« PreviousContinue »
outlived its usefulness," the bishops of San Luis, Los Angeles, and San Juan Bautista, came in solemn state to remove the sacred remains to a place not so dilapidated as the Mission church had become. To their consternation, they found nothing to remove; and, though the story was hushed up as much as possible, all sorts of rumors went flying among the superstitious Catholics of Spanish and Indian blood, as to what had become of the good father's bones. Having some curiosity on the subject myself, I once more sought my oracle, Don Rosario Duarte, and asked what he thought had become of this pious man's ashes.
“That,” he said, “I can tell you. My mother-in-law, who died ten years since, at an advanced age, has told me a hundred times of the
deputation of high officials and humble monks who came all the way out from Spain to carry back with them the bones and ashes of Father Junipero Serra. There are still three of the old Mission Indians living here in town. One of them, a woman named Yumesa, will corroborate my statement, for she claims that she can recollect how every one of the caballeros and monjes comprising this deputation looked.
I tried my best to find Yumesa, not because I doubted Don Rosario's word, but because I wanted to see what a real, live Mission Indian looked like. I failed to discover her; but of the thousands who will flock to Monterey in the course of this summer, I hope that some one may make it a special task to find and interview Yumesa. JOSEPHINE CLIFFORD.
TO THE NEED OF A Historical Society upon accomplish this. There are thousands of persons who this coast, we had occasion to refer last month in re- came here in early days whose lives were eventsul. viewing Governor Burnett's Recollections. A corre- Their deeds, taken collectively, constitute our history. spondent takes us to task for the following language Many of them are aged, and in a short time the hand used in that connection :
that now can write will forever lose its cunning. The “There is material in the history of the Pacific Coast
death of every such man, with his life-story untold, is which is rapidly being lost for want of some organiza- a public calamity. An organization, with a bureau of tion to systematically collect and preserve it, but which, correspondence, might yet preserve much of that which in the future, if so collected, some historian would gath- otherwise will soon be forever beyond our reach. It is er into a story as dramatic and fascinating as that of Prescott or Macaulay. Perhaps, however, we should
not only selfish, it is extremely impolitic, to leave to inbe thankful that, in the absence of any organized effort
dividual effort that which is public concern. That there to rescue this fast perishing tradition, there are occa- are organizations which were generally expected to dissional disconnected publications which may in some play an interest in this matter we know; but that any manner preserve it."
interest has been shown outside of the individual inOur correspondent points, with just enthusiasm, to
stances cited we have yet to learn. the collection made by Mr. H. H. Bancroft, of San Francisco, who has expended large sums of money, and much valuable time, in securing every book, pamphlet, CADET WHITTAKER does not appear to advantage or relic which would throw light upon the history of the in the light of the investigation into the West Point Pacific States, and who, by means of an extensive cor- "outrage." It is clearly established that Cadet Whitrespondence, has reduced to an available form the per- taker has attempted a colossal fraud on the good people sonal experiences of hundreds of individuals.
