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be covered with black or dark-colored tarpaulins or other covers, since these retain and intensify the sun's heat.

Packages of dangerous goods to be carried on deck should not be too large or heavy to prevent their being readily moved if it should be necessary to jettison them to protect the ship and crew.

No general rules can be laid down to cover stowage of articles which are carried on deck because of their nature, size, or shape, since proper stowage is governed by these very features, and differs in accordance with them.

One principal aim must be to secure such cargo effectively so it will not break adrift during heavy weather. (See figs. 46 and 47.) In many cases this requires the preparation of a proper bed constructed of stout timber.

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It is of importance in many ships, when heavy weights are to be carried on deck, to place them on a portion of the deck that is strong enough to support the weight. Such goods are frequently placed so that they are over a bulkhead below. In some cases, when heavy castings, forgings, etc., are being carried, the decks are given additional support by means of wooden shores placed under and over beams and wedged up hard with fine wedges to hold them securely in place.

It is recommended that dunnage boards beneath heavy cargo extending for some distance over the deck should be laid diagonally, at an angle of about 45 degrees, to protect against buckling of the deck plates.

Another important point, sometimes overlooked, is the absolute necessity of providing sufficient fastenings for the lashings securing

heavy cargo. Not infrequently a number of turns of wire, rope, or chain are taken around a piece of deck cargo and secured to a single small ringbolt, which may possibly not be able to bear the extra strain during heavy weather. If sufficient fastenings are not available, it is a simple matter and one that should not be neglected, to fit extra ringbolts where required. Ringbolts for this purpose can easily be bolted to the ship's bulwarks or deck and can be removed when no longer needed.

It should be noted that there are certain ships specially equipped for the carriage of exceptionally heavy and bulky cargo. Shippers of such material frequently find it advisable to use these special vessels, whose facilities are designed expressly to cope with the problems of loading and stowing heavy objects, such as locomotives, large and heavy condensers, and boilers.

Lumber deck cargoes are of great importance and in all instances require careful consideration to ensure the stability of the vessel at time of sailing and at subsequent stages of the voyage after considerable quantities of fuel and water have been consumed. Owing to the many special points to be considered, the carriage of lumber deck loads is treated separately in the section on lumber, in the chapter, Stowage of Special Cargoes.

When more cargo is booked for a vessel than can be carried underdeck and it is necessary to stow some cargo suitable for the purpose on deck, such cargo will necessarily be at the ship's risk and should be covered by insurance.

PACKING TO REDUCE CUBIC MEASUREMENT

Progressive exporters are well aware of the importance of shrinking or reducing the size of their export packages. This is done because many articles pay ocean freight on the basis of cubic measurement and, consequently, the smaller the package the lower will be the ocean-freight charges. Those who are entering the export field for the first time should bear this in mind, since careful packing in this respect may save them many hundreds of dollars during the course of a year. Reduction of cubic measurement not only will result in reducing freight charges, but will mean saving in freight-car space, in storage space, in handling costs, and in many cases in the cost of the container.

An export package may be reduced in size by the more compact packing of the contents, the disassembly or knocking down of the article being shipped, the redesigning of the container, or the redesigning of the article being shipped, either to make it smaller in size or to permit its disassembly. It would be difficult to state whether greater savings have been made by redesigning the package or by changing the disposition of the contents in the package, but it is probable that in almost every case something of the two principles enter into every satisfactory export package.

One of the most common errors in packing is the failure to utilize the waste spaces in the container which are created by the character or form of the contents. This frequently can be rectified by using a smaller case or by packing additional items. For example, rubbertire manufacturers pack cartons of tubes inside a bundle of tires. Both methods result in more compact packing.

Waste of space is frequently occasioned by using containers which do not fit the contents, and this commonly results from the practice of trying to make a one-sized case do for a number of commodities. A manufacturer who believes he is saving money by using the same sized case for all his line can easily determine whether or not this is so by calculating the freight paid on the extra cubic measurement of a few shipments and comparing the total with the saving that results from the use of a one-size container.

More compact packing can sometimes be achieved by nesting articles that are of suitable shape. This is done with bathtubs, cooking utensils, and many other manufactured articles. Compression may also be used. A shipper of pork products packs hams under very high pressure and thus puts a considerably greater number in a box of the size previously used for a smaller number. Compression is also used in baling clothing and other textile goods, also leather, paper stock, cotton waste, etc. The problem differs with each commodity, but every exporter should study his individual product or products to see if more compact packing and consequent reduction of the size of the container or the inclusion of more articles is possible.

Disassembly of articles to be shipped has resulted in the saving of thousands of dollars in ocean-freight charges for many companies. One motortruck manufacturer, for example, advises that by shipping certain trucks completely knocked down, the cubic measurement of the container is reduced from 238 to 192 cubic feet, showing a saving of 46 cubic feet. Metal office furniture and wooden and metal household furniture may also be successfully disassembled. Legs may be removed from tables, chairs, and beds, and metal office files of certain types can be almost completely taken apart and shipped in much smaller space than if completely set up.

