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ways, the ores can be easily and cheaply trans- | They came to be regarded as perilous after the ported to mill. Few districts in the world can travelers had returned once or twice with frozen boast of such abundant facilities for mining and ears and hands. The few people who wintered milling. Time and work must determine the in Homer assuredly had a rough experience. value of the district as a grand mining propo- They lived principally on a certain sort of faith sition. A prophecy would be out of place and hope. Subsistence on such a diet requires here.
a heroism which we seldom see outside of a minHomer was discovered on the twenty-third of ing camp. August, 1879. Systematic operations were not My last view of Homer was in the gloaming. begun until late in the fall, when the Homer The mountains loomed up grand and gloomy, Mining Company started their tunnel. The then slowly faded away. Memory treasures district was buried in snow during four months the Homeric scenery. Where is the artist who of last winter. Hardy miners ventured out will transfer to canvas this marvelous illustranow and then and walked to Bodie on snow- tion of the heroic and picturesque in mining? shoes; but these trips were necessarily rare.
W. M. BUNKER.
A WINTER IN BERLIN.-II.
The Germans are considered to be a more pany called itself the Montag Gesellschaft sociable people than the English or Americans, (Monday Society), though why was not apparent, but I think this is a mistake. They are gre- as it came together only at odd intervals. It garious, but in one sense not as sociable; that was chaperoned by a few middle-aged ladies. is, they are fonder of being in crowds than our There were usually present sixty or seventy people, but it seemed to me that intimate home persons, young and matronly ladies, army offivisiting is not so common. The average Ger- cers, and civilians of the better classes. Each man is very fond of going with his family to the one paid four marks (one dollar) for the invitapopular concert-room, or garden, and there, tion ticket. The assembly was held at some seated about a table, the women will knit and
well known hotel. As soon as the company the men smoke; very likely supper will be eat- was present, usually about eight o'clock, it sat en, and certainly all will imbibe indefinite quan- down to dinner. Each gentleman was expected tities of beer; friends will speak to each other, to order a bottle of wine, which was extra. An the women will indulge in klatsch (gossip), and hour and a half was consumed at table. Gerthere will be a great quantity of bad tobacco mans are loud talkers, and before the end there smoke floating in the air. On warm Sunday would be a tremendous uproar in the room. afternoons the families will go in crowds into When it was time to adjourn the elderly genthe Thiergarten, or to Charlottenberg, or Pots- tleman presiding arose, and proposed the health dam, or some other of the suburban resorts, of the Emperor, which would be drank standand enjoy the fresh air, sunshine, and also the ing, accompanied by a chorus of enthusiastic inevitable beer; but home intimacies and visit- hoch, hoch's. The ladies and gentlemen then ing are much less common than with us. A passed into an ante-room, and drank their cofperson may have a wide circle of acquaintance, fee while the tables were being cleared away. and yet never go into their houses, nor see After which dancing commenced. The favorthem in his own. Of course, in a large com- ite dance is the waltz. The same piece of munity there is not complete uniformity in this music was played for a half hour at a time; the regard. “I give merely the very distinct impres- dancers whirled around the room two or three sion which I received of this extreme gregari- times, and then sat down to catch their breath; ousness, and yet lack of home sociability. This in a little while the same dancers, however, gregariousness manifests itself, also, in the nu- each with a different partner, would be off merous Vereins everywhere to be found. Every again in the dizzy whirl at a very rapid pace, trade and pursuit, and one may say, idea, has and so on to the end. The theory seems to be, its “union."
