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ring, rearview mirror mounting bardware, "S3.1.2 Location. The rearview mirror trim bardware, etc., in the operator's Deld of shall be designed and constructed to be new ball not exceed 40 units marimum, mounted on the inside of the vehicle in such measured by the 20-degree method of ASTM & manner as to provide the driver with a D 629, or equivalent.

Btable, readily distinguishable image under "83.7 Instruments, control devices, etc., normal road conditions. The mirror shall shall be so located so as to present a minimal be located as far forward along the longitudirejection into the windshield in the opera- nal axis of the vehicle as the windshield, tor's Beld of view under daylight and night mount, and adjusting device will permit driving conditions.

(buses excepted). The mirror and its sup"[Federal Standard No. 618/14A)

porting brackets shall be located above the

forward horizontal line of sight, I possible, "CONTROL OF AR POLLUTION FROM AUTOYOTTVB of a manikin which measuros 33 inches from VEHICLES

the 'H' point to the top of the head and oc"81. Purpose and scope. This standard es- cupying the driver's seat set in the mid pod. tablishes requirements for the control of tion, with due regard being given to the emissions from new motor vehicles and new requirements of the vertical Aeld of vlow motor vehicle engines which are Ukely to to the rear (see 83.1.1). Extra large bus cause or contribute to alr pollution.

mirrors designed to serve an additional pur"82. This standard applies to sedang. CarTV.

018 standard applies to sedans, carry- pose of passenger surveillance shall be 10alls, station wagons, and ught trucks up to cated with due consideration of the preand including 42-ton pickup or equivalent coding requirements. equipped with engines of 50 cubic inch dis "83.1.8 Mounting. The mirror shall be placement or over.

mounded in the vebicle by means of a suta "83. Standard characteristics. The pro- able supporting assembly of sumdont posed regulations of the Department of

strength to provide a stable support for the Health, Education, and Welfare, Control of mirror and shall be of a design which will Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and

minimize injury potential to occupants. New Motor Vehicle Engines, published in the The mount, is in the impact aroa shall be FEDERAL REGISTER on December 31, 1965 (30 designed to break away or collapse upon the FR. 17192), form the basis for this standard.

application of a force in excess of 90 pounds, "S3.1 All automotive vehicles and engines in the direction applied by the head of a covered by this standard shall be equipped belted occupant. The head impact area shall with integral or ancillary control systems to be established through the use of type 1 provide control of emissions in accordance seat belt assembly restrained manikins or with the requirements set forth in the regu other test devices having 'H' point to toplations ated in S3.

of-head dimensions of 33 inches and 29 “[Federal Standard No. 616/17a) inches. Adjustable seats shall be in the "BEARVIEW MIRROR (8) YOR AUTOMOTIVE

extreme forward position for the indicated

33 inch device and in the extreme rearward VERICLI

position for the indicated 29 inch device. "81. Purpose and scope. This standard es

The impact area shall be that included betablishes requirements for rearview mirror (8)

tween the arcs formed by the top-of-head for automotive vehicles to provide reason

point when each device 18 swung forward ably unobstructed driver vision to the rear.

and also 45 degrees to each side of the longi"82. Application. This standard applies to

tudinal ads through each normal soating sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and

position. Rigid mounts shall break in such to light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.

a manner as to leave no protruding residuals. Vehicles with bodies designed without rear

The rim of the mirror or its supporting bezel windows and vehicles that require more than

shall have an edge radius of not less than one outside mirror and truck-type vehicles

0.125 inch. The mount shall provide for with small rear windows are excepted from

universal adjustment of the mirror to acthe requirement for an inside rearview

commodate any size driver in any available mirror.

seat position. "83. Requirements. The rearview mirrors

"83.2 Outside mirrors. : shall provide the driver with a clear, un.

