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3-A. The engine room bulkhead in lower hold and 'tween decks (if any) shall have a wooden bulkhead constructed of two 1-inch boards or of 2-inch boards in the lower hold and decks 3 inches from the engine room bulkhead, this space to be filled with asbestos or silicate of cotton packed to the satisfaction of the Board's surveyor. The 'tween-decks bulkhead must be a continuous iron bulkhead from the lower hold to the upper decks to comply with this rule. Any board, wooden braces, or wooden stiffeners resting on the iron bulkhead, or stiffeners shall have insulation of sheet asbestos separating iron and wood.

No gasoline, naphtha, or benzine is to be carried in the 'tween decks over the engine room and boiler room, and none stowed less than 20 feet from the iron bulkhead of the fiddley in the forward end of the 'tween decks.

No coal is to be carried in the 'tween decks on the same level with gasoline, etc., unless an iron bulkhead intervenes.

All compartments to have as much ventilation as possible, cowl heads to be on and covered with a fine wire gauze.

Instruction No. 129 (October 10, 1940)

Referring to the rules printed immediately above, the Board states in this instruction that: "To clarify any doubt that may exist regarding the necessary protection of Bridge or Shelter Deck types of steam vessels, we recommend the following":

(a) Coal-Burning Steamers.-If bunker coal is carried in the bridge deck and/or shelter deck, the wooden bulkheads should be of good sound lumber, and the coal side of the bulkheads should be covered with sheet metal. One frame or beam forward or abaft these bulkheads, a tight tongued and grooved bulkhead of lumber not less than 1 inch thick, well supported, should be constructed and covered both sides with sheet asbestos and the space between these bulkheads should be filled with sand to a height of not less than 2% feet. The tongued and grooved bulkheads must be away from the engine or boiler room casings and not over either of these spaces. If the bulkheads are widely spaced, sand to be placed against the tongued and grooved bulkhead to a height of 2 feet 6 inches.

(b) Oil-Burning steamers.-No gasoline, etc., shall be permitted alongside or adjacent to the engine or boiler room casings, or over either of these spaces. A tight 1-inch tongued and grooved wooden bulkhead, well supported, should be constructed forward and/or aft of these spaces covered both sides with sheet asbestos.

If possible, all bulkheads should be constructed so that the scuppers leading overside are on the gasoline side of such bulkheads.

Only suitable cargo of noncombustible nature may be carried in the open spaces, if desired.

(See also under "Cotton" regulations governing loading of gasoline, lubricating oil, and other petroleum products in vessels carrying cotton.)

RICE

The oversea rice trade is an important one which requires a large number of vessels each year. The principal shipping points are the Burmese ports, particularly Rangoon; Bangkok, Thailand; Saigon, French Indochina; and Calcutta and some other Indian ports. Rice is shipped in bags, sometimes in double bags, and is stowed like other cereals carried in bags, except that owing to the large percentage of water in rice and its consequent liability to sweat, special measures must be taken with regard to ventilation, which includes proper dunnaging and stowage. The cargo not only must be well ventilated, but also must be protected against the condensed moisture which may run down on it from deck beams, the ship's sides, and other parts of the holds.

Rice is also likely to be damaged by strong odors, and goods that have such odors should not be stowed in the same compartment.

Several different classes of rice are commonly shipped by the exporting countries. Paddy is rice without the husks removed, clean rice or rough rice is paddy after the husks have been removed, and white rice or polished rice is rice in its finished form. Cargo rice is a mixture of clean rice and paddy, approximately 80 percent of the former and 20 percent of the latter (more or less), the paddy being mixed in to prevent the contents of the bag lying too close together, thus providing for better circulation of air through the cargo.

Before loading a rice cargo the holds should be cleaned and thoroughly dried so that there is no water remaining in corners of stringers or other similar places. Floors should be well dunnaged, particularly at the turn of the bilge, and on stringers and other parts likely to collect condensed moisture. The floor and bilge dunnage should not be laid too close together, however, as spaces must be left to admit the circulation of air between the pieces of wood.

The usual method of side dunnaging employed with rice cargoes is to tie bamboo, or in some ports sticks, vertically to the horizontal wooden cargo battens. This not only prevents the rice bags from touching the metal surfaces of the cargo compartments, but also permits free circulation of air between the cargo and the skin of the ship. All metal surfaces, such as beams, stringers, stanchions, and bulkheads, should be well covered with mats to prevent the bags from coming in contact with them. Soft rush or grass mats should never be used, and their employment is as a general rule prohibited. Instead, soft bamboo mats are used. All bamboo and bamboo mats taken aboard for dunnaging should be carefully inspected to make certain that they are dry. In many Far Eastern ports bamboos are rafted down to the ship and, while they may have been dried for several days by the sun, they may still contain large quantities of moisture.

To permit passage of air through the cargo, wooden ventilators composed of two boards joined together by connecting diagonal pieces are placed longitudinally and transversely the full length and width of the cargo compartments at regular intervals and at different levels. These form horizontal air ducts and are combined with vertical air shafts which lead upward through the cargo to the ship's ventilators. The purpose of this system of ventilation is to permit heated moisture given off by the rice to escape from the cargo holds.

