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of sympathizers. The undoubted tone of in- of the wall, like a bird's nest against a barn, so tellectual Berlin is skeptical, and the prudent that one must almost dislocate his neck to keep Jew who owns or writes for a newspaper knows him in view. One is almost disposed to think on which side his bread is buttered.
that the effort was to make the place of worThe prevailing religion is the Lutheran. I at. ship as uncomfortable as possible; and certended very many services in different churches tainly a regular attendance in any of them eviduring my stay, and always, with one excep- dences unusual religious ardor. tion, found them poorly attended, and mostly Socially, the clergyman is respected; but his by women of middle age. Ordinarily not many office does not at all put him in the social foremen were present. The exception was the lit- ground. Of course, if he indicates superior tle, old-fashioned church formerly in charge of talent, he makes his weight felt, and will take the celebrated Schleiermacher, and now under corresponding rank among his fellows; but, the sacerdotal care of Pastor Panck. He from what I learned, I should say that he has preaches every two weeks, and the edifice is not the social estimation that our clergymen filled to overflowing with the gentler sex, who have merely from their calling. evidently admire the pastor greatly, for he has Perhaps it goes without saying that the Gersympathetic earnestness, and a clear, deliberate mans are a musical people; and one is, thereeloquence, which is more of the heart than the fore, not surprised at the number of musical enhead. On the intervening Sundays there is a tertainments in Berlin. Music fills a large space beggarly array of empty benches. The Catho- in all social enjoyments. You will hardly meet lic population have a grand, roomy edifice, a man or a woman who is not an instrumentalmodeled after the Pantheon at Rome, the ist, or who cannot sing. Leipsic claims to be Church of St. Hedwig, which is usually quite the musical center. Its conservatory and its well filled.
Gewandthaus concerts are world-famous. But Fortunately for the Germans, they never ac- now both Stuttgard and Berlin are disputing its cepted Calvinism and its depressing austeri- long-time supremacy, and those competent to ties. Consequently, with both Protestants and judge believe that the ultimate leadership will Catholics, Sunday is a feast and holiday-a fall to the metropolis. Certainly the musically day when rational enjoyment can supplement inclined can get their fill there. During the religious exercises.
winter, there is not an evening when one canChurch services usually begin at ten o'clock. not hear music of the highest order. There is Most of the shops are closed during the entire continued succession of concerts at the Singday, though a few open after the close of the akadamie. The Royal Opera gives performreligious services. Work and business gener- ances nightly; and, in addition, there are conally cease, and the people give up the after- certs by specialists. The popular concerts are noon and evening to enjoyment. In winter the almost without number, especially on Sunday numerous popular concerts begin as early as and holiday evenings. Wagner's music is much four o'clock in the afternoon, and at the thea- played; and those who, like myself, cannot at ters it is quite common to have a concert from first appreciate it come soon to like it after hearfour or five until seven, and then the usual per- ing it performed by large, well trained orchesformance. These places are always crowded on tras. Those who are fond of choral singing this day, and the eating, drinking, and smok- find an exquisite treat in that to be heard every ing of the festive populace goes on simultane- Sunday morning at the Dome Church, rendered ously with the strains of Wagner or Strauss. by a choir of boys. But the characteristic popIn the warm days of May, and in summer, the ular concerts are those at Bilse's, and which are Thiergarten and Charlottenberg are filled with given every evening in the year-in winter, promenaders, and the out-door concerts are until May ist, at his hall on the Leipsiger crowded. The charming Zoological Gardens Strasse, and in summer at the magnificent Palm are then also filled with spectators. Sunday House, at Charlottenberg. To hear a Bilse afternoon is also the favorite time for family concert at its best, one must go on Sunday evenvisiting
ing, and go early in order to secure a place The churches, except one or two of recent in the Saal, which is the most democratic but construction, are exteriorly of little architect- best part of the house. The concert usually ural merit, and internally are as uncomfortable begins at six and lasts till ten o'clock. There as hard, straight-backed, uncushioned seats can are four parts, with intermissions of about fifmake them. In winter they are badly heated; teen minutes; so that the hearer gets three a horrible chill pervading the atmosphere. The hours of music for an entrance fee of nineteen clergyman preaches his sermon from a little cents. If you take a seat at one of the tables, round tub of a pulpit, perched up on the side you are expected to order at least one glass of
