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Crustal movements, influence of, on
land-surface, 17, 47,99, 157, 158,
159, 162, 164

Crystal cellars, 275

Crystalline schists, origin of, 7

Curve of erosion, 357, 377

Cycle of erosion, 65, 125, 140, 148,
172, 338

— interrupted, 125, 135, 149

Dachstein glaciers, 221
Dana, Prof., 240
Danube, river, 52, 263
Darmstadt, 164
Dead Sea, 159, 162, 279
Deccan Plateau, lib, 339
Decomposition of rocks, 25-30
Dee, river, 133, 141
Deflation, 24, 250
Deflection-basins, 297, 303, 314
Deformation, crustal, 13, 47, 48, 179,
209, 280, 330

— mountains, 341

— valleys, 350

De Geer, Baron, 234
Deltas, 49, 52

— growth of, 37

— structure of, 49

Denmark, thickness of ice-sheet, 233
Denudation, agents of, 19

— estimates of rate of, 38, 370

— evidence of, 12, 13

— in limestone regions, 270

— land-forms assumed under, de-

pendent on various factors, 45
Depressed areas, 159, 162
Derivative rocks, 5, 6, 12
Deserts, 251

— regular coasts of, 328, 333
Diablerets, 113

Dikes, 20, 173, 176, 180, 191, 276
Diluvial doctrine, 2
Dip. 8

— slopes, 73, 77, 254
Discontinuity of strata, evidence of

denudation, 14
Disintegration of rocks, 23-25, 199
Dislocation mountains, 342
Dislocations, see Faults.
Dissolution basins, 28a
Dolinas, 271, 273
Dolomite mountains, 72

Dombes, paysage morainique, 300
Dome-shaped hills, 6
Dome-shaped strata, erosion of, 74
Doon. river, 133, 138
Double-folds, 96, 115
Downs, 85, 345
Downthrow side of faults, 155
Drainage, modifications of, by glacial

action, 355
— underground, 31, 268
Drumlins, 234. 245, 378
Drummond Castle, 192
Drums, 234, 245, 378
Drygalski, Dr., 220
Dry valleys, 252, 271
Dunes, 258, 259
Dust of deserts, 260
Dutton, Capt., 58, 62, 63, 66, 67,

158
Dykes, see Dikes.

Early views as to origin of land-forms, 1

Earn, valley, 169

Earthquakes, 164, 267

East African lakes, 162

Eifel, 281

Elevation mountains, 102

Elk Mountains, 342

Engadine. 243, 284

English Channel, 317

Epigene agents, 4, 23

— general results of their action, 332

— influence of, in land-sculpture, 46
Erosion of anticlines, 105

— of arid regions, 206

— of calcareous regions, 268

— of Grand Canon district, 57

— of horizontal strata, 49

— of inclined strata, 75

— of mountains of uplift, 125

— of volcanic accumulations, 187

— factors determining results of, 45

— fluviatile, 35

— glacial, 215, 287, 293, 300, 311

— marine, 316

— rate of, 38, 370

— valleys of, 347

— various processes of, 23
Escarpment mountains, 146
Escarpments, 73, 76, 79, 82, 84, 88,

120, 254, 3<M,343
Escher, Von, 221

Eskers, 245, 249, 378
Ettrick, river, 130
European ice-sheet, 232
Evolution of land-forms, 3, 365

Factors of erosion, 46
Kails of Clyde, 355

— Niagara, 254
Fan-shaped structure, 96
Far6e Islands, 68, 186, 344

Faults, bounding Scottish Lowlands,
167, 168

— cavities in, 276

— coal-fields, 95, 127, 155, 166, 167

— Colorado region, 156

— connection of volcanoes with, 185

— East African lakes, 162

— evidence of rock-removal, 15, 158

— Great Basin, 157

— influence on surface, 150

— Jordan Valley, 159

— normal, 12, 48, 98, 150

— related to flexures, 152

— reversed, 94

— Rhine Valley, 163

Fauna of steppes and tundras, 263
Felspars, 20, 25, 378
Felspathic rocks, 20
Finland, 6