"83.2.1 Size. The outside mirror redecting distorted view of unit magnification under

surface shall bave a minimum nominal diday and night operating conditions.

ameter of 5 inches 11 of circular design. "83.1 Inside rearview mirrors. "83.1.1 Size. The rearview mirror shall

Rectangular mirrors shall bave a minimum

nominal horizontal dimension of 5 inches have a horizontal dimension which will pro

and & vertical dimension sumcient to provide vide the driver & view to the rear of the

the driver a view of the road surface from vehicle with a horizontal angle of no less than 20 degrees. The vertical angle shall be

a distance of not more than 35 feet to the

rear from the eye of the driver of the vehicle at least suficient to provide a view of the

and to the horizon on a level road under road surface from a point not greater than

normal load conditions. The 35 feet shall 200 feet to the rear of the vehicle, to the

be measured from the position of the eye horizon under conditions of a level road and

of the driver to the reflecting surface, then to with the vehicle occupied by the driver and

the roadway to the rear of the vehicle. lour passengers in the case of sedans, carryalls, and station wagons or loaded to gross

"93.2.2 Mounting. The outside rearview vehicle weight in the case of buses and light

mirror shall be designed and constructed to

be mounted on the left outside of the vehicle trucks where inside mirrors may be applicable.

in such a manner as to provide the driver with & stable, readily distinguishable im. of rear and front seats. The occupant proage under normal road conditions and shall tection area shall be established through the be so located as to require not more than use of type 1 seat belt Assembly restrained 60 degrees combined head and eye move manikins or other test devices based upon ment with driver's seat in forward position. the equivalent to 'H' point to top-of-head The outside mirror shall provide the op- dimensions of 33 Inches and 29 inches. The erator, with seat in full forward position, a ocoupant protection area shall be that inview of the side of the vehicle on which cluded between the arcs formed by the topmounted. The mirror shall not be ob

of-head point and torso when each device

ot-head pot scured by the unwiped portion of the wind 18 swung forward and also 90 degrees to each shield or by the corner pillar. The mirror side of the longitudinal axis through each shall be readily adjustable to accommodate normal seating position and the forward different size drivers, seat positions, and movement of the knoes and legs of outside load conditions. The mirror and mount shall occupants. be designed, constructed, located, and

“83.1 The controls shall be located within mounted so as to minimize pedestrian injury

reach of the seat belted occupant nearest potential.

the door. Controls located away from or "S9.2.3 Additional outside rearview mirror, shielded from the impact area or recessed Station wagons, carryalls, buses, and trucks within the panel or armrest in such a manshall be provided with an additional outside ner to reasonably minimize the likelihood of rearview mirror to provide driver vision to contact by lap belted occupants shall be conthe right roar areas adjacent to the vehicle sidered to provide an acceptable degree of obscured by vehicle design or load conditions. protection. The visual characteristics of the right out

"S3.2 Door handle controls not meeting side mirror shall conform to the require. 83.1 shall be constructed so that they havo ments of the left outside mirror except that

a contact area of not less than 2 square the restriction on combined bead and Oye

inches substantially vertical, with minimum movement may be relaxod to the extent

radil of 0.125 inch. Window control knobs dictated by vehicle design. Design, con

not meeting $3.1 shall have a minimum construction, location, and mounting of the right

tact area of not less than 1 square inch, outside mirror shall be symmetrical to the

with minimum edges radll of 0.125 inch. All loft outside mirror except that where doces

controls shall bave a maximum extension sary, consideration may be given to location

from the panel of 1 inch. and mounting problems dictated by vehicle "S3.3 Controls not meeting 89.1 or 832 design.

shall be constructed of material which will "83.2.4 Wide angle mirror. When spocl

deflect within 0.376 inch of the panel or deDod, an auxiliary wide angle (convex) mirror tach by a force of 90 pounds leaving no resimay be incorporated in the same mount as

dual protrusions beyond the panel surface the standard mirror to provide an additional

on which mounted. close-in Deld of vision required under certain

"[Federal Standard No. 615/19] operating conditions. The auxiliary mirror shall be incorporated in such a manner as "ASH TRAYS AND LIGHTERS POR AUTOMOTIVE not to interfere with the visual Aeld of the

VEHICLES standard mirror.