beer or a cup of coffee or chocolate, which will | Waltz," and notwithstanding it is old, and has cost a few cents more. For this trifling fee, been played to death upon pianos and handone can have an evening of excellent music, organs, the rendering of the opening bars was very nearly, if not quite, as well rendered as at so charming that the audience spontaneously a concert of Thomas in New York, where one broke out into rapturous applause. There is an pays a dollar and a half for a seat. This Saal excellent musical conservatory at Berlin, under is long and wide, and is filled with small tables, the leadership of Joachim, and, in addition, and as the evening progresses their occupants multitudes of opportunities to study music inwill be eating and drinking and smoking, and expensively. all chatting, during the lulls between the pieces, Berlin has also many excellent theaters; but in loud confusion; and very soon a cloud of one must be well up in the German language to bluish tobacco smoke will float up into the high enjoy a German play. The Schauspielhaus, spaces between the upper tiers of boxes. If as it is called—that is, the Royal Theater-is one does not care to sit at one of the tables in subsidized by the Government, and presents the Saal, he can find a seat in the balcony for standard plays in the best manner. The Gerthirty cents, or he can have a roomy loge, with mans possess an excellent translation of Shakseats for ten persons, for one dollar and a quar- spere's drama, by Schlegel and Tieck, and they ter, in addition to the entrance fee of nineteen are as frequently played as upon our stage; cents for each person. It is quite common for and, though I am not prepared to say that they a party of ladies to go alone and occupy one are better appreciated than with us, yet I am of the tables in the Saal, and knit and take sup- inclined to think they are more enjoyed. On per. Down below is a huge restaurant, called Shakspere nights, the Schauspielhaus is always the “Tunnel,” which is always crowded during filled, though the pieces will be rendered only the intermissions. There are seventy perform- by the usual stock company. If one wishes to ers, all good instrumentalists, who occupy a see comic opera well played in the true, rollickplatform at the farther end of the hall. As I ing spirit, he must go to the Friederick Wilsaid, these concerts are given every evening in helmstädtisches Theater, north of the Unter the year, and it was always to me a matter of den Linden. At Kroll's, on the beautiful König's wonderment how any man could arrange three Platz, there is ample garden space, which in hundred and sixty-five different programmes. the summer evenings is a veritable fairy scene I happen to have one of these programmes by of brilliancy; here good operas are given durme, and it is a fair sample of the average. ing the warm season. Spectacular pieces preThere are three numbers from Wagner—the vail at the Victoria. The Louisenstädtisches “Overture to Rienzi,” the "Trauermarch,” from also does considerable comic business of the the Götterdämerung, and the “Evening Star operatic style. Far over in the north-eastern Song,” from Tannhäuser ; also from Schubert, part of the city is the Ostend Theater, a really Haydn, Strauss, Rossini, Meyerbeer, Ruben- excellent establishment. Then there are the stein, Liszt, Gounod, Doppler, Verdi, and Ber- Wallner, the National, the Residenz, the Belle lioz. I noticed when I was there, and it was Alliance, and the Wilhelm—all good theaters. pretty often, that two or three things from Wag- If one wants to go alone, without his wife, and ner would be given, and they were always much see broad fun, he will find his way to the Va. applauded. During the winter, Edward Strauss riété, or the American, or the Flora, or the brought his orchestra up from Vienna, and Walhalla. There are other theaters of a cheapdrew crowded houses during the short time er order; in fact, I believe there are, all told, he remained in Berlin. He played his own twenty-three theaters, not concentrated, but and his brother's compositions almost exclu- scattered all over the city. The acting in the sively, and their exquisite rendering almost lift- better class places is very good, and the sceneed the audience to their feet and sent them ry and stage effects excellent. The companies whirling off in the enchanting mazes of the are all very much larger than ours, and when dance. It was a treat to watch Strauss. He it is necessary they crowd the stage with characstood facing the audience, violin in hand, and ters. Especially is this the case at the two royal would, rather impassively, lead through the establishments. I remember in the second act prelude. But when the music moved into the of Tannhäuser, the ample stage, in the scene in swell of the dance, he commenced to play with the hall of the Wartburg Castle, was filled with a movement that undulated gracefully in ac- a crowd of magnificently dressed guests; cercord with the rollicking harmony, seeming to tainly one hundred and fifty persons were on move the melody along and make himself part the scene. of it. I remember that, in response to an en- The performances commence early, and are core, the band struck up the “Blue Danube I