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The cold wind that blew on the bay did not lenient as his father and his brother-in-law, and reach the shore. The closing day was warm it required large sums to cover the boy's crimiand balmy in beautiful Oakland, and Margaret nal acts and save the family from disgrace. came to the dinner-table in white, with scarlet | Mr. Kendal looked disheartened, Philip said, flowers at her throat and in her hair. Mrs. and had declared that a hundred such mines as Dufresne was delighted with this change from the Kendal Con. could not keep his wife and her morning's costume, and Philip's eyes spoke her brother in pocket-money. volumes of thanks. After dinner, when she Sitting by the window one bright summer had sung Mrs. Dufresne's favorite airs, Marga- morning gazing idly down the well-kept walk, ret passed quietly out to the moonlit veranda, Margaret was startled to see their old friend and Philip was soon by her side.

enter the gate. She hastened out to meet him, “Will you walk with me?” he asked. And extending both her hands. He looked so forlorn she silently laid her hand on his arm.

and wretched that it made her heart ache. The lake beneath them glittered in the moon- “Welcome, Mr. Kendal!" she cried cordially, light, the air was heavy with the odor of jas- and at the sound of her voice he looked wistmine and heliotrope; from the open windows fully up into her face. floated the soft strains that Mrs. Dufresne was “Oh, Margaret — Miss Benson-Mrs. Ducalling forth from the grand piano, and all fresne-- what a blind fool I have been! I dearound seemed harmony and peace.

serve all my trials. I am not fit to be a white Philip’s step grew slower.

man— I'm worse than an Indian." “Margaret, you will give me my answer now She smiled in spite of herself at his favorite -this night.”

form of self-revilement; but she brought him She bent her head, but the moonlight be- into the parlor and seated him by the window, trayed the flush on her face:

speaking to him cheerfully to dispel his gloom. “And it is-yes !"

“It's no use," he said; “I have come to bid She did not release the trembling hand he you good-bye. You are the only friends I ever had seized, and he drew her to his bosom and had here--you and your husband.” held her in a close embrace.

He was going back to Arizona, he went on “My darling," he murmured, “it was so long to say, for he was almost beggared, and was of to wait.”

no more use to himself or his


wife. With “You knew my heart, Philip,” she answered empty hands he would never return to her, for softly.

there were only slights and reproaches for him “As true and faithful a heart as ever beat in in his own home, though his fortune had been woman's breast,” he said, earnestly. Then sacrificed to gratify his wife's whims and save he drew her into the house. He knew how his her brother from prison. His fingers strayed mother longed to clasp her to her breast as her nervously through his grizzled hair, while he daughter.

spoke, and idly plucked at the tangled beard, Days of busy preparation followed for Mrs. and altogether he was the picture of a man Dufresne, who often declared, in comic despair, who saw only desolation and a waste before that she must apprentice her son to some trade him, where he had spent his life's best strength in San Francisco to keep him away from under to build him up a blooming Eden. her feet in Oakland.

Looking upon him, a great pity flooded all Margaret did not forget her old friend, Mrs. the woman's heart, and she knelt beside him Ward; many a lovely bouquet of Oakland and held the poor awkward hands in her own, flowers graced her center-table. Mr. Kendal speaking words of comfort and sympathy that was married, and young Mrs. Kendal, in answer filled the man's soul with peace, made him feel to a protest against her extravagance, had said fresh hope, and called back something of his that, “as she had married the old fellow for his old energy. money, she wanted the pleasure of spending it." Margaret would fain have detained him till

Philip Dufresne had always liked the honest- her husband came, but Mr. Kendal said he hearted miner, and did not lose sight of him would bid him good-bye at his office, and, altogether. Soon after his own quiet wedding softened and cheered, he went out from her he brought distressing news to Margaret about presence. their old friend. He was greatly harassed in mind and pocket by the pranks of his worthless

Months later, Philip laid his arm tenderly brother-in-law, for the young gentleman had

around his wife's shoulder, and bade her read carried his operations into strange territory after

a paragraph he had marked in the paper : appropriating as much of his father's funds as

"The body of a man supposed to be the once famous he could lay hands on. Strangers were not as Mr. Kendal, the discoverer of the mine known by his name, was found on the Gila Desert, some ten days Margaret's head sank on her husband's shoulafter a severe sand-storm had been raging there. The der, and he turned to kiss away the tears that theory is that he had been laboring under an aberration of the brain, consequent upon great disappointment in hung on her dark lashes. finding mines he had meant to relocate taken up by

“O faithful heart !” he said; "most tender other parties - otherwise he would not have started

of women and truest of wives—I thank God across the desert without other water supply than a that you are mine." small canteen, which was found by his side empty."



