiling at one end or side and only halfway to the ceiling throughout the remainder of the hold. If the latter method of stowage is practiced, the air tends to be shunted around the high stacks and through the low stacks where the resistance is less. As a result, the center of the high stack, which needs more air, receives less. This is especially true if the air enters from the bottom of the hold.

In the stowage of a mixed refrigeration cargo the following points are considered: (1) Stability and trim of the vessel; (2) rotation of loading and discharge ports; (3) nature of produce; (4) temperature of cargo to be maintained; and (5) ventilation required. In the stowage of the fruit cargo with respect to possible temperature differences existing in the same compartment, grapes, especially those packed in sawdust in kegs, or chests, can be with greatest safety placed in the cooler positions, where the temperature may vary from 30° to 32° F. On the other hand, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, avocados, and potatoes should be stowed in the positions where the temperature may vary from 38° to 40° F., somewhat higher than the average in the compartment; otherwise physiological difficulties may develop. Other commodities can be placed where the temperature may vary from 32° to 34° F. Such differences are likely to exist in different positions of stowage in many marine refrigerated compartments and to be recognized by the ship's engineer. Where there are marked differences in the rate of air movement, kegs and chests of grapes might withstand an excessive movement of air that would result in wilting of such commodities as celery, cauliflower, and lettuce (unless the latter was packed in veneer boxes with fine sawdust, in which case the excessive air movement may be beneficial). Apples and pears are benefited by a moderate air movement in contrast with stagnant air, because air circulation opposes the development of scald. Excessively rapid air movement, however, may result in undue loss of water with consequent wilting and shriveling. Because of the fact that most fruit boxes are constructed with lighter material in the sides than in the ends, it has been found preferable to stow apples, pears, oranges, and grapefruit on end with bulge to bulge and back to back. In this manner there is more freedom for circulation of air.

CHAPTER X

COMMODITIES AND THEIR STOWAGE

The commodities described in this chapter, and for which in most instances stowage directions are given, are generally carried in relatively small lots as part of a "general cargo." Most of the major commercial products which make up the assorted cargoes loaded at the ports of the Orient, Australia, and New Zealand, the Near East, the various coasts of Africa, South and Central America, the West Indies, etc., are listed below.

In most cases the nature of the commodity is described so that the ship's officer or other person in charge of loading or stowage may know if, for example, it is odorous and therefore possibly injurious to other cargo; if it is delicate and consequently subject to tainting damage; or if in any other respect it possesses properties which dictate a certain type of stowage.

It must always be remembered, however, that stowage is subject to many varying factors, such as the size and type of vessel, the length and nature of the intended voyage, and the kind of packing employed. The stowage directions given in the following section should therefore be applied with due regard to the characteristics of the vessel being loaded, the nature of its voyage, and other related factors which may have a bearing on the stowage of the various classes of cargo offered and their safe carriage to destination.

Abaca fiber-Manila hemp, shipped from the Philippine Islands and Netherlands Indies. A dry, clean cargo, with no objectionable qualities, but must be kept clear of oils, greases, etc., as it is liable to spontaneous combustion if it has been in contact with these substances. See Fibers.

Abalone. Shellfish. The shell is used for inlay work, and the animal is used as a foodstuff in the Orient. No special stowage required.

Acacia gum (Gum arabic).-See Gums.

Acetaldehyde-An inflammable liquid. See Dangerous Goods.

Acetate of lime.-A salt of acetic acid, usually shipped in barrels or bags. Requires no special stowage.

Acetic acid. A combustible liquid. See Dangerous Goods. Acetic acid stowed in the lower hold with unprotected steel, according to the Board of Underwriters of New York, has in many cases caused considerable damage to the steel.

Acetic anhydride.-A combustible liquid. See Dangerous Goods.
Acetone. An inflammable liquid. See Dangerous Goods.
Acetyl chloride.-A corrosive liquid. See Dangerous Goods.
Acetylene.-An inflammable gas. See Dangerous Goods.

Achiote. This is another name for annotto; a dyestuff. It is usually packed in casks in a moist state and should be stowed as wet goods subject to leakage.

Acids. See under respective names.

Bajra (barjari, bajury, etc.).—A variety of millet seed shipped from European and Mediterranean countries. Stowage as for leaves. Acrolein.-Poisonous. See Dangerous Goods.

Acrylonitrile.-An inflammable liquid. See Dangerous Goods. Agar (agar-agar).-A vegetable gelatine obtained from a seaweed. and shipped largely from Japan. It is used medicinally and for other purposes. Usually packed in bales which as a rule should be stowed in a separate block because of the gummy nature of the commodity. Do not stow near tea.

Agave. See Fibers.

Agricultural machinery.-Is usually packed partly in boxes, partly in crates, and some parts, such as wheels, shafts, and spouts, are usually shipped without packing. Because of their irregular shapes, weights, and sizes, these goods require special attention when being stowed to protect them against damage.

Air, compressed.-A compressed gas. See Dangerous Goods.

Ajinomoto.-A seasoning powder made from the glutinous part of wheat and used in China and Japan like salt. It is shipped from those countries in tins and bottles packed in cases. Should be given dry stowage as for foodstuffs.

Ajowan.-An aromatic Indian seed which is the source of ajowan oil and thymol, used medicinally. It is packed in bags and should be given stowage as for seeds.

Alabaster.-A form of gypsum exported from Spain, Italy, and elsewhere. Should not be stowed near goods liable to be damaged by moisture, and should be kept well away from oils which might stain it.

Albin. A flaky mineral somewhat similar to mica, usually shipped in cases. Requires no special stowage, but must be protected from salt water.

Albumen.-A substance prepared from eggs and other materials and used for many purposes, such as fixing colors, etc. Shipped largely from China in both moist and dry conditions. The moist product is usually packed in tins in wooden cases and should be treated as wet cargo. It is sometimes shipped as frozen cargo and must then be carried in a refrigerated space. Dried albumen is frequently packed in tin-lined cases and is usually carried in refrigerated space. Other types of albumen are packed in bags and casks. Alcohols. Many alcohols are inflammable, combustible, or poisonous. See Dangerous Goods.

Alfa.-The Arabic name for esparto grass, which see.

Alfalfa seed.-Also known as lucerne seed. Stowage as for seeds.
Algaroba.-The Spanish name for carob beans, which see.
Alhenna.-See Henna.

Alizarin.-An orange-red powder used in dyeing. Stow away from foodstuffs or any articles liable to damage from siftage.

Alligator skins.-Shipped from Mexico and other countries, usually in bags or bundles. See Skins.

Allspice. Also known as pimento and Jamaica pepper. The berries of a shrub grown chiefly in the West Indies, the principal supply coming from Jamaica, Mexico, and Guatemala. Usually packed in bags and, because of odor, should be given special stowage away from edibles and foodstuffs.

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