out early, usually beginning at seven, sometimes at half past six, and ending between half dence, have insisted with emphasis in disputes past nine and ten o'clock. The theaters fail, we have had upon this question. They admit in comparison with ours, in the interior decora- that the French are greater masters of tech. tions. They are, in this respect, plain and nique than the Teutons, but insist that they somewhat dingy. There is a parquette, also have not so much expression, that there is open balcony seats in a portion of the first tier more artificiality and surface work, and less opposite the stage, but the sides are taken up soul. After all, one must at last fall back upon by various sized loges and boxes. With such one's own tastes, and, fortunately, the ranges of a variety of places, there is a correspond art are broad enough for each one to follow his ing variety in the entrance prices. In the own bent without quarreling with his neighbor. Royal Theater there are nine different prices, The sculpture in the National Museum is of ranging from one dollar seventy-five cents down a much higher grade than the painting. Durto twenty-four cents; in those next in rank the ing the winter, a magnificent group in marble, parquette price will be seventy-five cents. Prometheus chained to the rock, was placed in At the Schauspielhaus, when a piece is popular, the lower hall, and was always surrounded by it will not be played every night until it ceases crowds of admirers. to draw, but it will be repeated only once, and The old Museum, as I remarked, has no exif very popular, possibly twice, a week. Every ceptionally fine paintings, but it is so arranged evening there is a change of programme, and as to make it, probably, the best gallery in Euoften two or three or more popular plays will rope in which to study the history and developbe going along at the same time. I was told ment of art. that one reason for this daily change is because The Berlin University, though relatively a there are a great many regular subscribers for modern foundation, has become not the rival, seats, and many who subscribe for one or more but the equal, of that of Leipsic. It was estabspecific nights in each week. On Sunday morn- lished by an edict of Frieder Wilhelm III., ing the newspapers give the programme for the in 1810, and the first year had four hundred ensuing week at the Opera and Royal Theater. and fifty students; now there are more than It is not uncommon for a lady, and it is quite three thousand. Among the earlier professors frequently the case for two ladies, to go to were Fichte in philosophy, Schleiermacher in either of the royal establishments without a theology, Savigny in jurisprudence, and Niegentleman escort. There is very little display buhr in history. At present it has a corps of in dressing at any of the places of amusement remarkable men, among whom are some whose At the Opera and Royal Theater the ladies go fame extends over both hemispheres — Gneist without bonnets, otherwise the toilets are as in jurisprudence, Dubois - Raymond in physiusual, only that conspicuousness seems to be ology, Virchow in pathological anatomy and avoided.
histology, Helmholtz in physical science, Von It may be premature to say that Berlin is Freitscke and Droysen in modern history, also gradually assuming the position of art cen- Mömmsen in Roman history, Held in political ter of the empire. The partisans of Munich, economy, Lepsius in Egyptology, Curtius in Dresden, and Dusseldorf, will not admit that Greek and Roman archæology and Greek hissuch can possibly be the case, yet it seems to tory, Grimm in the history of German art, beme that art cannot resist the centralizing ten- sides a host of others distinguished in their sevdencies which are gradually drawing the genius eral specialties. The university buildings are and talent of the country in all departments to on the north side of the Unter den Linden, the political metropolis. In the National Mu- nearly opposite the Emperor's palace, and are seum are a few good pictures, and many of the roomy, but rather dingy and gloomy. good, ordinary, second-rate kind. I have been If is passing between eight and nine surprised at the exceedingly meager display of o'clock in the morning, he will see the little passable paintings, outside of this collection, court-yard abutting on the street filled with reachable by the general public.
young men walking up and down, many of German artists are conscientious, painstak- them munching a modest breakfast of sanding-in truth, almost oppressively so; but they wiches. These young gentlemen are awaiting absolutely fail in that subtle artistic sense which the commencement of the lecture hours. A is native to the French, and which puts some- visitor is at liberty to enter any of the lecture thing into their pictures which is seen and felt, rooms, and listen to a single lecture, though, of but cannot be closely analyzed. However, I course, if he attends regularly, he must be ensay this with some hesitation, because it is tered as a student. There are, however, pubcounter to what American artistic friends in lic lectures delivered by many of the professors, Germany, in whose judgments I have confi- which any one can attend for a very small fee.