to get as much exercise in a given time as one Through the kindness of a German lady I can with as many partners as possible. The was enabled to take part in some characteristic young officers are the model dancers, and natuBerlin social gatherings. This particular com- | rally the favorites with the girls. These dashing young bloods and elegant partners relieved | English, both in speaking and writing, and also the fatigues of the vigorous dancing with oc- at the breadth of their reading in English literacasional glasses of beer. At these particular ture. Gesellschafts there were usually present four or Those who know the Berlin women in the five attachés of the Chinese Embassy in full best circles say they are bright, intelligent, and national costume, and it would have harrowed intellectual; and it may be said of all their the soul of a Kearneyite to see the amount of countrywomen that they have a strong tendency attention they received from the women. I to sentimentalism. They do not "come out” could see that the envious young gentlemen as early as our girls, and are not as self-desecretly thought also that the Chinese “must pendent or self-adapting. Beauty of face is not go.” A stranger in Berlin, and, in fact, in the specialty of the Berlin women, though one every town, immediately remarks the vast num- often sees very good figures. I remember makber of beer and wine shops and restaurants. ing this reflection at the annual subscription In Berlin they are in every quarter of the town. ball at the Royal Opera House. This was an They are of all shades of excellence and bad occasion when one could see together an exness, from Poffenberg's, on the Unter den Lin- cellent representation of Berlin society, called den, down to the “Frühstück Lokal,” in the re- out by the fact that the Emperor, Empress, and mote strasse, where droskymen and laborers the Imperial Court were present, and came regale themselves. My first conclusion was, down on the floor. Of course, in so large an that the entire population ate and drank in assemblage there were beautiful faces, but they these places, but a longer acquaintance with flashed upon one in the throng as rare surprises; the habits of the people disabused me of this plain, good-natured features, and ample, well hasty impression. The explanation of the sup- fed figures, were the normal types. port which these resorts must necessarily re- Like most men, when the intricacies of a ceive in order to make a tolerable profit final- woman's toilet come in question, I can only ly dawned upon me when I learned more of the give impressions, and these were that the dresshabits of German men. Every German, no ing was rich, but by no means elegant; in truth, matter what his calling, has his wine or bier rather unartistic, but diamonds, pearls, emerkneipe. This is a public house to which he re- alds, amethysts, and all sorts of precious stones sorts every evening, and passes two, three, or sparkled upon the persons and dresses of the more hours, as the case may be, in the circle greater part of the ladies in dazzling profusion. of his chosen friends, drinking, smoking, and The men of the Court are generally good lookchatting. As the customary dinner is early, he ing, manly fellows; but the women! Perhaps will frequently take his supper there, and he the less said the better. There was one, howwill probably, evening after evening, year in ever, fresh and charming — the young daughter and year out, frequent the same kneipe, meeting of the Crown Prince, the Princess Saxe-Meinthere always the same companions. The mer- egen. And so at the opera or at the theater, chant, the lawyer, the doctor, the literary man, one may search long through the crowded authe mechanic, the laborer, each has his kneipe, diences for really pretty faces; the æsthetic where he meets congenial society. I have been soul hungering for beauty or brilliancy must told that there are Berliners who have no kneipe, content itself with the homely, good-natured, but they must be classed among the eccentrics. bread-and-butter style of visage. The penetraThe wives, therefore, never expect their hus- lia of German households are not as cleanly bands to pass the evenings at home, or, at or orderly as might be. In truth, the godlileast, the entire evening.
ness which goes along with cleanliness is too As to whether German women are better ed. often lacking, where the critical eye of the ucated than our own women, with correspond- passer - by cannot penetrate. In houses of the ing opportunities, I must confess I am in doubt, more recent construction are bath-rooms, but principally because, from American ladies long I am disposed to believe they are more generresident in Berlin, I have heard quite conflicting ally used as waste or servants' rooms than for opinions. Averaging their opinions, and sup- their intended purpose. In houses more than plementing them with my own observation, I ten years old, I doubt whether such a necessaam inclined to think that the German women ry appendage can be found. A significant fact are better linguists and musicians, but not as is that the linen goes to the laundry only at well up in other branches. You will hardly intervals, very often, of six months, quite commeet a lady of any pretensions to good train- monly of two and three. On these occasions, ing who cannot speak more or less English and the laundry-woman appears and carries away French; and, in several instances, I have been the loads of material, frequently to some subvery much surprised at the accuracy of their urban establishment. Possibly the system may
have its advantages, but certainly one's impres- come upon the table, one must not seek to comsions would be that it is more labor and patience prehend. saving than nice. It was some time before I Is there not a close relationship between the I could make my washer-woman understand methods of cooking of a people and their inthat I wished her to come once a week. She tellectual and moral development? Cannot the evidently could not comprehend its fitness, and positive, practical directness of the Anglo-SaxI am sure at last put it down as the absurd, on mind be connected with their plain, succuthough profitable, habit of a foreigner, who could lent, unmistakable roasts and chops?-or the not be expected to know better.