— glacial erosion, 235, 239

— lakes, 286, 301

— moraines, 246
Fiord basins, 307

— coasts, 328, 329
Fissure eruptions, 185, 189
Fjelds, Norwegian, 308
Flexures, mountain, 99

— symmetrical, 118, 119

— unsymmetrical, 116
Floods, river, 33

Fluvio-glacial deposits, 226, 237, 249,

263
Fluvio-marine deposits, 49
Folded mountains, 101, 341

— strata, 9

Folding, cause of, 13, 48, 236
Folds., disrupted, 94

— 1nfluence of, on surface, 101

— isoclinal, 93, 94

— symmetrical and unsymmetrical,

116

Fox, Arctic, 264

Fraas, Dr. E., 112-114

Fragmental igneous rocks, 4, 179,

182, 187, 189
Freiburg, 164
Frost, action of, 28
FrUh, Dr., 234

Gabbro, 174
Galloway, drumlins, 234
Ganges, river, 52
Garda, lake, 293
Gavarni, cirque, 290
Geneva, lake, 36, 293, 296
Geological structure, influence of, in
denudation, 45, 48, 86, 124, 209,

319

— varieties of, in deeply inclined

strata, 93

Germany, cirques, 291

— glacial deposits. 235, 23S, 244-247

paysage morainique and lakes, 286
Geysers, 1S5

Giant's Causeway, 21
Gibraltar, 208

Gilbert, G. K., 159, 176, 284
Girvan, 168

Glacial accumulations, 22;, 233, 243,
248, 301, 305

— action, land-forms modified by,

211, 212, 241, 24S

— basins. 285

— erosion, 215, 220, 224, 235-240,

248, 287, 292, 298, 303

— rivers. 215
Glaciers, Alpine, 213

— geological action of, 213, 220

— Norwegian, 214, 217
Glnrus, Canton, 115
Glassy rocks, 19
Glasven, 97
Glenbeg, 97

Glen Docherty, 145

— Eunach, 290

— Garry, 145

— Lyon, 146

— Roy, 306
Glenmore, 141, 142
Glutton, 264
Gneiss, 23, 26
Gorges, origin of, 81
Grablinden Alps, 291
Grand Canon district, 53, 66
Granite, aeolian erosion of, 252

Granite, joints in, 200

— lava-form equivalent of, 174

— mountains, 175

— plains, 175

— presence of, at surface, evidence

of denudation, 16, 174

— weathering of, 26, 201
Granitoid rocks, weathering of, 206
Gravel-and-»and rocks, 21

Great Basin ranges, 157, 341
Greenland, ice of, 214, 220, 224
Green River, 89, 90
Grindclwald Glacier, 222
Ground-moraines, 214

— Alpine, 228

— source, 220, 228, 233

— superficial form, 244
Gumbel, Dr., 113
Gypsum, 23, 267, 268

Hallstadter See, 290
Hawaii, 183, 275
Hebrides, Inner, 186, 191

— Outer, 243, 301, 303

Heim, Prof. A., 110, 114, 116, 216,

221, 331
Helensburgh, 168
Helland. A., 215, 238, 292
Henry Mountains, 177, 342
Hesse, 165
Highlands (Scotland), corries, 289

— geological structure. 140

— hydrographic system, 141

— lake basins. 284, 291, 293, 301

— plateau of erosion, 140

— pyramidal mountains, 71

— relict mountains, 145

— thrust-plsnes, 97
Hills, 339; see Mountains.
Himalaya, 93, 119, 216, 292
Hinman, R., 159