of the country. From the first it was a source of won. "In no State," says our correspondent, "has so much der that a person within calling distance of aid should private enterprise, capital, and ability been expended in passively submit to the treatment to which he claimed the pursuit of the very object to which you allude." to have been subjected. Possibly the worst feature of
This letter comes very opportunely, to give point to our the whole affair is the damage which it will do to the suggestion. We were aware of the collections made by Military Academy. The fact that Whittaker was a Mr. Bancroft, and by at least one other gentleman, and colored cadet was enough to awaken in the minds of the success which had attended their efforts seemed to many well-meaning persons a belief in the most extraus to show the necessity of an organization. Individual ordinary stories which he might choose to invent, and effort, even where it is as public-spirited and as munifi- this credulity was heightened by the prejudice which the cent as in the case cited, is always limited by the will, graduates of the Academy have fostered by their preby the other engagements, and, finally, by the life of tentions at caste and superiority. The supercilious the person making it. Private collections also are liable bearing of many officers has done incalculable injury to to disintegration, and the vast labors of a single life- the system which produced them. This is very natural, time may come to naught simply because at the mo- and, to an extent, not illogical. Cadet Whittaker's ment there is no one to keep the results intact. Fur- case came at an inopportune time to inflame this prejuthermore, such collections should be public, should be dice. This is much to be regretted, as the history of accessible to all persons. A historical society alone can our late war, as indeed of every war, shows the superi
ority of the professional soldier. While there were ment, that the secrets they profess to teach are unimdeeds of gallantry and no little military talent found in portant, that their mysticism is an innocent device for individual civilian soldiers, it must be confessed that retaining the interest of their members. We may safely the great generals were graduates of the Military Acad- assume that their mysteries are merely ritualistic, and emy. If this be so, a country with such vast possessions form no argument either for or against the societies, to defend as are held by the United States cannot afford any more than the ritualism of organizations which do to neglect any precaution, at least so long as men con- not sit with closed doors. But, looking at the practical tinue to think that cutting each other's throats and working of these orders, we find two phases prominent, shooting off each other's heads are the best means for the pecuniary and the social. The proportions which the settlement of disputed questions. We do not expect either assumes are different in the several societies. In a man to be a good doctor who has not been graduated some the pecuniary aspect is omitted, except in the form at a medical school, nor a successful minister who has of charity. In others it is the most prominent feature, not attended a theological seminary. We train our and takes the form of life insurance, benefits, and so business men from boyhood. In every branch of life forth, according to the constitution of the order. Cerwe advocate special training as a prerequisite to ex- tainly there can be no objection either to charity or cellence. It is equally necessary with the profession of to that wise prevision which seeks to anticipate and arms. If we would win in the supreme moment of con
avert the evils of the future. But it is the social aspect flict, we must train some men through long years for which we most commend. Men are too apt to get into that moment. Cleverness, aptitude, will not at the time ruts. We should welcome anything that will bring them supply the place of this experience. It is probable that together. The scholar may always learn from the lathe efficiency of the West Point Academy in many borer, and the laborer may get an insight into newer and ways may be increased. It is certain that the graduates higher things from a few moments' conversation with the may assist the institution, as well as their profession, by scholar. It is at once a reciprocal duty and privilege abating somewhat their arrogance. But the inefficien- with men to break down clannishness. An intellectual cy, if any, may be remedied, and the arrogance is merely man who holds himself aloof from his less learned fela silly pretense, while the fact still remains that war low-men, loses something of the fullness of true edumay come, as war has come, and that in such event the cation and culture. He becomes a mental snob. With country will need the bravery, experience, and genius him it is all head development. He cannot perceive of these men who seem so useless in time of peace. the grandeur in the character of this unlettered man, After a war the nation rewards its soldiers with unstint- who would not do a mean action for the universe. ed honors. Before the war, while peace remains, it is Neither can he appreciate the marvelous practical ingrudging and parsimonious.
formation of this other, who is a close observer of Nature and her laws. We have no patience with unvary
ing standards to which all men must conform. Our THE COMMENCEMENT EXERCISES at the University modern education tends too much that way, and we of California were largely attended. It is a pity that the must get out of our little manner of thinking that our talentire population of the State cannot be brought to- ents are the only talents, and that our learning is the only gether at Berkeley once a year to see the work which is knowledge. A man should be able to appreciate the done there. One notable event connected with the true nobility of a dog. We need more catholicity; and graduation of the class of this year, is the fact that the anything which will bring men together, which will highest honors are borne off by two young ladies. The break down arrogance, pretense, and sham, which will class is a large one, and the advocates of the idea of build up courtesy, appreciation, and tolerance, and, feminine intellectual inferiority will have difficulty in
above all, which will teach that there is no imperialism explaining this preëminence. One of the young ladies in excellence, no one virtue that may dominate the rest has already acquired an enviable reputation upon this in purple, we should be prepared to welcome. coast as a writer. The President of the University called attention to the necessity for endowments to assist needy students, and for other purposes. It is worthy CORRUPTION IN AMERICA is a favorite theme for the consideration of our rich men that a sum which English sneers. We are frequently assured that our they would hardly miss, would yield a sufficient interest
system of popular enfranchisement is a failure, because to be a perpetual benefaction in assisting poor young votes are bought and sold by the wholesale. In view of men and women to complete their studies; and it is cer- the air of placid virtue with which these charges against tain that no investment would yield a greater return of us are made, it may be well to inquire what becomes of real pleasure and satisfaction.