During the winter of 1879-80 there were be- as bookish theorists, and yet there is no army in tween fifty and sixty American students—fine, the world where book-knowledge earns a better representative young men, who were there for reward than in that of Prussia. The hostility work, and not to play.
necessarily grows out of the fundamentally opOne is constantly meeting on the streets posite tendencies of the two pursuits. Univeryoung men with great scars seaming the left sity life infallibly leads to free thought, to indeside of the face in all directions. These young- pendence, to mental (if not actual) insubordinasters are members of the dueling corps, who tion, and to individuality. Military life, on the have been through the farce of a student duel. contrary, always tends to restricted thought, unThis absurd caricature of a genuine affair of questioning obedience, strict subordination of honor still prevails among a limited number of both body and mind to another, and the sinkstudents, and these prudent swash-bucklers get ing of the individual in the regiment. a cheap reputation for valor among the girls | Bismarck and his sect are also very much of and their silly comrades. Once in a while an the same mind as the army men; and this is American is tempted to make a fool of himself by no means strange, because all his successes by joining one of these dueling, beer-drinking and all his policy stand upon the unsparing corps, but I am glad to know that they are ex- use of military force. Under these circumceptional cases. It is said that there are vari- stances, Berlin is not socially homogeneous, but ous devices, such as introducing red wine or has its distinct circles, which only touch each raw meat into the wounds, to magnify the scars. other upon their outer edges. The dueling custom, fortunately, is dying out During the winter there were sessions of four in the universities. It has degenerated to such different representative political bodies-- the depths of nonsense that certainly it must event- Landtag, which is the lower house of the Prusually die of ridicule. This would have been its sian Parliament; the Herrenhaus, which is the fate long since were the Germans more sus- upper chamber; the Bundesrath, which is the ceptible to ridicule.
assembly of the representatives of the different The universities are powerful factors in the States comprising the empire, like our Federal political and social life of Germany. On the Senate; and the Reichstag, which is composed political side their influence is deeply felt, of the direct representatives of the entire body through the vast army of civil servants who of the German people throughout the whole carry on the administration of a Government empire. I visited all of them except the Bunwhich reaches and regulates the innermost rela- desrath, which does not hold open sessions. tions of the citizen's life. All the members of The appearance of the members of all these this beaurocracy, except of the lowest grades, bodies was very much like that of our House are university men. Moreover, there is a rich of Representatives; though, perhaps, there was literature in speculative politics emanating from a larger proportion of elderly men. In the university professors, and in practical politics, Reichstag, the four hundred members were in the representative bodies, the Landtag and crowded together on seats behind narrow desks, Reichstag, Gneist, Virchow, and Freitscke are very much like a lot of schoolboys. In front of, prominent men. It cannot be denied, however, and just below, the presiding officer is a tribune, that the tendency is to produce doctrinaires, from which the member speaking addresses the men who have worked up to their own satisfac- house, though a member has the privilege, if tion certain theories, which they insist upon he desires, to speak from his place. To the seeing carried out to their logical consequences right and left of the tribune are double rows of -and, considering this, it is not strange that narrow desks, at which the members of the Mincathedrå socialism is a university product. On istry sit. The current business of these several the social side, the university gives a pecul- bodies goes along much more quietly than with iarly intellectual tone to Berlin, which may be When a proposition is up for discussion characterized as boldly speculative, and, withal, the President of the body announces that Herr rich and varied. A man or woman may think So-and-so has the word; thereupon the gentleor believe what he or she pleases, and meet man named walks up to the tribune, delivers with no cold social reception, if outside the his speech, and retires. During its progress, common current.
perhaps there will be short, sharp expressions The military element, which embraces large- of approbation, or the reverse, from different ly the aristocracy and the conservative classes, sides of the chamber; then the Chair names and their hangers on, and is a dominant power, another member whose turn has come, and so is not in accord with the university element. on until the debate is closed. The champions of brute force look with disdain I was present at the debate upon the propoupon the professorlings, as they designate them, sition of the Government to increase the army.
