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Bales are stowed on their flats, with their lengths fore and aft or athwartship. The bales at the sides of the hold, however, are frequently stowed on end. Then, if there is condensed moisture on the sides of the ship, or chafing against the sides, the flats or sides of the bales will be affected, not the ends, where damage in the case of piece goods, etc., would affect the entire contents. For the last tier under the head beams, the usual practice is to stow them on their sides, or even on end when this way saves space.

Bales are frequently stained by oil left on the deck or ceiling or by leakage from other cargo stowed above them. Every effort should, of course, be made to prevent this type of damage.

If boxed goods are to be stowed over bales, particularly if the boxes are of light construction, a good flooring should be laid on the bales. If thin dunnage wood is used, it will give, especially if the bales are soft, and the cargo above will be displaced and possibly damaged.

No hooks should be used on baled goods of any kind. There are altogether too many damage claims resulting from the use of hooks. Loss of space can frequently be avoided when stowing a large consignment of bales of the same size, by carefully measuring the head room as the tiers approach the top of the hold or 'tween deck. Often it is possible to have the top tier finish close underneath the deck above by putting one or two tiers on their edges or even on their ends.

CASES AND CARTONS

In a general cargo of miscellaneous goods there is usually a varied assortment of wooden boxes and cases and fiberboard cartons of numerous sizes, weights, and types of construction. Proper stowage of these mixed packages obviously requires careful planning, skillful placing, and good dunnaging (fig. 44).

In most instances, the strongest and heaviest cases are stowed in the bottom of the lower hold. With large cases, such as those containing automobiles and heavy machinery, great care must be exercised to stow them perfectly level so the weight will be evenly distributed and no stresses will be set up which might wreck the cases when the vessel is laboring in a seaway.

Every effort should be made, as the stowage proceeds, to keep a level tier. This is achieved principally by filling up the empty spaces between large boxes with small boxes. When boxes of light construction are being stowed, they should be boarded over before commencing the next tier. This will not only protect the smaller, lighter packages, but will make for better stowage of the cargo as a whole.

When stowing the upper tiers, no box should be placed so that it rests inside the edges of the top of the box beneath it, unless dunnage boards are placed across the top of the lower box to take the weight.

In stowing boxes, particularly a number which are of the same dimensions, it is good practice to arrange the tiers as bricks are laid in a wall. That is, each box should rest on two boxes beneath it.

Boxes containing commodities that may leak should be stowed separately or at the bottom of the hold. Boxes containing commodities requiring ventilation should be placed in the upper parts of the compartments.

When stowing a large number of light wooden boxes, such as those used for canned foods and dried fruits, the working tier should always be protected by laying down walking boards.

Each tier of boxes of a similar size and shape should be kept perfectly level all the way across the hold. In many ships the ceiling rises a little as it approaches the turn of the bilge, and boxes stowed on this rise will be at an angle. This should be avoided at all costs. If boxes are stowed at an angle in this manner, the next tier above will put extra pressure on the tilted edge of the lower end or wing boxes and damage will almost inevitably result. The wing boxes should be omitted and the space filled with dunnage wood. Boards

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Figure 44.-Stowing wooden boxes in the 'tween decks.

should then be placed on the lowest and subsequent tiers extending out to the sides of the ship.

Lightly made wooden boxes and fiberboard cartons obviously require the most careful attention, since no heavy weights should be placed on top of them.

Cargo hooks on plywood boxes.-Cargo hooks should not be used in handling plywood boxes. These are sturdy containers of value to many shippers as they combine great strength with light weight. They are frequently used for products of relatively high value, such as electric refrigerators, radio cabinets, and high-grade textiles, and there have been many cases of serious damage to this class of goods, resulting from cargo hooks being driven through the sides of the plywood containers.

CARBOYS AND DEMIJOHNS

Carboys are glass containers commonly packed either in a wooden protective casing or in a wicker or iron basket filled with cushioning material. Carboys are frequently shipped completely boxed in, with the neck protected by a special wooden covering, and this packing is to be very much recommended.

