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Plateaux, direction of drainage in,
130, 141, 148, 351

— erosion, 77, 78, 129

— surface inclined against dip, 80,

— surface inclined in direction of dip,

77
Plate, river, 332
Plutonic rocks, 4, 173

— lava-form equivalents of, 173

— presence at surface implies denuda-

tion, 16, 174
Poland, moraines, 247
Pomerania, moraines, 306
Po, river, 7, 37, 52
Posen, 238

Powell, Major, 54, 89, 91, 189
Prairies, 337

Pre-Cambrian sandstone mountains, 71
Prehistoric glaciers, 225
Prussia, glacial deposits, 238, 306
Pumpelly, Prof., 284
Pyramidal hills and mountains, 58, 65,

6S-72, 194, 344
Pyrenees, 290, 292
Pyroxene, 20, 383

Quadersandstein, 72, 206, 383
Quarrying, infraglacial, 221
Quartz, 20
Quartz-rock, 22
Queantoweep Valley, 158
Quinaig, 97

Rain, action, 25, 32
Raised beaches, 49, 277
Ramsay, Sir A. C, 85, 294
Raniaka Cave, 275
Rapids, 81

Rat, little hamster, 264
Reclus, E., 327
Red Sea, 162

Regional elevation, 128, 129
Regular coasts, 318
Reindeer, 264
Relict mountains, 342
Kenevier, Prof., 113, 114
Reversed faults, 94
Rhine Valley, 163, 263
Rhone, delta, 37, 52

— river, 36

— valley, 296, 300

Rias, 313

Richter, Prof., 308-310

Richthofen, Baron, 261

Rio Janeiro, 330

River cliffs, recession of, 61, 63

Rivers, change of course, 108

— direction of, not influenced by faults

and flexures, 57, 156, 165

— erosion by, 59

— flowing in direction of dip. 77, 80

— flowing in direction of strike, 75

— geological act1on of, 34

— longitudinal, 107

— older than mountains they traverse,

46. 57

— original course, determined by sur-

face-slope, 56, 74, 77, 104, 120,

131. '37, 35'. 353

— terraces of, 7, 51

— underground, 268

— valleys, eroded by, 350, 357
Roches moutonnc'es, 222, 234, 288, 301,

383
Rock basins, 222, 288, 293
Rock-fall basins, 284
Rock-falls, 119

Rock-flexures, infraglacial, 236
Rock-flour, 215
Rock-forming minerals, 20
Rock-removal, evidence of, 13
Rock-salt. 23, 266
Rock-shattering, infraglacial, 221
Rock-shelters, 276
Rocks. chemical composition of, 20

— classes of, 3, 4, 19

— comparative resistance of, to denu-

dation, 44, 77, 78

— disintegration of, 23-26,

— porosity of. 21

— shattered by frost, 29
Rodgers, Prof.. 118
Rotted rock, 27
Rubers Law, 136
RUgen, 234
Rule Water. 136
Rumpfgebirge, 170, 380
Russ1a, black earth, 263

— ground-moraines, 238

— lakes, 286

Saddlebacks, see Anticlines.
Sahara, 251

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St. Gall, canton, 115

Salses, 185

Salt Lake, Utah, 279

Sand-blast, natural, 24

Sand, blowing, 253

Sand hills, 259, 325 ; see Dunes.

Sandstone, 4, 21

Sand wastes, 257

Santa Mar1a (Mierra Nevada), 292

Saxon mountains, 344

— Switzerland, 72, 206
Scandinavia, glacial erosion, 235

— glaciers, 217

— ice-sheet, 232, 233

— moraines, 246

— mountains, 93

— plateau, 130
Schists, 6, 20

— jointing in, 197, 199

— marine erosion of, 324

— presence at surface implies denu-

dation, 16

— weathering of, 204, 205
Schleswig-Holstein, 245, 246
Schortenkopf, 112
Scoriae, 1S2, 384

Scotland, corries and cirque valleys,
290

— thickness of ice-sheet, 233
Scottish Highlands, 6, 141
Screes, 29, 205, 229, 384
Sea, caves, 27O

— cliffs, 317

— floor, subsidence of, 12

— geological action, 317

— lochs, 307
Sedimentary deposits, 4, 6

— rocks, 22

— strata, average thickness of, 43
Sediment of glacial rivers, 214
Senegal, river, 257

Severn, river, 83
Shale, 3, 21

Shearing of rocks, 48, 95, 99
Sheets, intrusive, 20, 173, 177
Shell marl, 4
Siberia, 52, 264
Sidlaw Hills, 345
Sierra el Late. 203
Sierra Nevada (Santa Marta), 157,
292

