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folks ain't often; but if ever there was one on kiss you once, Liz, for I love you?” he said, airth, you're thet one, Liz Byrnes. He wants looking at her wistfully. to see you 'fore he pegs out, the scoundrel.” She clasped his hands in hers, while a light,

“Is Dick Beech there?” she asked, excitedly. bright as a halo round the head of a saint, shone

“Yes. He came back a day or two ago. I in her face. never seed sich a change, and he desarves it." “Yes, Dick, I forgive freely, freely, if you

“You shall not say anything about him,” Liz will only live! I don't care for those years, retorted, angrily.

for my life was not meant to be like other “They said he was doin' well,” Tom said, women's.” “but it seems now he wasn't. It was well in The wind swept around the house like the drink, I 'spect. He got shot in a row at Black's wail of a lost spirit, and Dick held her hand in saloon to-night, and he keeps callin' fur you." his, and smiled peacefully, for he was too fee

She hastily threw an old shawl around her ble to talk any more. As morning neared, the shoulders, and followed Tom. The rain and storm died slowly away, the embers faded into wind beat in their faces, but they kept steadily ashes in the fire-place, and Dick's life ebbed on, Tom holding a lantern before them, which quietly away. His soul was summoned before illuminated the wet and slippery trail. At last a Higher Tribunal. Liz sat there, motionless, they reached the saloon. It had seemed hours by his side, through the long day, praying in to Liz, who threw off her dripping wrappings, her heart for death to be merciful unto her. and went into the room where he lay dying The Judge shook hands with her; the people slowly. Men were laughing, betting, drinking crowded around, bringing offerings. They tried in the next room, for a human life was of little to make amends for their wrong to her, but she consequence to them.

only said, wearily: “Liz,” he said, feebly, raising up as she en- " It is too late now. It is all the same to me. tered, “I knew you would come to me. Don't When you could have been merciful you turned look at me so. It was that look that maddened away. Now it is all over. Justice can never me. It has haunted me so," he moaned, falling make amends for my suffering." back on his pillow. “Only say you will forgive And then she said, softly, to herself: me. I have told them all. I would scarcely “It was for his sake.” have known you, you are so changed. May I



It is probable that there is not on this con- orders and accidents, from the many perils intinent a country possessing greater natural re- cident to a border State, from the raids of filisources than the State of Sonora, Mexico. It busters, the bitter quarrels and feuds of her has been celebrated for its wonderful mineral own principal citizens, the antagonism of races, wealth from time immemorial, and the highest the insubordination of her industrious, but caauthorities are united in crediting it with agri- pricious, Indian population; and last, but by cultural and pastoral capabilities surpassing, no means least, from the terrible, bloodthirsty, perhaps, even those of California. Its native warlike, insatiable Apaches. Terrible, indeed, inhabitants are universally admitted to be brave, has been the desolation wrought by these inhospitable, and light hearted; overflowing with human fiends, the implacable foes of all peacenatural talent, fond of music, dancing, and the ful industry, and the arts of civilization; and gentle and refining pleasures of social inter- almost equally cruel and inhuman, it is sad to course. But what a sad fate has fallen upon say, have been the reprisals which at occasiona country and people originally destined, ap- al intervals have been meted out to them by parently, to inherit a more than ordinary share an outraged and exasperated community. Beof wordly prosperity; for it must not be forgot- | fore reading the terrible story which follows, it ten that, in addition to the curse of revolution, is necessary to picture to oneself the depopuwhich has blighted to such a terrible extent lated villages, the ruined haciendas, the desertthe whole of Mexico, and which even now ed mines, the desolation and misery created by threatens its utter disintegration and ruin, So- this dreaded tribe, and to remember that the nora has suffered from an infinity of local dis. I war of civilized races against the Indians is a war of industry and intelligence against a no- and were entirely destroyed by the Apaches.” madic people who have proved themselves, with And throughout the entire region of Oposura, a few rare exceptions, incapable of being ele- Babiacora, and Arispe, as also far and wide in vated above a condition of barbarism; who re- every direction, are still to be found the require and demand not acres, or hundreds of mains of once prosperous and productive mines, acres, but countless thousands, to sustain each haciendas, and industries destroyed by the same tribe; that the most enlightened and humane ruthless hands. Many of these places, once so policy has hitherto wholly failed to convert prosperous, are now mere deserts; and the enthem to the arts of peace; that the civilization tire country has been so repeatedly stripped of the entire continent is as desirable as it is and desolated that it is difficult to credit that inevitable; and that the passions of the savage it was once a garden spot of almost unequaled nature which run riot in the contest awake, beauty. inevitably, the almost equally savage passions In the year 1835, John Johnson, a native of of the pioneers and frontiersmen, whose des. Kentucky, resident in Missouri, then a very tiny it is to conquer or be conquered by them. young man, resolved to move into Mexico. He