I plowed in my fields in November,

For the rain, like a dream, came at night,
And lo! where none could remember,

Deep buried and hidden from sight,
I uncovered the bed of a river

That laughed like a maid in the sun
Ere its heart-beats were silent forever

And its musical life-stream had run.

I sit in my cheerless November,

And the past, like a dream, comes at night,
And lo! where none can remember,

So deep is it hidden from sight,
I uncover my grief for a maiden

Who laughed, river-like, in the sun
Ere her heart-beats were hushed in my Aidenn
And her musical life-stream had run,



It seems to be a fact that misapprehension, the average annual rainfall of Sacramento is of the peculiarities of climate and of the agri- eighteen inches, while that of Stockton, upon cultural capacities of Southern California is the south, is sixteen and eight-tenths inches, more marked among the people of the upper and that in the Tulare country, which is still farportion of the State than among residents of ther to the south, it has decreased to only six the East. Odd as the fact may seem, there is and a half inches, they reason that as what is disyet a certain reason for it. To the inhabitant tinctively known as Southern California lies yet of the Eastern States, Southern California is beyond those lands of steadily failing moisture, simply a new region, where, he has heard, his it must be still more arid. They have not stopharsh winters are unknown, and where the ped to inquire whether there may not be other orange flourishes as in its native home. When influences at work changing or suspending the he reads of it, it is the account of men who action of the law. have gone with eyes free from any preëxisting For a proper understanding of the climate of prejudice, and have told what they saw. Of Southern California, it is essential that the genthe people of Northern California, however, eral climatic laws of the whole State should be comparatively few have ever visited the south- studied. The most strongly marked feature in ern portion of the State, while they have learn the physical geography of California, and the ed just enough of the climatic peculiarities of one which at once catches the eye of the obthe coast to know the general law that rainfall servant traveler, is the fact that its mountains, diminishes as you go south; and observing that for hundreds of miles, run parallel with the coast, and that there are two of these great which, after the winter rains have ceased, rolls chains, one rising abruptly almost from the sea- in a daily fog to the seaward face of the Coast line, like a long wall, with only here and there Range. How thoroughly the Sierra has accoma shallow coast valley, as at Santa Cruz, lying plished the remaining work of condensation is outside of the range and facing directly upon shown in the almost hopeless aridity of the the ocean. This is known as the Coast Range. plains lying eastward from its base, and to The other is the great uplifted crest of the Si- which the now desiccated rain-wind next passes. erra Nevada, which, for hundreds of miles, in This winter rain-current in its sweep inland unbroken chain, forms the horizon line upon passes over the crest of the Coast Range in a the east, crossed only, at long distances, by more or less continuous sheet; yet, like a vast some rugged pass, leading to the interior basin aerial river, which it is, it avails itself of every of the continent.

break and depression of the range to pour This range, with its great altitude, its heavy through in still denser volume. And it is opposnows, and its immense condensing power, is site these breaks and depressions of the range the source of all the important rivers of Califor- that we find the line of greatest rainfall in the nia. From it come the Sacramento and San interior valleys, as the lower and more humid Joaquin, with their tributaries, and in Southern portion of the current has at these points been California, the Los Angeles, the San Gabriel, able to reach the interior without having its and the Santa Aña.

moisture wrung out in crossing the range. It is These two ranges of mountains divide the in this way that the Sacramento country, with lands of the State into two classes of widely its river-valley leading out to the ocean through different climatic features - the humid coast that break in the Coast Range which forms valleys, lying outside of the Coast Range, fac- the entrance to San Francisco harbor, has a ing upon the ocean, and marked by a compara- greater rainfall and a more humid climate than tively great precipitation of moisture and slight the plains which lie behind the range. Whoevaporation; and the more arid interior valleys, ever has stood and watched the evening fog roll lying between the two ranges, and characterized in at the Golden Gate, seeking, like a river by just the reverse-a light rainfall and an ex- flood, first the lower level of the water - ways, cessive evaporation.

and then the broken passes in the hills, will The great interior basin of California, the readily understand how the south-east currents Sacramento and San Joaquin, together with of the winter obey the same general law. several smaller valleys, as the Santa Clara and The comparatively great rainfall of the counNapa, formed by a local splitting of the coast try north of the Sacramento, as contrasted with mountains into two ranges, drains outward to the plains upon the south in the San Joaquin the ocean through the gap which forms the inlet and Tulare country, is to be attributed to the to San Francisco Bay, while through the same same cause; for while the main volume of the gap flows back the cool air current which gives rain-current entering through the break and the daily sea-breeze to these valleys.