"Si. Purpose and scope. This standard og. "83.3 Mirror construction. The reflective tablishes the location and construction of medium shall be of a material which will ash trays and ughters when installed in rosist abrasion and erosion incident to ac

automotive vehicles to afford a reasonable cepted cleaning practices. The surfaces of degree of protection for front and rear seated the material shall be so finished as to pro occupants wearing type 1 seat belt assomvide and maintain & distortion free reflected

blies. image. Front or second surface reflectance, "92. Application. This standard applies may be used. The reflectance value of the to

wae to sedans, carryalls, and station wagons. redective film employed shall be not less "S3. Requirements. Injury potential shall than 50 percest. Inside mirrors may be of be minimized by locating. constructing, or the selective position prismatic type, in which

mounting ash trays and lighters in such a the reflectance value in the night driv

manner as to minimize the likelihood of ing. high-glare position shall be not less

injury to an occupant's head, torso, or leg than 4 percent.

upon impact. The impact area for both front "[Federal Standard No. 616/18)

and rear seats shall be established through "WpyDoW AND DOOR CONTROLS FOR AUTOMOTIVE the use of type 1 seat belt assembly re

strained manikins or other test devices havVEHICLES

ing the equivalent to 'H' point to top-of“Si. Purpose and scope. This standard

head dimensions of 33 inches and 29 inches. establishes the requirements for the location

The impact area shall be that included beand construction of the controls for windows

tween the arcs formed by the top-of-head and doors.

point and torso when each device 18 swung .."S2. Application. This standard applies to

forward and also 90 degrees to each side of sedans, carryalls, station wagons, and lis

the longitudinal axis through each normal trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.

seating position and the forward movement "S3. Requirements. Injury potential shall

of the knees and legs of outside occupants. be minimized by constructing, locating or This area to be determined with front seat mounting of the controls in such a manner in all normal positions. as to reduce the likelihood of injury to the "S3.1 Ash trays and lighters located away head, torso and legs of lap belted occupants from or shielded from the impact area or

14228 recessed within the panel or armrest in such to be so constructed as to absorb and dissia manner to minimize the likelihood of con. pato energy imparted to top and back by the tact of the head, torso or leg of lap belted upper torso, limbs, and head of forward lacoccupants shall be considered to provide a ing passengers restrained by type 1 seat belts reasonable degree of protection.

seated in rear thereof in the event of colll"S3.2 Ash trays not meeting 83.1 shall have sion. & contact area of not less than 2.0 square “S2. Application. This standard applies inches with a minimum edge radius of 0.128 to sedans, school buses, carryalls, station inch Lighters not meeting S3.1 shall bavo wagons, and to light trucks up to 10,000 & contact area of not less than 1.0 squaro pounds gross vehicle weight with provisions inch with a minimum edge radius of 0.126 for forward facing passenger seating within inch and maximum extension from the panel the cab in rear of the front seat. The guardof not more than 1 inch.

rall behind the driver's seat in school buses "S3.3 Ash trays and lighters not meeting shall be considered as a seat back frame for 33.1 or 83.2 may be constructed of material the purpose of this standard. which will either deflect Rush within not

"S3. Requirements. more than 0.376 inch of the panel or be pushed dush with the surface or detach from

"S3.1 The top and back of the front seats

in sedans, the top of the back of forward facits mounting by the application of a forcoing seats, except the rear-most seat, in carrynot to exceed 60 pounds.

alls and station wagons, the top and backs of "(Federal Standard No. 618/20)

all forward facing seats in school buses, ex"ARMRESTS TOR AUTOMOTIVB VEHICLES

cept the driver's seat and the rear-most seats. "gi. Purpose and scope. This standard es. and the guardrail behind the driver's seat in tablishes requirements for armrests whon school buses, shall be so constructed and installed in automotive vehicles to afford a

padded with slow return impact absorbing reasonable degree of protoction for front and material as to limit the force buildup on that rear seated occupants wearing type 1 seat

portion of the human body coming in conbelt assemblies.

tact therewith, to a maximum of 80 g8 in 80 "82. Application. This standard applies to

milliseconds at an impact velocity rate of 22 sedans, carryalls, station wagons, and light feet per second, excluding the first 3 milli. trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.

