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INDEX

Aar Glacier, 215

Abrasion by ice, 21(>, 241, 248

Abyssinia, plateaux of, 186, 339

Accumulation-mountains, 340

Achumore, 97

/Kolian action, 24, 250

— basins. 257. 260. 284
African coasts, 328

— lakes, 162, 279
Afton Water, 138
Air volcanoes, 185
Aix-la-Chapelle. 127
Akabah, gulf, 159
Aletsch Glacier, 306
Alluvial basins, 283

— terraces, 7, 49, 50

Alpine glaciers, work done by, 213,
217

— lands, glacial phenomena of, 227,

246, 247
Alps, the, 93, 109, 119, 208, 214, 216, 217, 231, 284, 291, 293, 296, 312, 351
Amazon, delta, 52

— river, 7
Andes, cirques, 292
Andesite, 174, 201

Animals, geological action of, 29
Annan Water, 133
Anticlinal double-fold, 96

— hills and mountains, 88,91,104, 111

— valleys, 10, 85, 86, 112, 116, 117
Anticlines, symmetrical, 85, 86,^88,

90, 105, 112, 115, 117, 119

— unsymmetrical, 10, 93, 94, 99, 107,

116, 120
Antilebanon, 162
Antrim, basalts, 186, 191
Appalachian Mountains, 93, 118

Aqueous rocks, 3, 4, 22
Arabah Mountains, 256

— Wady, 159

Aralo-Caspian depression, 52, 279, 337
Ardennes Mountains, 127
Argillaceous rocks, 21
Arizona, 53

Arkansas, aeolian basins of, 284
Auvergne, caves, 275

— lakes, 281
Axial uplift, 129

Bahia, 257, 284

lialtic (ilacier, 247, 306

pay sage morainiaur, 247
Haltzcr, Prof., 221
Iiamlaisan, 2S2

Barrier lakes, 281, 293, 298, 305
Basalt, 20, 21, 174

— caves, 276

— plains and plateaux, 186

— sea-cliffs. 324

— weathering, 26, 201

Base-level of erosion, 59, 63, 66, 87, 140, 143, 149, 226, 343, 360
Basins, origin and classification, 278, 279. 359
Bathgate Hills, 345
Bavarian Alps, 112
Beach gravels, 325
Belgium, carboniferous districts, 127
Ben Alligin, 147

— Dearg, 147

— Eighe. 147

— Lomond, 142

— Muich Dhui, 142

— Nevis, 142

— Uidhe, 97

Berendt. Prof. G., 260 Berlin, 233

Bertrand, Prof. M., 95 Bex, 297 Bingen, 165 Birnam, 169 Black earth, 263

— Forest, 163
Blind valleys, 271
Bol1m, Dr., 229

Bottom moraine, see Ground-moraines
Boulder-clay, composition of, 233

— configuration of, 233

— marine erosion of, 319
Boulogne, 127
Bowdoin Glacier, 224
Bracciano, lake, 281
Brandenburg, 238
Brazil, coasts, 329, 330

— schistose rocks, 6

— weathered rocks, 205
Briart, M., 127
Brick-clay, 21

British mountains, 93
Buttes, 59, 344, 376

Cairngorm Mountains, 290
Caithness pyramidal hills, 71
Calcareous rocks, 208
Caldeiraos, 257
Caledonian Canal, 144
Californian lava-caves, 275
Cambusnethan, 167
Canada, schistose rocks, 6

— lakes, 301

Canary Islands, lava-caves, 275 Canisp, 71

Cations of Colorado, 53, 66 Cape Blanco, 257 Cape Bojador, 257

"Capture" by streams, 108, 122, 131,

138, 144, 148
Carinthia, Karst-regions, 271
Cam Chois, 146
Carpathian Mountains, 115
Cascades, see Waterfalls
Caucasus, 119
Caverns, 31, 209, 269, 272-277, 282,