For further information regarding ventilation of cargoes, such as rice, which are carried from tropic climates to the colder climates of Europe and the United States, the reader is referred to the chapter on “Damage from Temperature Changes During the Voyage."

REGULATIONS OF THE BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS OF NEW YORK

STOWAGE OF RICE

1. These rules are particularly designed for full cargoes or full holds, of steamers passing from temperate into, or through, tropical zones, or vice versa. 2. As the principal danger is sweat due to overheating, the type of ventilation used should be the air duct system, the ducts to be open trellised lumber 8" x 8" square built and of sufficient strength to sustain considerable weight. 3. After the holds are cleaned, open dunnage is to be laid fore and aft on the skin of the hold, 5 inches high and spaced 1 foot apart with thwartship dunnage on top, well matted, to prevent leakage.

4. At every 5 feet up in stowage two air ducts to be laid thwartship in line with after and for'd hatch coamings, with two others laid fore and aft in line with hatch coamings, both lines to extend from wing to wing and bulkhead to bulkhead. Four perpendicular ducts to be carried up at the corner of each hatch coaming to the top deck.

5. Each thwartship, and fore and aft duct, to join up with the four perpendicular air ducts at coamings.

6. If general cargo is in 'tween decks each air duct in 'tween decks to be made a tight ventilator and continue up to the top of coamings. In normal weather the four corner hatches are to be kept open, but where practicable it is preferable to install a small ventilator at each corner.

7. Each hold is to have ventilators of usual requirements.

8. Bulkheads are to have perpendicular dunnage of at least 4 inches so as to allow a continuous draft of air throughout the cargo if the ventilators are properly attended to.

9. No beam fillings will be allowed.

10. No rice should be accepted when damp or wet.

SUGAR

Sugar is shipped from a number of regions, frequently in fullcargo lots, the principal exporting countries including Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaiian Islands, Java, Philippine Islands, Peru, India, Haiti, Mauritus, and India. In former years a great deal of sugar was shipped in hogsheads and baskets, and wet or green sugar, such as jaggery, was packed in mats. Nowadays, however, most of the sugar shipped overseas, whether raw, semirefined or refined, is packed in bags.

When carried in small consignments as part of a general cargo, sugar should be stowed well away from cargo which might damage it by taint, also from cargo which is liable to heat and throw off moisture, such as, for example, coconuts, which are frequently loaded at the same ports as sugar. Sugar is easily harmed by moisture and, whenever possible, loading it during wet or rainy weather should be avoided. Rum is another product frequently loaded at sugar ports, and it should never on any account be stowed on top of sugar because of danger of leakage and tainting. Rum may, however, be stowed in the same compartment with sugar, if the dunnaging is proper.

When a full cargo of sugar is to be carried, the holds and bilges should be thoroughly cleaned and all traces of oils, acids, or other odorous goods should be removed. All metal parts should be well matted over or otherwise dunnaged, since raw or semirefined sugar may give off moisture which will condense on metal parts and, if brought into contact with the bags, will moisten and melt the sugar, causing considerable loss.

Stowage of a full cargo of bagged sugar is the same as that required for other bagged cargo. Care must be taken not to allow bags to overlap stringer plates or other projecting metal parts, since there is a certain amount of "sinkage" during the voyage and as the cargo sinks, such bags will be cut or broken. This applies particularly to stowage of bags across the portable beams in the 'tween-deck hatches, since bags stowed across these beams are frequently cut completely in half. When stowing bags in this vicinity, the tiers should be brought up close underneath the beams, then the tiers laid fore and aft and between the beams, with the ends kept about 3 or 4 inches clear of the beams. The tiers should be carried up in this manner until about 1 foot higher than the portable beams and the

bags should then be laid over this space in a tier, so that when the cargo sinks, the bags will clear the hatch beams and not be damaged. Special care must be taken in connection with ventilation when carrying sugar. Considerable condensation may take place with raw or semirefined sugar and every effort must be made to prevent this by observing the principles of ventilation described in the chapter on "Damage from Temperature Changes During the Voyage."

After discharging sugar, particularly green sugar, the holds and bilges should be washed out with salt water and then, if possible, with fresh water to insure proper drying. Sugar left on iron work may eat and corrode the metal, and sugar left in the bilges will give rise to strong odors.

It should be remembered that sugar can be ignited by sparks, etc., and that sugar fires are among the most difficult of all to extinguish. Usually, chemical extinguishers are required or it is necessary to flood the entire compartment. It should also be borne in mind that sugar which is fermenting, owing to heat on the voyage, gives off fumes which, on several occasions, have seriously gassed workers entering the holds to commence discharging the cargo.

