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CONTENTS.—No. XLIV.

PAGE ON THE PROBABLE EXISTENCE OF COAL MEASURES IN THE SOUTH

EAST OF ENGLAND. By Joseph Prestwich, F.R.S., F.G.S. Plate

LXXXV. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 225 BUD VARIATION. By Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. ... ... 244 AN ACCOUNT OF A GANOID FISH FROM QUEENSLAND (Ceratodus).

By Dr. Albert Günther, F.R.S., Assistant Keeper in the Zoological

Department of the British Museum. Plate LXXXVI. ... ... 257 GREENWICH OBSERVATORY. By James Carpenter, F.R.A.S. ... 267 THE RECENT Fossil Man. By J. Morris, F.G.S., Professor of:

Geology in University College, London. Plate LXXXVII.

REVIEWS:

Man's Origin—The Fallacies of Darwinism-Air and Rain-Miller's Chemistry: Physics-Geological Survey of Ohio—Man's Origin and Destiny-Radiant Heat-Ganot's Popular Natural Philosophy -Essays on Astronomy-Botany for Beginners-Anti-Darwinists -A Marvellous Chart—Short Notices ... ... ... ...

288

SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY :

Astronomy - Botany and Vegetable Physiology - Chemistry -
Geology and Paleontology-Mechanical Science Medical Science

- Metallurgy, Mineralogy, and Mining - Microscopy - Physics— Zoology, and Comparative Anatomy ... ... ... ... ... 303

No notice can be taken of anonymous contributions. Contributors must write their names and addresses on the first page of MS. If accompanied with stamps, unsuitable manuscripts will always be carefully returned.

The Editor does not hold himself identified with the opinions expressed in contributions.

All communications to the Editor are to be addressed to 192 Piccadilly.

Articles in the POPULAR SCIENCE REVIEW are Copyright, and the Right of

Translation is Reserved.

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225

A

ON THE PROBABLE EXISTENCE OF COAL MEA

SURES IN THE SOUTH-EAST OF ENGLAND.

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THE question of discovering coal in the south-east of Eng

I land, so long treated in an empirical manner, has of late years assumed a scientific aspect, but in a direction entirely different from that towards which practice pointed. So many of our Tertiary and Secondary strata contain thin beds of lignite and shale, together with beds of sandstone—the first sometimes not unlike impure coal, and the latter resembling the shales and sandstones of the Coal Measures—that it is not surprising that men, ignorant of scientific modes of investigation, and at a period when geology was little understood, should have been misled by resemblance of parts into a belief of identity of the whole. But the progress of geology has since conclusively shown that although certain beds of lignite of Miocene and Wealden age may be worked for such purposes as lime-burning, and some beds of fair coal are wrought in the Colites, as at Brora in Sutherlandshire, yet to all practical intent the beds of good and workable coal are confined to certain strata, known as the Coal Measures, forming the upper part of the palæozoic series of rocks, the position of which is perfectly well defined, and the organic remains of which serve to render their determination a matter of certainty.

The imperfect lignites of our tertiary strata around London ; the lignites and sandstones of our Wealden area ; the clays of the Jurassic series, have all at times given rise to the search after coal in the strata far above the Coal Measures; while the sandstones of the Devonian and the shales of the Silurian series have given rise to equally abortive attempts amongst the rocks under the true coal measures, even up to a recent period, by so-called practical men.

Aubry gives a curious account of one of these searches after coal, made in the neighbourhood of Guildford, at the end of

VOL. XI.-N0. XLIV.

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