325
Cevennes, 208
Chalk, 22

— escarpments, 83, 84, 345
Chamberlin, Prof., 220, 223

Changes of sea-level, 12, 13
Chemical action of rain, 25

— of underground water, 30, 267
Chilian Andes, 292

Chiltern Hills, 345
China, dust deposits, 261
Choffat, P., 116
Cinder cones, 181, 182
Circumdenudation mountains, 133,

'45. 147. 193, 204, 346
Cirque basins, 287

— lakes, 286

— valleys, 70, 290
Classification of land-forms, 335
Clermont, 275

Cliffs, river-, 61, 6S, 72, 76, 353

— sea-, 71, 319

— undercut by wind-action, 24
Climate, influence of, on denudation,

64, 72, 370
Coal, 4, 23
Coastal plains, 326
Coast-lines, general trend, 317, 328, 361
Coasts, indented or irregular, 327

— smooth or regular, 325
Colorado Plateau, 344

— faults of, 156

— river, 53, 57, 67, 156
Como, lake, 293, 298
Concretions, 256

Cone-in-cone structure of volcanoes, 183
Conglomerate, 3, 22
Connel Water, 138
Constance, lake, 293, 298
Constriction-basins, 299, 302
Constructional valleys, 347
Continental plateaux, 339
Coral reefs, 334
Cordilleras, 93, 119
Cornet, M., 127
Cornwall, sea-caves, 276
Corrie, see Cirque.
Cotswold Hills, 83, 345
Coulmore, 71
Crag-and-tail, 242
Crater lakes, 281
Cree, river, 133
Crevasses in glaciers, 216, 218
Crieff, 192
Crustal deformation, 13, 47, 48, 179,

209, 280, 330

Crustal movements, influence of, on
land-surface, 17, 47,99, 157, 158,
159, 162, 164

Crystal cellars, 275

Crystalline schists, origin of, 7

Curve of erosion, 357, 377

Cycle of erosion, 65, 125, 140, 148,
172, 338 — interrupted, 125, 135, 149

Dachstein glaciers, 221
Dana, Prof., 240
Danube, river, 52, 263
Darmstadt, 164
Dead Sea, 159, 162, 279
Deccan Plateau, 186, 339
Decomposition of rocks, 25-30
Dee, river, 133, 141
Deflation, 24, 250
Deflection-basins, 297, 303, 314
Deformation, crustal, 13, 47, 48, 179,
209, 280, 330

— mountains, 341

— valleys, 350

De Geer, Baron, 234
Deltas, 49, 52

— growth of, 37

— structure of, 49

Denmark, thickness of ice-sheet, 233
Denudation, agents of, 19

— estimates of rate of, 38, 370

— evidence of, 12, 13

— in limestone regions, 270

— land-forms assumed under, de-

pendent on various factors, 45
Depressed areas, 159, 162
Derivative rocks, 5, 6, 12
Deserts, 251

— regular coasts of, 328, 333
Diablerets, 113

Dikes, 20, 173, 176, 180, 191, 276
Diluvial doctrine, 2
Dip. 8

— slopes, 73, 77, 254
Discontinuity of strata, evidence of

denudation, 14
Disintegration of rocks, 23-25, 199
Dislocation mountains, 342
Dislocations, see Faults.
Dissolution basins, 28a
Dolinas, 271, 273
Dolomite mountains, 72

Dombes, paysage morainique, 300
Dome-shaped hills, 6
Dome-shaped strata, erosion of, 74
Doon, river, 133, 138
Double-folds, 96, 115
Downs, 85, 345
Downthrow side of faults, 155
Drainage, modifications of, by glacial

action, 355
— underground, 31, 268
Drumlins, 234, 245, 378
Drummond Castle, 192
Drums, 234, 245, 378
Drygalski, Dr., 220
Dry valleys, 252, 271
Dunes, 258, 259
Dust of deserts, 260
Dutton, Capt., 58, 62, 63, 66, 67,