seconds of the time curve. "S3. Requirements. Injury potential shall "S32 The specific areas to be padded shall bo minimized by constructing and mounting be determined by the use of type 1 seat belt tho arm rests in such a manner as to mini Assembly restrained manikins or other test mizo or spread the area of contact of the devices having 'H' point to top-of-head di. body with any rigid elements of the arm mensions of 33 inches and 29 inches. These rests. Occupant protection area for both manikins shall be swung through a vertical lateral and longitudinal impact shall be aro simulating the lap-belted occupant in determined by the use of a type 1 lap belt each seating position, with the front seat in restrained three dimensional 95th percentile the rear-most position. They shall also be male manikin or other equivalent test device swung through a 45 degroo anglo to each for both rear and front seats with the front side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. seat in all normal positions

Tho arc plane so described shall establish tho "S3.1 The inside exposed surface of the seat top and back areas under consideration arm rests shall be substantially vertical. In in this standard. The beadrest shall be conany normal position of the seat, the substan sidered if applicable. Seat spacing in school tially vertical surface of the arm rest shall buses shall be established at 28 inches for provide an area of broad contact with the test purpose. pelvic region of not less than 2.0 inches verti

"(Federal Standard No. 616/22) cally. The top and sides of the arm resta shall be covered with energy absorbing mate

"HEADRESTS VOR AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES rial, i not constructed of such materials. "8.1. Purpose and scope. This standard The arm rests shall not have any sharp, par establishes the requirements for front seat row, or protruding rigid edges in the contact headrests in passenger carrying vehicles to area exposed or under the energy absorbing anord a reasonable degree of protection from material. The top and sides of the mounting neck injuries (whiplash) in the event of a bracket sball not have any rigid edges of less rear-end collision. than 0.760 inch radius.

"S2. Application. This standard applies to "88.2 Arm rests not mooting S3.1 shall be sedans and station wagons. (Outside seat. constructed of dexiblo material which will ing positions of front seats.) defect toward the panel and provido "S3. Standard characteristics. The Society resultant contact area of the pelvic region of of Automobile Engineers Inc., Manikins For no less than that specified in the preceding. Use in Deining Vebicle Seating Accommoda

"S3.3 Accessories or equipment attached dations, SAE J826, forms a basis in part for to the arm rests sball moet the safety ro- this Federal Standard. quirements applicable to such equipment or "83.1 Defnition. accessories and shall not nully the injury

"93.1.1 Headrest. A woll padded area reducing intent of any of the preceding.

provided for bead support. "(Federal Standard No. 816/21)

"98.2 General. The headrest may bo do.

signed as an ertension of the seat back or "PADDING VOR AUTOMOTIVE SEAT BACKS

an attachment to the seat back. The head"91. Purpose and scope. This standard rest may or may not provide for transversely establishes requirements for seat back frames adjustable mounting. I a transversely adjustablo mounting is not provided, the width metric candlepower shall be in accordance speciäcations in S3.3.1 shall apply.

with tablo 1, SAE Standard J692. "S9.8 Requirements.

"89.3 Reflective side market devices. The "89.3.1 Tho minimum width of the boad. redoctivo sido marter devices shall be se. rest shall be 10 inches and the averago width curely mountod two on each side, one at or shall be at least 12 inchos, both basod og near the front and ono at or near the rear tho forward facing surface that can be con- edgo of the fenders or body of the vebicle, as tacted by the head of the occupant. Tho top applicable. Tho reflectivo devices shall bo of the headrost aball be at loast 28 inchas mounted at a minimum height of 16 inches above the 'H' point of the threo dimensional measured from the center of the device to the manikin (SAE J826).

level ground upon which tho vobiclo stands "93.3.2The headrest, including any sup without load. Redoctivo devices shall be of porting structure that can be contacted by such sizo and havo such characteristics as to the head of an occupant of the vehicle, shaủ bo readily visible at night time from all disbe constructed of or covered with a material tanca and at the lateral angles spomidod of impact-absorbing qualities on all outer within 800 foot to 100 roet from the vehiclo surfaces.