grace and ästhetic sense of the French referred The only serious meal in a German family is to their delicate ragoûts and sauces?--and the the dinner, which ordinarily comes between half cloudy, self-evolving philosophies of the Gerpast one and three o'clock. The banks are mans to their incomprehensible mixtures of closed between those hours, and active busi- fish, flesh, fruit, and vegetables? Or would a ness is largely suspended. Deliberation and closer analysis show that the reverse process time are given, not so much to the actual con- works out food preparation from innate characsumption of the dinner as to quietude afterward. teristics? If the food is bolted rapidly, the German in- The fundamental principle of German cooksists upon plenty of time to digest it. He there- ery is to mix together as many incongruous sore sits long at the table, and sips his wine or things as possible. My countrymen have a beer, and afterward, over his coffee, smokes his special talent, recognized the world over, for inweed. In all this he extracts more real, solid, venting mixed drinks, but his combinations pale reasonable satisfaction out of one dinner than before those of the Germans in mixed cooking. an American will out of a dozen. Judged by That compound which is so toothsome to a our standards, his table habits are rather gross. German, a herring salad, is concocted from sixMen and women shovel their food into their teen different articles. German beefsteak is mouths very commonly with their knives, edge made of hashed meats, rolled into a ball and inward, and generally there is a slobberiness fried. What they call roast beef is a chunk of which is not agreeable. At a table d'hôte, or meat boiled a while and then baked; it usually dinner party, the din of voices becomes extraor- looks like a lump of india-rubber. With the dinary; for the people talk loud and all at once. meats is always served a compote, made of If it is trying to the lungs, no doubt it is good stewed or preserved fruit. The vegetables are for the digestion. At a table d'hôte there are deemed at their best when they are floating in three things which a German gentleman almost grease. Sausage, however, is the great national invariably does. First, when he enters the room delicacy. It is produced in great varieties of he takes out a small pocket-brush and carefully size and quality; and the sausage shops of Berbrushes his hair; secondly, he produces a large, lin are the most elegant in the city. The Gerbright-colored silk handkerchief, and blows a man family table, with its mysteries and abombugle- blast; and lastly, at the end of the re- inations, is the severest trial which the American past, he calls for a candle and lights his cigar, has to undergo who submits himself to the dowithout consulting the preferences of the other mestic life of the country. My estimable landguests. This, however, is not to be taken as an lady modified her culinary practices somewhat exhibition of selfish, bad manners. On the to suit my fancies; yet six months of effort contrary, he is performing merely a social func- failed to reconcile me to the strange diet. I tion, which presumptively is pleasurable to ev- have met with a few Americans in Germany, erybody; for the smoking habit is so common a long time there, who first endured, then pitied, that the non-smoker is rather in the attitude of then finally embraced the execrable cookery; one who should apologize for his lack of cult- but, as one might suspect, they have in a deure, and therefore should pay the penalty of his gree become denationalized. defective development by quietly withdrawing In Berlin, however, one is not obliged to sufor suffering in silence. The other meals cut fer this daily martyrdom; there are a few good only a secondary figure, and are often eaten in restaurants, like that of Poffenberg, or the Kaia scrambling fashion, here and there as it may serhof, or the Hôtel de Rome, where one can happen.
fare sumptuously and in a civilized way, and, I doubt whether the mysteries of German for those so inclined, there are a few very good cooking are comprehensible to the Anglo-Sax- pensions which adapt themselves to our ways of on mind, or permanently endurable by the An- living. glo-Saxon stomach. In order to obtain that However, the clothes a people wear, the peace of mind which is absolutely necessary to houses they live in, the food they eat, and the aid the digestion of the compounds which daily special social customs they exhibit, may, per:
haps, be put down simply as surface character- from each other, and this is the case in a deistics, which, among European peoples, are not gree still. The Cologne Gazette and Augswidely different.