— (Spain), 292
Silicious rocks. 21

Silser See. 284

Silvaplana See, 284

Simony, l'rof., 221

Sinai Peninsula, 256

Sink-holes, 282

Slags, 182

Smean, 71

Smooth coasts, 318

Snow, action of melting, 32

Snow-line in Alps during glacial pe-
riod, 227

Soils, waste of, 34

Somma, Monte, 1S4

Sounds of Faroe Islands, 71

Southern Uplands (Scotland), 129,
133. 289

Sowbacks, 245

Spain, rias of, 313

Spey, river, 141, 145

Springs, influence of, in valley-erosion,
76

— mineral, 267, 274

— natural, 31, 105
Sserir, 256
Staffa, 21

Stampflkees Glacier, 214, 223
Steppes, 263, 337

— fauna of, 264
Slinchar, river, 134
Stonehaven, 168
Stoss-seite, 222

Strata, discontinuity of, evidence of
erosion, 15

— gently-inclined, denudation of, 73,

319

— highly-folded, denudation of, 92,

322

— horizontal, denudation of, 49, 319
Striae, glacial, 2S8

Striated stones, 214

Strike-basins, 304

St1ike-valleys. 76, 80, 131, 352; see

Longitudinal valleys.
Submarine basins, 306
Subsequent mountains, 342

— valleys, 347
Suess, l'rof., 162
Suilven, 71

Summit glaciers. 214, 217, 290
Superior, lake, 279, 361
Sutherland, mountains, 344
Swallow-holes. 208
Sweden, glaciated areas, 239

Sweden, osar, 245

Syenite, 174

Synclinal double-fold, 96

— hills and mountains, 10, 86-88,

344

— valleys, 8g, 104-107

Synclines, symmetrical, 10, 86-89,
105, 112, 115, 117, 118

— unsymmetrical, 10, 42, 93-96, 99,

107, no, 112-114
Systems, geological, 5

— united thickness of, 5

Table-lands, 338

— mountains, 254, 344
Tailless hair, 264
Tarbat Ness, 141
Tarns, 288

Tay, river, 141, 145

— valley, 190
Tectonic basins, 279, 360

— mountains, 340

— valleys, 347
Teith Valley, 169
Terraced mountains, 70
Terraces, alluvial, 51

— marine erosion, 321, 331
Teviotdale, 234

— river, 136, 139
Thames, river, 84

Thickness of sedimentary strata, 43

Thrust-planes, 95, 114

Tiberias, lake, 159

Timan Mountains, 232

Torrents, action of, 289

Tors of Cornwall, 206, 384

Trachyte, 201

Transport of weathered materials,

34
Transverse streams, 104, 107, 121,
131, 139, '48, 149

— valleys, 350

Transylvanian Alps, cirques of, 292
Trenta, cirque-valley, 290

Tuff, 20

— cones, 181
Tundras, 52, 263, 337
Tweeddale, 233
Tweed, river, 133, 138
Tynedale fault, 167

Uckermark, moraines of, 306

Uebergossenen A1m, 221

Unconformity, 42, 385

Underground water, action of, yt,

266
Uniclinal orographic blocks, 159
Upcast side of faults, 155
Uplift, mountains of, ro1
— regional and axial, 129
Utah, 53, 177, 279

Vacek, Dr., 116, 117
Valais, 268
Val d'Uina, 112
Valley-track of rivers, 35, 377
Valleys, Alpine, 308

— classification of, 347

— constructional, 347

— deformation, 348

— dislocation, 159, 162

— erosion, 145, 349

— in gently-inclined strata, 75

— in highly-folded strata, 104

— in horizontal strata, 60

— longitudinal, 70, 131, 139, 144

— older than mountains they traverse,

46. 57

— submerged, 329

— subsequent, 349

— synclinal, 104, 105, 121

— transverse, 104, 122, 131, 139, 144

— U-shaped and V-shaped, 308

— variations in form of, 353
Vatnajbkull, 215

Veins, 20
Vesuvius, 184
Vispthal, 267
Volcanic basins, 281

— rocks, 4, 173 ,
Volcanoes, 180

— demolition of, 187
Vorlander, Alpine, 238, 246, 296

Wadies, 25, 159

Wahnschaffe, Dr., 238

Wahsatch Mountains, 157

Wallace, Dr., 311

Wallenstadt, mountains, 114

Walther, Prof., 24, 254, 256

Water, chemical action on rocks. 25,

30
— mechanical action, 33
Yarrow, river, 139
Yellowstone Lake, 281

Waterfalls, 80, 355

Wealden, anticline, 85

Weathering of rocks, 26, 199

West Lomond Hill, 88

Whiteadder, river, 138

Wind, geological action of, 24, 252,

265
Wocheinerthal, 290
Wolds, Yorkshire, 345

Zambesi Falls, 357
Zillerthal, 214, 223
Zirknitz, 273
Zmutt Glacier, 221
Zones of cirques, 291
Zurich, lake, 293

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