158
Dykes, see Dikes.

Early views as to origin of land-forms, 1

Earn, valley, 169 Earthquakes, 164, 267 East African lakes, 162 Eifel, 281

Elevation mountains, 102 Elk Mountains, 342

Engadine. 243, 284 English Channel, 317 Epigene agents, 4, 23

— general results of their action, 332

— influence of, in land-sculpture, 46
Erosion of anticlines, 105

— of arid regions, 206

— of calcareous regions, 268

— of Grand Canon district, 57

— of horizontal strata, 49

— of inclined strata, 75

— of mountains of uplift, 125

— of volcanic accumulations, 187

— factors determining results of, 45

— fluviatile, 35

— glacial, 215, 287, 293, 300, 311

— marine, 316

— rate of, 38, 370

— valleys of, 347

— various processes of, 23
Escarpment mountains, 146
Escarpments, 73, 76, 79, 82, 84, 88,

120, 254, 304,343
Escher, Von, 221

Eskers, 245, 249, 378
Ettrick, river, 139
European ice-sheet, 232
Evolution of land-forms, 3, 365

Factors of erosion, 46
Kails of Clyde, 355

— Niagara, 254
Fan-shaped structure, 96
Faroe Islands, 68, 186, 344

Faults, bounding Scottish Lowlands,
167, 168

— cavities in, 276

— coal-fields, 95, 127, 155, 166, 167

— Colorado region, 156

— connection of volcanoes with, 185

— East African lakes, 162

— evidence of rock-removal, 15, 158

— Great Basin, 157

— influence on surface, 150

— Jordan Valley, 159

— normal, 12, 48, 98, 150

— related to flexures, 152

— reversed, 94

— Rhine Valley, 163

Fauna of steppes and tundras, 263
Felspars, 20, 25, 378
Felspathic rocks, 20
Finland, 6

— glacial erosion, 235, 239

— lakes, 286, 301

— moraines, 246
Fiord basins, 307

— coasts, 328, 329
Fissure eruptions, 185, 189
Fjelds, Norwegian, 308
Flexures, mountain, 99

— symmetrical, 118, 119

— unsymmetrical, 116
Floods, river, 33

Fluvio-glacial deposits, 226, 237, 249, 263
Fluvio-marine deposits, 49
Folded mountains, 101, 341

— strata, 9

Folding, cause of, 13, 48, 236
Folds, disrupted, 94

— influence of, on surface, 101

— isoclinal, 93, 94

— symmetrical and unsymmetrical,

116

— varieties of, in deeply inclined

strata, 93Fox, Arctic, 264 Fraas, Dr. E., 112-114

Fragmental igneous rocks, 4, 179,

182, 187, 189
Freiburg, 164
Frost, action of, 28
FrUh, Dr., 234

Gabbro, 174
Galloway, drumlins, 234
Ganges, river, 52
Garda, lake, 293
Gavarni, cirque, 290
Geneva, lake, 36, 293, 296
Geological structure, influence of, in
denudation, 45, 48, 86, 124, 209,

319 Germany, cirques, 291

— glacial deposits, 235, 23S, 244-247

paysage morainique and lakes, 286
Geysers, 185

Giant's Causeway, 21
Gibraltar, 208

Gilbert, G. K., 159, 176, 284
Girvan, 168

Glacial accumulations, 225, 233, 243,
248, 301, 305

— action, land-forms modified by,

211, 212, 241, 248

— basins, 285

— erosion, 215, 220, 224, 235-240,

248, 287, 292, 298, 303

— rivers, 215
Glaciers, Alpine, 213

— geological action of, 213, 220

— Norwegian, 214, 217
Glnrus, Canton, 115
Glassy rocks, 19
Glasven, 97
Glenbeg, 97

Glen Docherty, 145 — Eunach, 290

— Garry, 145

— Lyon, 146

— Roy, 306
Glenmore, 141, 142
Glutton, 264
Gneiss, 23, 26
Gorges, origin of, 81
Grablinden Alps, 291
Grand Canon district, 53, 66
Granite, aeolian erosion of, 252

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