burg Allgemeine Zeitung are yet leaders; nevWe may also go further, and say that, in a ertheless, it is plain that the metropolitan is general way, their several civilizations are all growing at the expense of the interior press. developing upon the same lines; but these are Mark Twain, in his recent book, A Tramp generalizations too broad to be satisfying. In- Abroad, referring to the newspapers of Hamside of these lines we see that each is develop- burg, Frankfort, Baden, and Munich, as correct ing a special nationality-a life of its own, which types of the German press, says they are defigives it national individuality. We see a spe- cient in everything that makes a newspaper atcial national mind, which makes the German tractive. If that is the case as to those particone, the Frenchman quite another, and the ular journals (and as to that I cannot say), cerRussian yet a distinct third. The German tainly those of Berlin cannot be dismissed in type, though an old and well defined one, has such a depreciatory way. There are a great met obstructions to its unification, which are many of them, of all shades of opinion and abilonly now, in this generation, being overcome. ity, and representing all sections of society. In The oft quoted lines of Arndt,
the matter of the primal requisite of a daily
journal, news, they are far superior to the “Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?"
French, and almost equal to the best English and the enthusiastic response of this song,
and American papers. Apparently they do not that
expend as much money and energy in collect it is
ing news, nor are they so anxious for the earli. “So weit die deutsche Zunge klingt,"
est and first information, no doubt because the
German readers are not as eager or exacting in which expressed merely an aspiration when
tion when this regard as ours are. The most influential written sixty odd years ago, is now rapidly are the Nord-deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (said taking form. The unification of North Ger- to be Bismarck's organ), the Vossiche Zeitung, many is the most remarkable event in Europe the National, the Preussische or Kreuz-Zeisince the disappearance of the first Napoleon tung, the Tageblatt, and the Fremdenblatt. from the scene. This unification is working in A small newspaper, called Das Kleine Fourall social directions. Berlin, therefore, as the nal, founded the winter I was in Berlin by Dr. chief city of the new empire, has become the Strousberg, who is somewhat notorious for his political center of the continent, and the new connection with railroad schemes in Russia, influences at work are drawing to it not only and his bankruptcy and subsequent trial, be. the political, but also the social, intellectual, came immediately a great success. It sells for and artistic forces of the empire. Heretofore five pfennings, or one and a quarter cents, and the small States—the “Residenz” towns, dis- contains not only a full summary of the current persed in twenty or thirty little States—divided news, but also has very good editorials. I have these forces. Weimar, as we know, became a seen in it original correspondence from San literary, and Dresden and Munich artistic cen- Francisco, and editorials about California afters, and the universities, also, scattered at fairs. Perhaps the Tageblatt may be taken as many distant points, formed scientific and phil- a fair specimen of a Berlin daily. It is said to osophic centers. These little capitals were also have the largest circulation. I have before me each in its degree, centers of special aristo- the number for May 21, 1880. It consists of cratic and social influences, but since the polit- sixteen pages, each page about three-quarters ical unification the best social, intellectual, and the size of one of the San Francisco Evening artistic life of Germany is slowly, but surely, Bulletin. I should say that, taking into conbeing drawn to Berlin. Weimar, Dresden, sideration differences in size of page and type, Stuttgard, and even Munich, are losing their the Tageblatt contains matter equal to at least earlier glories. The change is not a rapid one, ten pages of the Bulletin. Of the sixteen pages, and it will probably be a long time before Ber-five and a half are given up exclusively to adverlin becomes to North Germany what Paris is tisements. The upper parts of the first and to France. Already political opinion takes its second pages are devoted to political editorials direction from the capital, and, naturally, its and political news, the lower to a chapter of a newspapers are assuming greater prominence feuilleton, and theatrical and musical news; the than ever before.