Carboys are principally used for the carriage of liquid chemicals, including dangerous acids. In the latter case, stowage on deck is usually required for safety. On deck, carboys should be stowed on planks in a sheltered position, but always accessible so that any carboy that breaks can be seen and thrown overboard. Carboys should be lashed in place and, if carrying acids, wire rope is preferable, since acids will frequently burn through ordinary manila rope. (See also section on deck cargoes.)

When carboys contain liquids that are not dangerous and are stowed underdeck, it is preferable to stow them in one of the 'tween decks and against a bulkhead. There is less danger of breakage if they are kept away from the center of a space full of other cargo. If more than one height is to be stowed, boards should be laid over the lower tier of carboys on each side of their protruding necks, and the bottoms of the carboys in the second tier should rest on these boards. In this way they will be between the necks of the carboys in the lower tier.

Demijohns are similar to carboys, but are smaller, usually holding from 1 to 5 gallons. Frequently, demijohns are entirely surrounded by woven wickerwork which extends right up to the neck. They are generally held out until the last and are stowed on top of other cargo, frequently being used as beam filling. If there are two tiers, the bottoms of the upper tier rest between the necks of the demijohns in the lower tier, no dunnage being needed in between.

CYLINDERS

Cylinders are strong steel containers, chiefly used for the transportation of gases, such as ammonia and oxygen, under pressure. They are generally carried on deck and may be stowed fore and aft on planks laid athwartship to keep the flange, which projects beyond the body of some cylinders at one end, free from contact with the deck.

The second tier should be stowed in the cant lines of the lower tier and in the reverse direction, with the cylinders stepped back a little so the flanges will project beyond the bottom ends of the cylinders in the lower tier. In no case should cylinders be stowed "bilge and bilge" or directly on top of one another.

After tiering, the cylinders should be securely chocked and lashed in place (see fig. 45).

DECK CARGOES

Some commodities are customarily, and others are occasionally, carried on deck, gencrally at the risk of the shipper. When stowing a large amount of cargo on deck, care must be taken not to block off bitts and fairleads, the sounding pipes to the bilges and ballast tanks, the handles of the valves controlling the opening of watertight bulkheads or of piping systems, or any other pieces of equipment essential to the operation or safety of the vessel. The steering gear and chains.

should be carefully protected. A good practice is to outline with chalk the spaces that are to be kept clear. Usually, the speed with which cargo is handled and the difficulty of continually supervising the stevedores makes this precaution extremely advisable.

The types of goods that are commonly carried on deck may be classified as follows:

Dangerous goods, which it would be unsafe to carry underdeck.

Articles which, because of their nature, size, or shape, cannot readily be stowed underdeck, e. g., locomotives, large unboxed airplanes, and motorboats (figs. 46 and 47).

Material, such as lumber, cork, esparto grass, and fibers, which is frequently carried on deck as well as underdeck because the ship is full underdeck but is not down to its marks.

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Miscellaneous cargo for which there is no space underdeck, owing to the ship being full, and which is considered suitable for on-deck stowage.

Dangerous goods include such commodities as corrosive acids, highly inflammable substances, and other materials which might damage the vessel and other cargo if stowed underdeck. Articles of this description that must be carried on deck are listed in "Regulations Governing the Transportation, Storage, and Stowage of Explosive or Other Dangerous Articles on Board Vessels," issued by the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation.

The method of packing used determines to some extent the manner in which such goods are stowed on deck. Carboys, for example, should be stowed in a sheltered position and should be well-bedded and securely lashed in place. Metal drums containing liquids which

must be stowed on deck should be placed on end on boards or planks. They are frequently stowed in a corner of the deck or around a mast, and are secured with planks around which wire or chain lashings are placed. Drums may also be stowed along the bulwarks, with a large

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Figure 46.-Stowing a Diesel-propelled locomotive and parts on deck.

plank on their inboard side, with lashings passed from the plank between the drums to the bulwark stanchions.

Compressed gases in cylinders or other substances which are likely to expand when exposed to the heat of the sun, and other goods which must be protected from the direct rays of the sun, should not

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