the adjacent depressions of the range west of The winter rain-current, which is a south- San Francisco Bay, and then, following the westerly wind blowing in from the sea, has to water-level back to Sacramento, keeps on with cross this Coast Range before it can reach and its original north-easterly sweep to the section water the dry interior valleys. According to a north and east of the river, any portion of the well known law, it parts with much of its moist- current seeking to turn aside to the level plains ure in climbing the elevation, giving a climate upon the south must double back upon itself, upon the ocean face of the range damp and and struggle against the drier portion of the foggy-home of the redwood and the fern, both same south-west wind, which has, in the genof which are types of vegetation flourishing eral sweep, after losing a large portion of its only in a comparatively humid atmosphere. moisture in crossing, forced its way over the After crossing this range, the rain-current, thus higher line of the same Coast Range south of deprived of a large portion of its moisture, San Francisco, and passed on directly inland. passes on to give a lighter rainfall upon the Hence the rainfall of the country north and level plains of the interior, until it reaches the east of Sacramento increases, while upon the tall line of the Sierra, where, with the cold of a South, although the land drains by the same still greater elevation, the remaining moisture outlet to the sea, it steadily diminishes. is wrung out of the clouds, giving precipitation The working of the same law may be seen, largely in excess of that which fell in the val- although upon a more limited scale, in the leys; and again we find forests of dense growth, smaller valleys which surround and drain into yet of a type that does not, like the redwood, San Francisco Bay. Napa Valley, lying upon need the constant humidity of the ocean air, the north, with its mouth opening at an acute angle toward the incoming rain-current of the may condense all the moisture possible from Golden Gate, hardly knows what it is to have the rain-currents, and its melting snows and its a failure of crops through lack of moisture; rivers may be available for irrigating the plains while Santa Clara Valley, upon the south, and lying between it and the ocean. opening out toward the north, rather in the di- (3.) Wall the land in upon the north-west rection toward which the rain-current is going with mountains, so as to shelter it from the dry. than toward that from which it is coming, has ing winds that now sweep over it, in winter a much lighter rainfall, and suffers from drought checking and retarding, by their chill, the growth more frequently. The lower and moister stra- of vegetation, and in summer parching it up and tum of the rain-current, entering at the Golden blasting the tender grain. Gate, in order to reach the Santa Clara Valley (4.) If, in addition to these changes, the winwould have to double back upon itself, and bat- ter could be made slightly warmer, so that vegtle with the direct current from the south, which, etation should not be retarded by the cold, after parting with enough of its moisture to then the whole duration of the rainy season water the Santa Cruz country, has already would be a period of growth, and so the season forced itself, a partly desiccated wind, over the practically lengthened. mountains of the Coast Range through what is In making the reply thus itemized under these known as the Santa Cruz Gap.

four sections, one would be describing exactly The influence of the Coast Range upon the what has taken place in Southern California. climate of the interior valleys is felt in still an- Out of the broken confusion of the Tehachother way: by obstructing the inward flow of the ape and Tejon Mountains, where the Sierra daily sea - breeze, with its moister air, its lower and the Coast Ranges seem to become inextemperature, and the frequent night fogs, evap- tricably entangled, the Sierra at length emerges, oration in these valleys goes on with scarcely a and, skirting the Mojave Desert upon the west, check the moment the rains are over, and turns eastward under the local name of the the water that does fall is more quickly dried up. Sierra Madre as the northern wall of the Los

The direction of the two ranges, the Coast Angeles and San Bernardino country; then and the Sierra, also has its influence, and that turning again southward along the western rim far from a favorable one, upon the climate of of the Colorado Desert, goes on to form the these valleys; for by their course from north to backbone of the peninsula of Lower California.

south they leave the country open to the full A stray fragment of the Coast Range rises

sweep, both winter and summer, of the harsh, again for a while, under the name of the Santa dry north wind, while the chill which comes Monica Mountains; joins the dividing ridge with this wind in winter retards and checks between the westerly plains of the Los Angeles vegetation during the first three months of the country and the San Fernando Valley; breaks rainy season, and to that extent practically down entirely where the San Fernando Valley shortens what might otherwise be the season opens into the Los Angeles, giving outlet to the of most rapid growth.

Los Angeles River; then rises as a low, irreguIf one were asked how the physical features lar range of hills between Los Angeles and the of California might be changed to give a moister San Gabriel country-hills having an elevation and more productive climate to the interior val- of only two or three hundred feet; breaks down leys, he would probably reply:

again completely after a few miles, where the (1.) Drop the Coast Range of moutains down broad valley of the San Gabriel comes out from until it is practically obliterated. By doing this the Sierra, irrigating with its waters the fertile, the great winter rain-current would be no longer low-lying lands of El Monte and Los Nietos; obstructed in its landward flow, neither would then the hills rise again as a broken range, it be robbed of a portion of its moisture, as now, gradually attaining to a hight in scattered peaks before it had fairly left the coast line, and so of one or two thousand feet, but torn asunder precipitation would be increased. Also, with where the Santa Aña, coming from its source in this barrier removed the ocean fogs would no the San Bernardino portion of the Sierra, and longer be walled out, but would pass inward watering upon its way the San Bernardino and over the land, and add their portion of moist- Riverside countries, bursts through to the lands ure, while by giving the humid ocean air ready of Santa Aña and Anaheim and the coast plain, access, in the shape of these fogs and the damp, and on to the sea. Beyond, this broken, wandercool daily sea-breeze, evaporation would be ! ing remnant of the Coast Range becomes again, checked, and a dry, hot air no longer greedily but this time hopelessly, entangled with and suck up the surface moisture of the soil. lost in the Sierra. This breaking down of the