the vast sums of money which were openly acknowledged to have been expended during the last election in Eng
land. It is no secret that a seat in Parliament costs a SECRET SOCIETIES have grown with remarkable ra- man a handsome amount. Figures are given which pidity during the last few years, especially in America. seem marvelous to our American ears. We were told The time when there was but one of these societies is the exact amount that one wealthy lady was about to exwithin the memory of many persons now living. To-pend for one young aspirant. What is most singular is day they are numerous, and comprise such an extensive that this seems to be taken as a matter of course. It membership that we are surprised that no writer on would go hard with a candidate here who was accused social science has mentioned them as curious phenom- of buying his way into place; but it seems to create no ena of the times. We live in an age of coöperation, in prejudice against an aspirant with our English cousins. a gregarious century. Every undertaking of magnitude is accomplished by an aggregation of force and capital. We believe these societies are accomplishing a vast deal The MONROE DOCTRINE may become a source of of good. It may be admitted, for the sake of argu- serious entanglement before we are through with it. It
Vol. II.- 6.
is hard to see how the United States can permit a canal about a vacation in California. Nature does not remind to be built between the two oceans, unless it is subject us of it, and we go on from year to year in work until to American control. In case of war, it would prove we stop, suddenly. Men must learn this lesson of rest. disastrous to our shipping to have the canal in the pos- They must be made to see the economy of occasional session of enemies. But have we the right to insist that idleness, the wasteful prodigality of overwork. And it no one else shall build the canal, unless we propose to is not merely rest we need. We must have change of do it immediately ourselves? Have we the right to
air, water, scenery, inspiration. If we cannot go to the stand in the way of the world's development, except by watering places—and it is a mistaken idea that we must virtue of some superior claim to forward that develop- huddle together in the country just as we do in the city ment? A "dog in the manger" policy is unworthy of -We can pitch our tent in the aromatic forest, beside a great nation. If we are not rich enough, or enter- the restful stream. There will not be a night for three prising enough, to complete this great undertaking, we months in which we cannot sleep in the open air with have no moral or legal right to prevent others from impunity, if we go over the first ranges of hills from the doing it. We believe the Monroe doctrine should be coast. We need no books; what we want is a fishingenforced; but we believe, as a corollary to this, that pole and a gun. We can study Nature's picture in a America herself is bound to construct the canal without book when we are at home and cannot see Nature herdelay.
self. One month of this out-door life is worth all that
a man can earn in the other eleven months, for it gives SUMMERING HAS COMMENCED. The hills were nev- him the impetus to earn it. And the hearty man who er more beautiful, the valleys never more inviting, and comes back at the month's end will do better work in his they are so near, so accessible, that no one who stays eleven months than the unnerved man who went out at home, and has dyspepsia all next winter, can claim under the trees would have done in the round year by the right to grumble at his fate. We are apt to forget I remaining at home.
SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY.
THE MICROSCOPE IN BOTANY.