Redesigning of export containers has been one of the most outstanding methods used to reduce cubic measurement of export packages. For example, cleats may be put on the inside instead of the outside where the contents are of an irregular shape and there are open spaces which make room for the cleats, and this is also true of battens that are placed around the middle of cases. The cubic measurement of wooden boxes and crates may also be reduced by using a hardwood with good strength properties instead of a softwood, since the former permits the use of a thinner wood. One company reports saving from 3 to 4 cubic feet per crate, as a result of changing from the use of pine wood to oak. Another company, using a box with 7-inch sides and 3/4-inch ends found, through consultation with a packing engineer, that 5%-inch sides and 12-inch ends supplied entirely adequate protection, provided the right kind of lumber was used, the right type and number of nails were employed, and the nails were correctly placed and driven. The consequent reduction in the cubic of the company's shipments meant a very substantial saving during the course of a year. A well-known tractor manufacturer, by using a stout plywood box instead of the previous nailed wooden case, has reduced cubic measurement per shipment from 103 to 73 cubic feet. These examples are just a few of the many that might be cited.

Some shippers have been able to reduce the cubic measurement of their export shipments to a very marked degree by using bales instead of wooden or fiberboard containers. It has been estimated that with suitable articles the average saving in space resulting from packing in machine-pressed bales instead of nailed wooden boxes is around 30 percent. The experience of the War Department during the World War showed that a great variety of textile materials can be baled, including underwear, hosiery, sweaters, gloves, coats, trousers, towels, blankets, tarpaulins, tents, bedding, cloth, and many other articles. It was even found possible to bale successfully officers' high-grade uniforms without injury from the compression, by carefully folding and tying the garment along the proper lines. Numerous other articles are shipped to foreign countries in bales, including such diverse items as bags, broomcorn, belting, carpets, emery paper, excelsior, feathers, felt, flax, fodder, furs, hair, hemp, hides, hops, leather, leaves, mattresses, moss, pipe couplings, paper, sorghum, springs, steel turnings, straw, tin cans, tobacco, veneer, waste paper, wire, wood pulp, wool, and yarn.

Redesigning the product itself has been resorted to by many companies to reduce the cubic measurement of their export packages. Projecting parts may be eliminated or be made detachable, or an article may be made of separate parts, easy to disassemble and reassemble, instead of being constructed in a single piece.

Further information on the subject of packing to reduce cubic measurement, design of export containers, strength properties of the various woods used in box making, etc., are referred to in the publication, Modern Export Packing, prepared in the Transportation Division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, and obtainable from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

CHAPTER V

STOWAGE FOR MAXIMUM USE OF SHIP'S CAPACITY

FACTORS INFLUENCING BOOKING OF GENERAL CARGO

The traffic manager and other officials who are responsible for securing general cargo for a vessel engaged in the cargo-liner trade must continually bear in mind a number of factors which have a direct and vital bearing upon the success or nonsuccess―from a profit viewpoint of the vessel's voyage. Consideration must be given not only to individual shipments, their stowage factors, and the rates of freight they pay, but also to the relation of all the shipments to each other. A cargo must be secured, if possible, that is well balanced by weight and volume, and by the character of the commodities involved. The freight accepted should not be all deadweight or the vessel will be brought down to its marks before its holds are filled. A certain amount of small packages should be obtained to use as broken stowage. Dangerous freight must not be taken unless it is properly packed and the vessel has the required accommodations for it. Freight revenue must be continually borne in mind and this depends not only upon the quoted rates, but also upon the skillful combination of weight and measurement cargo to obtain the greatest number of "payable tons."

After studying the nature of the cargo that is available or can be secured in the existing market, the steamship official must proceed to select and adjust it according to the requirements of the vessel that is to be loaded. He must know the individual peculiarities of the ship, and make provision for such factors as the size of hatches. capacity of winches and booms, and whether the holds are clear or contain numerous pillars or stanchions. Stability and trim must also be taken into account. In some cases, the depth of beams and frames, depth of holds, height between decks, and temperature of the various compartments are also factors that may have an important bearing on the type of cargo that can be carried or is desirable to carry, and upon the stowage of the cargo accepted.

Provided that cargo is moving in such volume as to permit the steamship company to select certain kinds of goods in preference to others, the selection of cargo will be made to a large extent with a view to its freight-paying capacity. Thus, cargo of high value, large measurement, or packed in unusual shapes or sizes, will pay relatively high rates and be helpful in building up revenue. Other cargo which pays low rates or which involves extra expense or hazard, such as heavy lifts and corrosive, caustic, or otherwise dangerous or injurious goods, will be less desirable.

The factors that influence the selection of a general cargo, when such selection is possible, may be grouped under the following headings: Desirable distribution of weight and measurement cargo; the

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