Hohe Tatra, 291

Ilohc Tauem, 223

Hnlst, Dr.. 220

Holstein, 306

Horizontal strata, 8, 49, 52, 59, 319

Hornblende, 20

Hornkees Glacier, 223

Horste, 170, 342, 380

Huron, lake, 279

Hypogene action, 47

— rocks, 4

Ice Age, modification of pre-glacial

drainage-systems during, 355
Ice-barrier basins, 306
Iceland, 185, 215, 275, 344
Ice-sheet of Europe, 232
Igneous action, land-forms due to,

173, 193

— rocks, 4, 19, 26, 197, 200, 324
Illyria, 271

Infraglacial accumulations, 213, 220,

227, 238, 380
Ingleborough, 344
Inland ice of Northern Europe, 232,

300
Inn Glacier, 229
Innsbruck, 229
Insolation, 23, 250
Insoluble residue of calcareous rocks.

26
Intraglacial detritus, 238, 380
Inversion, 11, 114
Ireland, sea-caves, 276, 277
Ironstone, 23
Isar Glacier, 230

Islands, fringing or marginal, 328
Isoclinal folds, 93, 94, 116, 129
Issyk-Kul, 279
Italy, volcanic lakes, 2S1

Jerboa, 264
Jessero, lake, 273
Joints in rocks. 21, 22

— influence of, in erosion, 60, 72,

105, 197, 319, 320
Jordan Valley, 159
Jostedalsbrae, 290
Jura Mountains. 115, 208, 297
Jurassic escarpments, 83
Justedal Glacier, 21$

Kaisergcbirge, 112
Kaiserstuhl, 164
Karls-Eisfeld, 221
Karrenfelder, 208
Karst regions, 271
Keilhack, Dr., 234
Ken, river, 137
Kettle valleys, 271, 272
Kinnaird Point, 142
Konigs See, 290
Kopjes, 206
Kurischcs Had, 260

Laccoliths, 176, 342

Lac d'Aydat, 281

Lacustrine deposits, 49

Ladoga, lake. 279, 302, 361

Lake-basins, irregular depths, 299

Lake-lands, 301

Lakes as settling reservoirs, 36

— formed by river action, 283

— in cirques, 287

— in deserts, 257, 260

— in glaciated lands, 285

— in limestone regions, 272, 282

— in moraines, 300

— in mountain valleys, 292, 299

— in Scottish Highlands, 312

— in steppes, 264

— in tectonic basins, 279

— in volcanic regions, 281

— silted up, 7

— temporary, 273

— vert1cal distribution of high-level,

291
Lanarkshire, faults in coal-fields of,

166
Landes, French, 337
Land-forms due to glacial action, 241
Lava, 4, 20

— caves in and underneath, 274

— cones of, 182

— plutonic equivalents of, 174
Leader, river, 138
Lebanon, 162

Lee-seite, 222, 381

Lemming, 264

Lewis, 303

Libyan Desert, 24, 254, 256,

Lignite, 4, 23

Limestone, 22

— Alps, 113

— underground drainage in, 268

— weathering of, 207
Llanos, 337
Llathach, 147
Lochaber Mountains, 147
Loch Ewe, 301

— Laxford, 301

— Lochy, 141

— Lomond, 293, 313

— Maree, 145, 146, 313

— Ness, 293, 312

— Torridon, 147
Loss. 240, 261

Lombardy, moraines of, 247, 296

Longitudinal valleys, 76, 80, 104, 122,
139, 145, 148, 35°; >" Strike-
valleys.