moderation. The Professor has shown, by experiments,
that if the intensity of the sun's rays is materially inThe microscope is constantly enlarging its field of creased by any optical apparatus, the chlorophyl screen, usefulness, and is adding, day by day, new triumphs or regulator, is found too feeble to protect the hypochloin the direction of original research. It has recently rine in its proper work, and oxidation sets in so rapidgiven to the world a new and more certain mode forly that both chlorophyl and hypochlorine are rendered determining the geological structure of rocks; and the inert, and the plant dies. This discovery opens an enfact is now announced of a discovery of equal impor- tirely new field for botanical research, and furnishes adtance in connection with the life and growth of plants. ditional evidence that plants have a regulator of vital As, in the first case, many of the universally accepted forces, corresponding more nearly than the simple chlotheories of geologists were brushed aside, so, in the rophyl to the heart and lungs of animals, and further present instance, theories which botanists had supposed proof is gained in the direction of a unity of life beto be well established are completely overthrown. It tween the animal and vegetable kingdoms. appears that Professor Prinzheim, of Berlin, has recently been studying the green coloring matter in the leaves of plants, known as chlorophyl, and the cells in which it
SCIENCE NOT ATHEISTIC. is contained. Botanists have heretofore assigned to this substance the work of absorbing from the atmos- The Lord Bishop of Carlysle, in discussing the theophere, during the night, carbonic acid gas, retaining ries of matter, in regard to their possible atheistical tenthe carbon for the sustenance and growth of the plant, dencies, holds that all physical science is compelled, by and returning the free oxygen to the air to make good its very nature, to take no account of the being of a the deterioration of that element through the respira- God; for, as soon as it does so, it trenches upon theoltion of the animal creation. Now Professor Prinzheim ogy, and ceases to be physical science. Such investihas demonstrated, by the aid of the microscope, that gations are, by agreement, conversant simply with obchlorophyl does not perform that work, but that the served facts, and conclusions drawn from such facts. carbon in the atmosphere is appropriated and assimi- But because investigators proceed in that manner, they lated through the medium of a balsam-like substance in do not, either in fact or by implication, deny the existthe plant, heretofore unknown, to which he gives the ence of God. "Take," he says, "the case of physical name hypochlorine. This newly discovered substance, astronomy: To the mathematician, the mechanics of when under the influence of sunlight, has a strong affin- the heavens are in no ways different from the mechanics ity for carbonic acid; and it further appears that the of a clock. It is true that the clock must have had a heretofore supposed active chlorophyl is merely a pass- a maker; but the mathematician who investigates any ive agenta sort of curtain, screening the hypochlorine problem in connection with its mechanism has nothing from the direct or too powerful influence of the sun's to do with him as such.
But he does not rays, so that it may do its work with regularity and deny his existence; he has no hostile feelings toward him; he may be on the very best terms with him. ence, in Central Africa, of one of the most extraordinary
Precisely in the same way, the man who inves- insects of this kind yet discovered. It is called by the tigates the mechanics of the heavens finds a complicated natives tsetse, a word the pronunciation of which probsystem of motion, a number of bodies mutually attract- ably sounds much like the noise produced by the insect ing each other, and moving according to certain as- its flight. Though not larger than our common sumed laws. In working out the results of his assumed household pests, it is described as a really terrible insect, laws, the mathematician has no reason to consider how whose sting is absolutely fatal to several of the domestic the bodies came to be as they are; that they are as they animals, but comparatively harmless to man. So deadly are is not only enough for him, but it would be utterly is its poison that when a very small number of these beyond his province to inquire how they came to be so. flies attack an ox, or a horse, or a dog, the animal soon Therefore, so far as his investigations are concerned, begins to stagger, becomes blind, swells up, and finally there is no God.
Still, they are not dies in convulsions. And yet it is said that this deadly atheistic; and he may carry on his work not merely poison is simply annoying, but not fatal, to either man, without fearing the Psalmist's condemnation of the fool, the pig, the goat, or to wild animals generally. The but with the full persuasion that the results of his labors discovery of some antidote to the sting of this venomous will tend to the honor and glory of God."
fly would bring wealth and glory to the discoverer. Dr. George Macloskie, of Princeton College, has recently
been making the stomaxys a matter of special study. THE CIRCULATION OF HUMAN BLOOD
He has discovered that it has one very bad habit, for MADE VISIBLE.