third page contains a letter from Hamburg, One of the features of the former decentrali- news from various points of the empire, with zation was that the ablest journals were to be long lists of changes in civil and army offices; found in the smaller cities, and at points remote the fourth page has local news; the fifth contains local news, and has also reports of judi- , tions, with the nominative at the beginning and cial proceedings and of a sitting of one of the the verb as far off toward the end as possible. municipal councils; the sixth contains a very I have been surprised how well the better full and detailed statement of the prices ruling Berlin papers are up in American affairs. They at the money exchanges of Breslau, Hamburg, keep their readers informed about all occurFrankfort, Vienna, Amsterdam, London, Paris, rences of importance going on in our midst. St. Petersburg, Bremen, Cologne, Antwerp, Even the various phases of the Kearney agitaGlasgow, and Liverpool, followed by half a page tion, of our local political movements, and of of advertisements; the seventh has telegraphic the Chinese question were well understood and news from various parts of Europe; the eighth discussed by them. With reference to Ameriis composed of advertisements; the ninth has can news they are better informed, and give political editorials and some paragraphs of the fuller information than the English journals. atrical news; the tenth and eleventh contain Those, therefore, who characterize the German telegraphic correspondence from St. Petersburg press as behind the times are themselves lagand London, a letter from Bromberg, telegrams ging in the rear of the facts. from Munich, Brussels, and Vienna, local news, It is very easy for the traveler hurrying and a report of the proceedings of the Prussian through a country, who is, perhaps, either only Landtag. One column of this and the follow- partially or not at all acquainted with the laning page are taken up with very full and deguage, and who has casually glanced at one or tailed reports of the markets for various kinds
two newspapers, to generalize and summarily of goods in all the commercial centers of Eu- condemn the whole press of the country as derope, and also in New York and Rio Janeiro, ficient; and then it gratifies our national pride followed by a report of prices ruling in the Ber- to think we are in advance of those decaying lin exchange the previous day of over seven old communities. hundred different stocks or shares, and winding The Berlin press lacks, it is true, somewhat up with a barometrical and thermometrical re- of the push of our best papers in the gatherport from all parts of Europe. The last four ing of news; its leaders certainly lack the literpages are filled with advertisements.
ary finish of our best; but, on the other hand, The news of all kinds is full and detailed. the news is carefully collated and arranged, the This paper has morning and evening editions, thought of the articles is elevated, and the and is sold to subscribers at forty-three cents “interviewer” and sensational reporter are carea month; single numbers sell on the street for fully excluded. two and a half cents. It is equal to any paper It is said that the Berlin press is controlled of its class in the United States, and very much by Jews, and that they are corrupting public superior to the average of our daily press both opinion. During the winter I was in Berlin in tone, style, and matter. In the Vossische, there arose a violent controversy over the Jew Nord-deutsche Allgemeine, and National are question, as it was styled, which called out articles admirable for their range of thought, newspaper articles, pamphlets, and speeches knowledge, and moderation of tone.
from many prominent men all over Germany, style, they cannot ordinarily be praised; it is and was heard of in other parts of Europe, and strangely involved and slovenly. The student also on our side of the Atlantic. The substance of German at home, who thinks himself well of the charge against these people, when stripup in the language because he can read Goethe, ped of the profuse verbiage in which it was Schiller, or Heine readily, will find himself, to couched, was that they used the daily press to his surprise, very much at fault when he goes decry old German ideas and traditions, and to Germany and takes up the daily paper. It especially to sneer at and secretly undermine is like going from the open, sunny fields into a evangelical religion. There was a grain of dense forest, with tangled undergrowth. truth here in a bushel of chaff. It is largely
Every calling or pursuit in Germany which true that the Jew element is active in the press, finds expression in words seems to have a style, and this because it is a large and rich element or want of style, of its own; it is only the purely in the community. It is said there are over literary person who cares to cultivate the art of forty-five thousand Jews in Berlin alone, and expression for its own sake. There is, conse- that one in every ten of the educated men of quently, a philosophical, an official, a scientist, Prussia is of that extraction. The skeptical a newspaper, and a literary style, and that of tone of the press is merely a reflex of that of the newspaper is certainly one of the most ob- its readers. The pride of the Berliner is that scure; the aim of its writers seeming to be to his city is the home of free thought; that all give in one sentence the main thought, with all shades of belief and unbelief receive respectits possible shades, exceptions, and qualifica- | ful hearing, and can freely seek out its circle