Lothians (Scotland), 245

Lowland basins, 300

Lowlands (Scotland), land-forms in,
344

Maars, 281
Macalubas, 185
Madagascar, 329
Marjelen See, 306
Maggiore, lake, 293
Maiden Pap, 71
Malvern Hills, 82
Mangrove Swamps, 333
Marble, 22
Marl, 22
Marmots, 264
Mashonaland, 206
Massive eruptions, 185
Mauna Loa, 183
Mazellferner Glacier, 223
Mecklenburg, 238, 306
Merse, 137

Mesas, 59, 67, 344, 376
Metamorphic rocks, 5

— presence at surface proves denuda-

tion, 16
Mica, 20

— schist, 23

Michigan, lake, 279, 361
Midlands, escarpments of, 84
Minerals, common rock-forming, 20
Minto Hill, 190

Mississippi, river, 7, 38, 52
Moab, mountains of, 161
Monadhliath Mountains, 147
Mongolia, aeolian basins, 284
Monoclinal folds, 54
Mons, coal-basin, 95
Monte Somma, 184
Moor of Rannoch, 142
Moors, Yorkshire, 345
Moraines, lateral, 246

— superficial, 213, 214, 216

— terminal, 219, 246, 249, yx\

301
Morainic lakes, 300
Moray Firth, 141, 312
Morven, 71
Moulins, 217, 381

Mount Ellen, 178

— Ellsworth, 178

— Hillers, 178

— Holms, 178

— Pennell, 178
Mountains, accumulation, 186

— anticlinal, erosion of, 104

— circumdenudation, 58, 65, 67, 69-

72, 76, 79, 83, 86, 88, 132, 145,

147. '93. 2°4, 343. 346

— classification of, 339

— contrast between young and old,

1co, 125

— demolition of, 123, 125

— escarpment, 146

— subsequent or relict, 145

— upheaval, formation of, 101

— various ages, 92, 93

— young, relatively unstable, 119
Mounta1n.track of rivers, 35, 377
Mountain-valley basins, 292
Mud volcanoes, 185
Mushroom-shaped rocks, 24, 253
Musk-ox, 264

Nahr el Asi, 162
Necks, 189, 191, 345
Ness, loch, 141
Neuchatel, lake, 296
Neumark, 306
Neve, 227, 290, 310, 382

— line, 289, 291
Newcastle coal-field, 167
New Zealand, 216, 292, 330
Niagara, 354

Niger, river, 52, 257

Nile, river, 7

Nith, river, 133

Nithsdnle, 233

North America, glacial deposits, 244

— ice-sheet, 232, 240

— lakes, 279, 301

pay sage morainique, 306
North Sea, 317
Norway, cirques, 292

— cirque-valleys, 290

— fiords, 233, 307

— glaciers, 214, 217
Nunatakkr, 220, 227, 233, 314

Oases. 252

Obersalzbachkees Glacier, 233

Obsidian, 20

Oceanic basin, 328

Ochil Hills, 88, 345

Oetrthal, 229

Old Red Sandstone mountains, 71

Olivine, 20

Onega, lake, 279, 302, 361

Original mountains, 340

— valleys, 347
Orkney, sea-caves, 276
Orontes, river, 162
Osar, 245

Outer Hebrides, 243
Outliers, 84, 382
Overfolds, 94, 113, 114
Overthrusts, 94, 115

Palestine, mountains, 161

Pampas, 337

Parallel roads, 306

Partsch, Prof., 291, 292

Paysage morainique, 247, 286, 300,

306
Peat, 4
Penck, Prof., 38, 164, 221, 222, 230,

282, 291, 326
Pennsylvania, 118
Pentland Hills, 345
Permian Basin, Ayrshire, 85
Pernambuce, 332
Perth, 192
Peruvian Andes, 292
Phonolito, 201

Piedmont, moraines, 247, 296
Pitchstone, 20
Plains, classification of, 335

— of accumulation, 49, 186, 326, 335

— of erosion, 127, 128, 136, 142, 186,

337
Plain-track of rivers, 35, 377
Planina, river, 273
Plants, geological action, 29
Plateau, basins, 300

— continental, 327

— Norwegian, 308

— Scottish Highlands, 142

— Southern Uplands, Scotland, 133
Plateaux, accumulation, 52, 60, 65,

186, 338, 343

— classification of, 338

— denudation of, 60, 65, 131, 13a

137, 141, 147

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