Vol. II.- 28.
All the principal members—among them Count, them is really a very large constituency, and von Moltke, Benningsen, Reichart, Gneist, Eu- two or three Poles, and a member or two from lenberg, and the Social Democrats, Liebknecht Schleswig-Holstein, who stand always in the atand Bebel-spoke. General von Moltke, though titude of protestants against the absorption of eighty years of age, stands erect, and speaks in their countries into Prussia; and in the same a clear, direct, and forcible manner. The pre- category must be placed the representatives vailing style in the oratory was quiet and un- from Alsace and Lorraine. demonstrative, and the entire discussion, ex- During the period of my stay Bismarck only tending over two days, upon a project which appeared once in the Reichstag, and then very was of great interest to a tax-ridden people, unexpectedly. He remained only long enough and which was attracting attention all over to deliver a short, bitter speech, berating the Europe, was conducted in a peculiarly quiet Ultramontane Center, and then as suddenly way.
departed, so that I did not have an opportunity It is apparent that among the body of the of hearing the great man, much to my regret. people there is not much political activity. The I cannot conclude the recollections of my day of great organized political parties has not pleasant winter experiences in Berlin without yet arrived. The Reichstag is split into many speaking of the American colony there. It was fractions, none of them at present of any great small, less than a hundred and fifty in number, vitality, and Bismarck seems to use one or the made up of a very few permanent residents, other, or several together indifferently, as it some ladies there for artistic or musical work, suits his purpose. Ministerial responsibility is some with their families for purposes of instrucunknown, and parliamentary government is as tion, and the American students at the Univer. yet in the experimental stage.
sity. Every one was there for some distinctive It is difficult, without a close following, to object aside from mere amusement Paris abunderstand the aims and significance of the sorbs the idlers and mere pleasure-seekers different political parties. In a general way it among our countrymen who visit the continent. may be said that the Center comprises the Ul- Naturally, from his official position, and yet tramontane, or clerical Roman Catholic, mem- more from his national reputation and personal bers. The Conservatives are composed of the qualities, Hon. Andrew D. White, the American Junkers, or country squires, and those who are Minister to Germany, is the central figure of averse to liberalism and all new-fangled ideas. this little colony, and most worthily and effiThe National Liberals, until recently the con- ciently represents our country at the German trolling party, are believers in a free parlia- Court. The traditions of our diplomatic service mentary government, coupled with German fortunately reserve this post for a man of scholunity. Of the two, they place a higher value arly reputation; and certainly Mr. White is a upon unity, looking upon a firm knitting to- fit successor to Wheaton, Bancroft, and Bayard gether of all parts of the Fatherland as the first Taylor, and his accomplished wife and daugh. and essential step toward true political free- ter are excellent representatives of our best dom. This party stood heartily by Bismarck, American social culture. At Mr. White's reuntil he began to abandon free trade and co- ceptions and dinners, one could meet many of quette with the Ultramontanes, when it showed the representative men in German literature, symptoms of splitting up, and at present is in art, philosophy, and politics; such men as Aua critical condition of uncertainty.
erbach, Richter, Knauss, Meyerheim, Freitscke, The Fortschrittpartei is composed of advanc- Gneist, Curtius, Lepsius, Mömmsen, Lasker, ed liberals, who insist always not only upon repre- and many others. The Rev. Dr. Thompson sentative parliamentary government, but also unfortunately died a short time before I reached upon a strict ministerial responsibility, and like. Berlin, and consequently I was denied the pleaswise upon guarantees of personal liberty, such ure of his acquaintance. He was foremost in as those of our Constitutional Bill of Rights. the little American colony, and his loss is still
The Free Conservatives constitute a fraction deeply mourned by its members. From Gerwhich I confess I do not know where to place. mans who were personally acquainted with As far as I can understand their aims, they him, I learned that during his residence of five constitute a roving force of emancipated, old- or six years in Berlin, he had attained a recogstyle Conservatives who are inclined to liberal- nized position of honor among its intellectual ism, but yet somewhat afraid of it. In addi- leaders as a man of learning and ability, and tion to these, are the Social Democrats, with, had made himself generally known and beloved as yet, only a few members, though behind | among the people. W. W. CRANE, JR.