when illuminatod by the beams of bead "S3.3.3 Structural deflection of the head. lampa of the observar's vabidlo. Minimum rest resulting from contact in rear-end col- candlepower redoctanco measuremont kall lisions 18 allowable, except that rebound ac- bo in accordance with class A, SAB Standard tion shall be minimized. The headrest and 35050. its supporting structure shall have su. "83.2.1 Retective device colors. The color acient strength to withstand a force no of tho redoctivo dovicos shall be whito to less than 200 pounds in either fore or art ambor for the front and rod for the rear of direction without structural failure, although the vehiclo. a limited amount of permanent distortion is "83.8 Electrical and reflective side marker 14229 permissible.

devices. The electrical and reflective type "(Federal Standard No. 515/23)

Ndo marker device, when combined, shall “SIDE MARKER DEVICES POR AUTOMOTIVE

conform to the preceding paragraphs. VEHICLES

"(Federal Standard No. 516/24) "S1. Purpose and scope. This standard es. “REAR WINDOW DETOGGER TOR AUTOMOTIVE tablishes requirements for side marker sy8

VEHICLES tems to assure notice and recognition of "81. Purpose and scope. This standard es vehicles from laterial positions during dark- tablishes requirements for rear window deness and inclement weather.

Togglog, designed to achieve the most prac"S2. Application. This standard applies tical vision through tho rear window. to sedans, carryalls, and station wagons. "82. Application. Thls standard applies to

"S3. Requirements. The side marker sys- medans. tems shall consist of either an independent "S3. Requirements. The rear window de. electrical system or an electrical system, in logger system shall be permanently installed, combination with or utilizing head and/or to provide for the removal of fog from inside tall lamps, or a reflective system, or a combi- the rear window caused by atmospheric connation of both electrical and redective sys- ditions and passenger loading conditions, in tems. The side marker device housings or the vebicle. The system shall be of a capacity mounting plates shall be antitrust material, to clear a minimum area of 75 percent of the or suficiently plated or inish coated to be operators viewed area of the rear window as noncorrosive. As applicable, these require redected in the rear view mirror. ments shall conform to the Uniform Vehicle "S3.1 Testing. The defogger system shall Code, Chapter 12. The lateral included romove fogging under any atmospheric conangles of visibiuty of the side markers shall dition and with full passenger loading within be from the lateral angle toward the front of a 10-minute period. the vehicle when head lamps are no longer

"(Federal Standard No. 516/25) visible, to the lateral angle toward the rear of tho vehicle when tall lamps become visible.

"ROLL BARS FOR AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES “S3.1 Electrical side marker devices. The “Si. Purpose and scope. This standard electrical side marker system shall bo securely establishes requirements and test procedures mounted. The system lamos shall be a mini. for roll bars installed on specific automotive mum of one at or near th front and ono at vehicles to anora a rea

ons at vebicles to afford a reasonable degree of Occuor near tho roar edges on each side of tho pant protection in a rollover. vebicle. Tho mounting belght shall be not “S2. Application. This standard applies to less than 16 inches measured from the center ught trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. of of such lamp to the level ground upon which the utility type with open bodies, and those the vehicle stands without a load. The elec. with enclosures made of canvas, metal. Aber trio addo marker lamp colors shall be white glass, or plastic. to amber for the front and red for the rear "S3. Requirements. The roll bar shall be and they shall be steady burning simultane. designed for each manufacturer's product to ously with the head and tall lamps and park. establish the width, height, clearances, and ing lamps. The electric lampa shall be proper strengths of the structural members capable of being distinguished under normal required. The roll bar shall be constructed atmospherlo conditions and at the time lights to guard the operator and passenger comaro required to provide recognition at all partment, or compartments, within a rigidly distances between 600 and 50 feet from the attached structural bar unit assembly. The lateral sides of the vehicle. Minimum photo strength and size shall be as required for each

vehicle type and weight with the specified provided, I believe, a very sensible, fair, number of occupants for which the vehicle and adequate procedure among the manis designed to be used and for their maximum

ufacturers, the Governors of the States, protection without critical deformation or

the highway patrol, people involved in critical encroachment on the operator or passenger compartments. To the extent prac