REFRIGERATED CARGOES

The quantity and variety of perishable goods carried under refrigeration has increased to a very marked extent in recent years, owing in large measure to the construction of numerous ships fitted with refrigerated space and placed in regular service on the principal ocean routes. For a number of years frozen meat and other commodities have been carried in specially designed refrigerated ships from Australia and New Zealand to the United Kingdom and European Continent, and chilled meat has been brought from the River Plate to the same destinations. The trade in fresh fruits-apples, pears, grapes, oranges, lemons, and grapefruit-from the United States and Canadian Pacific coasts to the United Kingdom and other regions is also one that has been in existence for a considerable period. More recently the exportation of fresh fruits, such as nectarines, honeydew melons, peaches, grapes, cherries, and plums, from Chile to the United States and other destinations, has increased very rapidly; while at the same time the shipment of pears, plums, grapes, peaches, and nectarines from Argentina to the United States has become of real importance. Other products shipped under refrigeration from Argentina have also increased in quantity and include such diverse items as butter, casings, cheese, eggs, fish, crayfish, game, meat, glands, stearine,turkeys, vegetables, pork products, frozen dog meat, and cooked or frozen bull meat. Another trade that has reached considerable proportions is the carriage of fresh vegetables and fruits from Cuba to the United States, the principal products carried being tomatoes, lima beans, cucumbers, plantains, peppers, eggplants, okra, pineapples, grapefruit, and avocados.

Stowage and temperature requirements of the principal cargoes carried under refrigeration are discussed below.

STOWAGE AND TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS

Apples. See Fresh fruit.

Avocadoes.-See Fresh fruit.

Bacon.-The temperature at which bacon is carried depends largely upon the cure. Very mild cures are usually carried at a temperature between 25° and 30° F.; the more hardy varieties between 33° and 38° F. Cases should be stowed fore and aft on athwartship battens, spaced to support the ends of the cases. Tiers should be interlayed with 1-inch battens; cases in upper tiers should be stowed fairly on cases in the tier below. Bacon should be given "wet stowage" because of its liability to give off drainage.

Beef, chilled.-As fore and hind quarters of chilled beef are hung from hooks attached to the deck above, no gratings or deck dunnage are necessary. In the 'tween decks in many ships only one height of beef is hung; but in other vessels hind quarters are customarily hung from the hooks attached to the overhead rails, and fore quarters are hung at a lower level by means of chains. In the lower holds of vessels where there is sufficient space, three or even more heights are hung by chains of varying lengths, forequarters usually being hung amidship and hindquarters more frequently in the wings.

The quarters should be packed close enough together to prevent excessive swinging when the vessel is rolling, but must not be hung so close together as to interfere with the necessary circulation of air. Usually, when the holds and 'tween decks have been filled to the square of the hatch, bars are laid across between the beams on which to hang the final quarters, thus providing good close stowage. In all cases care must be taken to see that sufficient air space is left underneath the beef, and that the quarters are protected from any contact with the brine pipes. No chilled beef should be loaded when it is raining, since quarters wetted by rain are likely to develop mildew.

F.,

While chilled beef is usually carried at a temperature of 28° to 29% it is customary for the shipper to state in writing the temperature desired. The indicated temperature must then be rigidly adhered to, and should not vary more than half a degree in any part of the refrigerated compartments. For this reason, it is usually necessary to keep on hand supplies of warm brine, which are circulated through the pipes if there is danger of the temperature falling too low.

Beef, frozen.-Frozen beef is shipped in bulk in the hard, frozen condition at temperatures ranging from 12° to 15° F. The quarters are usually wrapped in hessian cloth.

Canvas slings should be used for loading frozen meat. Quarters should be examined for softness and mold. Meat showing signs of softness should be put to one side and later stowed on top directly under the overhead brine pipes. Moldy meat should not be accepted.

Battens of 3- by 3-inch material laid athwart on the ceiling at 9-inch centers are customarily used for frozen meat; also vertical battens of 2- by 2-inch or 3- by 3-inch material. Battens should be well frozen before cargo is loaded; otherwise the meat will become marked.

Quarters of beef are customarily stowed fore and aft on edge. If stowed flat, the air is prevented from circulating thoroughly. Fore and hind quarters do not stow well together, and are therefore usually stowed at different ends of a compartment.

Shanks should not be permitted to protrude between the brine pipes at ends and sides of the compartment. If this is permitted, the pressure of the shanks as they settle under the weight of the cargo above may strain the pipes.

Quarters should be stowed to as high as the stevedores can reach, working from each end of the compartment toward the square of the hatch. The quarters in way of the hatch opening should then be covered with a piece of clean canvas and a wooden platform should be laid over the canvas on which to land the remaining cargo, this process being repeated as necessary as the cargo mounts higher in the compartment. Walking boards should be laid for the stevedores to prevent damage to the meat already stowed.

If quarters of beef are overstowed with other cargo, 3- by 3-inch battens should be laid on top of the beef. In a compartment filled with frozen beef alone, the use of battens between tiers is not necessary, as the irregular shape of the quarters leaves sufficient space for air circulation.

Butter-Butter, which is usually shipped in boxes or cases, may be stowed in the same compartment with frozen meat, without danger of tainting, but it will absorb taint from fruit and the two commodities should therefore never be stowed in the same compartment.

The boxes in which butter is shipped are usually made with outside battens on top and bottom. These keep the boxes apart and permit air to circulate between them. When plain boxes are used, each tier should be separated by

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