which the common house fly has sometimes been un
justly blamed. This habit is described as follows: The Dr. C. Huter, a German microscopist, has construct
piercing fly was often observed to have her head and ed a simple device by which the circulation of the blood
proboscis covered with eggs. That they were not her is made visible in a human subject. His method is as
own was evident from their different shape, and from follows: The head of the subject is placed in a frame, the fact that they were attached to the wrong end of the with which is also connected a microscope. The head insect. Further observations showed that these eggs and instrument are so placed that the lower lip may be developed into anguillula worms, resembling paste eels. slightly drawn out, and its inner portion fixed uppermost Here, then, we have one of the ways in which this fly upon the stage of the microscope. A strong light is defiles articles of diet, etc. The house fly alone has a then thrown upon the surface of the lip, the light being retractile proboscis, that folds up and is drawn into the intensified by use of a condenser. Thus arranged, the
head. The lower end of the proboscis consists of a instrument is properly focused upon a small superficial knob, and contains the lips and a series of forked halfblood-vessel, when the observer may plainly see the rings, by means of which that fly rasps the surface from endless procession of blood corpuscles passing through which it gathers food. The teeth of the house fly form the minute capillaries, the colorless ones being distinctly
a single row of five or six on each side of the mouth, identified as little white specs, more or less thickly dot- while the blow fly has as many as thirty teeth, arranged ting the main body of the red stream of blood. This
in three rows on each side. The Doctor remarks that device may often prove of considerable importance to
the structural resemblances of the crayfish, the cockthe medical practitioner, by enabling him to carefully roach, and the fly are very similar. note the variations in the blood flow, and the relative proportions of the white corpuscles in that fluid. This is the first instance where the flow of the vital fluid of
SPONGE UNDERCLOTHING. one human being has been made visible to another. Observations as to the character of the blood have here
An inventor has patented a new kind of cloth, which tofore been made upon that fluid after it has been drawn
consists simply of sponge. The sponges are first thorfrom the subject, and, of course, under circumstances
oughly beaten, in order to so crush all the mineral and very unfavorable for accurate determination.
vegetable impurities that they may be readily removed by washing. The sponges are then dried and carefully
cut with a sharp knife into thin sections, which are subHOUSE FLIES.
sequently sewed together. The fabric thus prepared is
free from the danger which sometimes arises from the The common house fly belongs to the order of dip- absorption into the system of poisonous dyes. A gartera, from the Greek dis, "twice," or "two," having ment made of such a fabric absorbs without checking reference to the distinguishing characteristic of two the perspiration, and thus diminishes the danger of wings only. They are also specially marked as having taking cold. It is a bad conductor, and therefore helps the mouth in the form of a proboscis, with a sucker. to maintain a uniform surface temperature, and it can Flies, though often seriously annoying, are extremely be more readily cleansed than ordinary woolen garuseful as scavengers, and thereby preventers of disease. ments. Its flexibility also greatly diminishes the liability There are several distinct species of what are known as to chafing. house flies, two of which are more numerous than all others combined. One of them, the most common and numerous, is known to scientists as the musca domestica,
A GROWING TASTE FOR ART. and fortunately this is the least annoying, except for its The progress made in the direction of improving the great numbers. The other is known as stomaxys, or the quality and finish of the various products of skill and piercing fly. It makes its presence known, and be industry, in this country, gives unmistakable evidence distinguished from the more common one, by its some- of a growing taste for art among our people. There are what stinging bite, for it is able, by its peculiar probos- now but few dwellings, among even the poorest, where cis, to pierce the skin, which the more common fly can- there is not some evidence of a love for the beautiful in not do. Dr. Livingstone has made known the exist- the way of decoration. To satisfy this demand, the
chromo has been advanced to a near approach to a fine The carpet, stove or range, and the plate-glass mirror art, and is now largely employed for the adornment of are about the only novelties-save Yankee notionswalls where circumstances will not admit of more elabo- which have been introduced into modern dwellings. Of rate and costly productions. Articles of virtu, more or late, there has been a growing taste for the antique, and less expensive, are found in almost every dwelling in the old attics, lumber-rooms, and even second-hand furniland. The decorative artist is in large demand in near- ture stores, have been ransacked over and over again for ly every line of mechanical product. The furniture and antique designs, or real articles for house furnishing or fixtures in our houses and in our public buildings, the decoration-said articles consisting mostly of old desks, railroad car, the steamers upon our bays and rivers, all ancient chairs, antique sofas, tables, cabinets, etc. Old bear, more or less, the impress of the taste and genius crockery, cracked and nicked though
may be, has of the decorator. Even advertising, and especially rail
been made to do duty again, and even modern wares, way advertising, in response to this universal demand, new from the store, have been submitted to long baths seems to be laying claim to recognition as a fine art.