(2.) Keep up the elevation of the Sierra, but Coast Range throws the whole valley system of bring it slightly nearer to the coast, so that it | Southern California, known collectively as the Los Angeles country, open to the sea, making from the southern seas; watching the gulls idly it practically a vast system of coast valleys, circling about the ship; gazing down through with the Sierra as a background; and it is to be the transparent waters at the strands of trailing classed with the Humboldt and Santa Cruz seaweed waving gently about the keel, and at countries in climate, but from the sheltering the fish lazily basking amid the floating leaves. mountains and the more southern latitude mild. And over all, though it was only January, a er in temperature, and in extent upon an infinite- glow and a glory of sunshine, such as northly larger scale. About three thousand square lands may dream of, but never know. miles of level valley land open out to the sea at The exemption of Southern California from this point. The sharp trend eastward of the the working of the general law of a continucoast line south of Point Conception also brings ously diminishing rainfall, and an even more the sea nearer to the Sierra, making its influence arid climate as you go south, lies in the fact more felt, while the deflection of the Sierra that it is essentially a coast country, and not a from a north and south direction to almost due continuation of the San Joaquin and Tulare east turns it into a huge barrier, raised directly Valleys. The mountains which shut those valacross the path of the cold north wind, which leys off from the sea are, as already shown, sweeps the upper portion of the State. Under broken down and lost in Southern California. the shelter of its peaks, ranging in elevation The tendency to a reversion to the interior type from six to eleven thousand feet, these southern is seen, however, in the San Fernando Valley, valleys nestle, looking from the snow-clad crests which is partly shut off from the ocean by the above them out toward the warm southern sea.

Santa Monica Mountains, belonging to the There is something about the coast south of coast system. The tendency is seen only by a Point Conception which reminds me always of comparison with the great open valley system, that land of the Lotus-eaters,

which is not so shut off. Even in the San Fer"Wherein it always seemed afternoon;"

nando Valley the elevation of the Coast Range

is so slight, and the breaks so open, that the something in the smoother heaving of the only result is to shelter it partially from the fogs waters, the softer sky, the milder breezes, and and give a somewhat drier air and higher sumthe dreamy haze that lingers tenderly about the mer temperature. The shelter is only enough dim outline of the distant mountains.

to make this valley the most noted wheat region I well recollect my first trip down the coast; of Southern California ; not enough to rank it it was upon the Orizaba, thirteen years ago. with the parched and unreliable San Joaquin We left San Francisco, sailing out into the fog and Tulare plains. and the cold north-west wind that whistled The Mojave Desert may be looked upon, not drearily through the rigging as we turned south- as the geological, but as the climatic, southern ward. All day it chased after us, as, with over- continuation of the great interior valley of Calicoats tightly buttoned, we shivered about the fornia. decks. All night it drove us on. The next day, The following tables, giving the temperature about noon, we rounded the lighthouse and and humidity, month by month, of Sacramento fog- bell of Point Conception. It was like the and Los Angeles, are compiled from the last transformation scene in an Oriental tale of published annual report of the United States magic. Almost in a steamer's length we had Signal Service: passed from the fog-bank into sunshine. The cold wind died away. The rough tossing of the

MEAN TEMPERATURE FOR EACH MONTH, FROM JULY, ship changed to a gentle rocking upon the

1877. TO JUNE, 1878. glassy swell. And hour after hour we coasted

Sacramento. Los Angeles. along a shore, such as those tired wanderers

Degrees. Degrees. July ..

71.1 drew nigh who sailed on and on in the hush of August

70. I the afternoon toward the “hollow Lotus-land." September..

72.8 October..


63.4 And then, just at daybreak the next morning, November..


62.1 we rounded a high headland, and all one dreamy December.

55.3 forenoon lay at anchor in the roadstead of San


49.0 February.

51.0 Pedro, gently rocking upon the lazy swell that March.

56.5 rolled slowly in from the south.


58.0 May.

66.4 I have never forgotten the picture. Hour


64.7 after hour I lay watching the green of hill and plain, stretching away league upon league to Number of days at Sacramento with temperthe great white line of the Sierra; watching the ature above 90°, 55; highest temperature regreen of the long, heaving billows rolling in corded, 103°.






54. I 54.6 55.8



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