safety, and even appropriate legislative tical, the roll bar structure shall be located to committees in the States that have diffipreclude contact by the heads of belted occu culty in connection with safety standpants. If this is not possible, the roll bars ards in their States. There is ample shall be covered with energy absorbing cush provision for conferences, cooperation, ioning material. The roll bar structure de

testing, and meetings with the Secretary signs shall not impair the vehicle operator's vision or body movements wbllo operating

before he arrives at a decision on a perthe vehicle. Unless otherwise specified, ve

manent standard over and above these hicle manufacturers may eliminate a fold

26 items that would be mandatory once down windshield on the utility truck and in the Secretary issues the standard. It corporate a new designed axed windshield would ordinarily take effect within 6 strengthened to become part of a roll bar months to a year after the effective date structure.

of the decision. "S3.1 Testing. The testing requirements

I believe that all witnesses were unanfor the area of critical encroachment shall be measured from the 'H' point of a manikin

imous in their agreement that the with 'H' point to top-of-bead dimension of

nsion of standard-setting procedures were ade33 inches. Performance requires a manikin, quate and fair to everyone concerned. seat belt restrained, for each passenger and ............................... operator position in the vehicle and with the

The effect on State laws is quite imvehicle tested to the SAE Recommended

portant and is what makes & bill of this Practice of SAE J857. For the hill rollover test, specific speed of 50 miles per hour sball

kind so difficult. Primarily, in the field be used.

of highway traffic safety, the States have "(Federal Standard No. 616/26]

important authority and should continue

to exercise such authority. They deter"FUEL TANKS AND TANK TILLER PIPES POR

mine the age of drivers, issuing drivers' AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES

licenses, inspections, speed laws, those "Si. Purpose and scope. This standard astablishes requirements for the integrity and

regulations designed to reduce to a minisecurity of fuel tanks and tank aller pipes

mum the number of bad drivers on the lor automotive vehicles.

highways. "S2. Application. This standard applies to I guess we will never get rid of bad sedans, buses, station wagons, carryalls, and drivers on the highways, but what we are light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. trying to do here is to insure that, even Excluded are utility vehicles of the three

If & bad or a drunken driver runs into vboel type.

someone who is a good driver, the vehi"83. Standard characteristics. The SAE cles themselves will afford some protecRecommended Practice for Barrier Collision tion for both drivers, and reduce the Tests, SAE J850 forms the basis for section,

deaths and the terrible injuries which 83.1 of this standard as modided in 83.1.1. "83.1 Fuel tanks and tank Aller pipes shall

are indicted on Americans every daybe constructed so that they will not rupture, even at the very moment than I am bo totally displaced from installed positions, speaking. or discharge fuel from the aller pipe, unda The States have great responsibility in any condition of tank capacity loading, when

the field of highway traffic itself. There subjected to longitudinal and/or lateral acceleration/deceleration forces developod at

is no intention by the committee or by their installed post tion, during the SAE

anyone associated with the bill, to say to J850 barrier collision test at 80 miles per hour.

the States that they should not continue "83.1.1 Other testing methods, such as

to do more in this area. bigh capacity acceleration faculties, giving Some States have more stringent laws equivalent results, may be utilized in lieu of than others, but concerning the car itthe SAE J850 barrier collision test."

self, we must have uniformity. That is (F.R. Doc. 86–2473; Plod, Mar. 7, 1968; why the bill suggests to States that if we 9:36 a.m.)

set a minimum standard, a car complyMr. MAGNUSON. I am sure that

ing with such standard should be ad

mitted to all States. Otherwise, the everyone here, if they do not already

manufacturers would have to make at know, would be very interested to know what can be done to make a motor ve

least 30 different models to comply. The hicle more safe. I presume that the Sec

centralized, mass production and high retary will rely upon the experience of

volume character of the manufacturing

industry requires that the safety standthe Government in setting the interim standards.

ards be not only strong and adequately

enforced but, as I say, also uniform. I On the permanent standards, which

would suspect that the States, if these will apply to every automobile, we have

provisions are going to be what I think


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