in dirty, mineralized waters, to give them an appearance The passenger departments of some of our leading roads of antiquity. Such is the inexorable rule of fashion. lavish the highest skill of writers, artists, engravers, and Articles of furniture made previous to the advent of the printers upon productions setting forth in the most at- present century, promising any kind of artistic value, tractive manner the advantages and attractions of their are now difficult of procurement, while many old deseveral routes. But perhaps the most noticeable of all signs have been imitated by clever amateurs and introis the rapidly increasing demand for decorative table duced as antiques. The furor in this direction, however, wares. During the past two years the advance made in is now fast giving way, and new designs are sought for, meeting the wants of the public for artistic form and but varying largely from anything heretofore met with. beauty in table service has been far greater than during The traditional parlor set, bearing marks of uniformity, any previous similar term. Twelve years ago one man is now rarely seen, especially in our Eastern dwellings. was able to perform all the decorative work for the nu- Variety is the order. Fancy tables, with standards of merous establishments for the manufacture of fine wares gilt or ebony, and tops upholstered with plush or raw in Trenton, New Jersey. Since that time the number silk, and sofas and chairs upholstered mostly as odd of decorators has annually increased, until there are now pieces, are the style. The new designs in upholstering not less than three hundred in that city, fully employed. are mostly of Persian patterns, Japanese figures, or Some of the work turned out is very superior, vases be- floral designs; the last two are especially liked for chaming produced worth from $100 to $500. Catering to the
ber sets. There is a marked difference between Ameriincreased demand for home decorations, artistic and can and English furniture. We follow more nearly the original designs, in both shape and ornament, have French. English articles of manufacture, of all kinds, been produced, equal or'ranking near to the most beau- are designed with a view to durability and strength. tiful of similar productions in Europe. Our industrial American productions are made attractive as well as duexpositions, our museums of art, and our schools of de- rable, and in variety, design, uniqueness, and practicasign have accomplished the most of what has already
bility, far exceed the English. Americans display subeen done to create a taste for the beautiful in this di-perior taste in the gracefulness and beauty of their work rection; but we need more art schools to educate our in nearly every line. This fact is accounted for partly people to a still higher appreciation of the beautiful in
from superior inventive genius, as displayed in the patThe fullest success of our industrial and commer
ent office records of the two countries, and in part from cial interests depends largely upon such education. It the superior education of our workmen, and their freehas been truly said that "Beauty, combined with util
dom from the conventional rules which are so arbitrary ity, gives a commercial value not otherwise obtained." in English workshops. There appears, just now, a
strong aversion to casters on furniture, at least as these
motive facilities are usually made to appear. Chair-legs HOUSEHOLD FURNISHING.
especially, and indeed all kinds of furniture legs, with The social life of ancient times differed materially casters affixed in the usual way, are very awkward and from that of our own in almost every aspect. Yet, al- unpleasant to look upon. A six or seven-inch leg, though personal habits have changed, the ordinary wants turned or carved into all sorts of beautiful shapes, with of men remain about the same. The form and style of a sudden taper down to where the caster begins, is a dwellings, and of their furniture-such as beds, chairs, horror to any one possessed of good taste. When caslounges, tables, cabinets, etc.—have essentially changed ters are absolutely needed, they should be inserted into in style, but have ever maintained a certain identity of hollow feet, where their unsightly forms will be hidden form and use-more nearly so than articles of clothing.
from the eye.
ART AND ARTISTS.
this country. The one referred to, however, is a suffi
cient guaranty of the lady's artistic ability, and justifies Not long since there appeared in one of the issues of the reputation she has earned for herself among art the Art Amateur a reproduction of a photograph taken lovers. In choice of subject she seems particularly on the Isle of Wight, by Mrs. Cameron, a lady whose happy, while for grace of composition and breadth and success in photography has elicited the praise of all who simplicity, in the management of draperies and light have seen her work. But few specimens have reached and shade, her work rivals many of the masters. It is