The town of Oposura is one of the oldest finally settled in Oposura, and married there, and most interesting in the State of Sonora. shortly after his arrival, Delfina Gutierrez, a It is situated about forty-five miles to the west Mexican lady, born in San Miguel, north-eastof Babiacora. In 1827, Babiacora was a town ern Sonora, but educated in Oposura. At this containing some three thousand inhabitants, time the Apaches were ravaging constantly the three-fourths of the population consisting of north-eastern part of the State, the western Indians of the Opata tribe. It is situated on a portion being protected by Papagos, a tribe of table-land, about one mile from the river So- friendly Indians, much feared by the Apaches. nora, which runs through the vale of Sonora, The head chief of the Apaches at that time at that time one of the most fertile and beau- was Juan José. He had been "raised” by the tiful districts of the State. Oposura, the an- Elias family in Arispe, while it was still the cient capital of the Opata Indians, contained, capital of Sonora, and had received a fair eduin 1827, upward of four thousand inhabitants, cation. It was one of his favorite practices to and was considered the prettiest and gayest capture the mail- bags, more particularly, it is town in that portion of the country. The river supposed, with a view to placing himself in Oposura falls into the Yaqui River above Ona- possession of the information which they conbas. At that time the lands for a considerable tained, of which he was not slow to avail himdistance below the town were divided among self. The next most influential chiefs were the inhabitants; the water from the river was Marcelo and “Apache Guero." Guero signicarried through each lot by canals, so that veg- fies red, and is commonly applied to those peretables, fruits, etc., were produced throughout sons in Mexico possessing fair complexions. the entire year. Each family grew corn, wheat, Strange to say, such are by no means rare, for frijoles, sugar, and tropical fruits. Most of there is a guero in nearly every village or setthem had horses, mules, and an abundance of tlement throughout Mexico. cattle feeding in the adjacent plains and mount- Juan José was a very sagacious, cunning warains. Sixteen leagues to the north of Oposura rior, as, indeed, many of the Apache warriors is situated the mining district of Nacosari, to proved to be, to the sorrow of their enemies ; the east of which is Arispe, which, at the pe- but none among them had ever been so dreadriod of Colonel Bourne's visit, was a town of ed, so unscrupulous, so ruthless and terrible, as three thousand inhabitants. Adjacent to Na- Juan José and his following. cosari there was at that time a beautiful vale, It was at this time that the Apaches began abounding with fig trees, pomegranates, peach to obtain their first fire-arms from the Ameries, and other fruits, together with a vast variety can hunters and trappers in exchange for horses of ornamental plants and shrubs. Throughout and mules driven across the border from Sothis region, also, ran numerous canals, convey. Great was the indignation, and many ing water to every portion of the valley. This were the protests of the settlers, but still the delightful spot was once the residence of a com- iniquitous trade continued until it became apmunity of Jesuits. Ward, in his “History of parent that the Indians, who made war a proMexico," speaks of the ruins of a church and fession, and who had vowed the extermination dwellings then existing at the upper end of the of their enemies, would soon be better armed valley, and also the ruins of reduction works, than the rancheros and miners, or the residents even then so dilapidated that it was impossi- of the towns and villages, who trusted princible to judge of their former extent, as "they pally to the military for protection against their had been abandoned upward of sixty years, 1 savage foes. It is easy to imagine the uneasi



ness with which Johnson viewed this trade in advised Johnson to return and abandon his exfire-arms. It was his custom to make the jour-pedition, as the Indians were known to be in ney to New Mexico and back once a year, en- the Sierra, well armed and in great force. They gaged in the legitimate pursuit of a trader, tak- had between fifteen hundred and two thousand ing out stock, and returning with assorted mer- warriors, he told Johnson, available within a chandise, such as found a ready sale in Oposura day's notice, and they would infallibly destroy and the vicinity. A well armed party of the him and his little command. Finding Johnson savages might, at any moment, ambush and cut resolute, the Colonel said that he would have him off during one of these expeditions, al- accompanied him with a hundred men-there though this danger was little considered in being about a hundred and fifty at the fortcomparison with the dread of Apache raids but that he considered the expedition entirely during his absence; for it was nothing unc too rash. mon for the savages, emboldened by the pos- The distance from the Presidio Frontera to session of fire-arms, to attack even the larger the Sierra Blanca is some forty leagues. The towns during the absence of the troops. In- Johnson party approached the foot of the Sierdeed, it was a favorite plan of theirs to entice ra the third day after leaving the fort. It was in them into the fastnesses of the mountains, and the afternoon, drawing toward evening. They then to sweep down upon the undefended set- had traveled purposely without concealment. tlements, during which raids no mercy was ever They could see the Indians telegraphing by shown to age, sex, or condition.

fires from point to point, and knew they were Johnson conceived and matured a plan for concentrating to meet them. Juan José himbreaking up this dangerous trade, and at the self, at the head of a large force of warriors, same time striking a deadly blow against the shortly surrounded the little party, and haughApaches. With characteristic reserve, decis-tily demanded their business in the Apache ion, and originality, he determined to make use country, to which Johnson artfully replied that of the very hunters and trappers, known to have he had been constrained to leave Sonora with been engaged in the trade, against them, and his Americans on account of the approaching he did not have to wait very long before find difficulties between the United States and Mexing an opportunity to carry his plans into ex- ico. The quarrel with Texas was at that time ecution. The Apaches had ravaged Noria, at its hight, and war was actually impending. about thirty miles north of Oposura, killing The raids of Juan José upon the mail-bags had and scalping men, women, and children, and prepared him to receive and believe this inforapplying the torch to everything destructible mation, and he readily fell into the trap so careby fire. Johnson, whose place was headquar- fully prepared for him. ters for many of the frontiersmen, had at the Johnson announced it as the intention of his time on his premises, or in the immediate vi-party to proceed to the copper mines of New cinity, seventeen American hunters and trap- Mexico, distant about a week's journey from pers; and availing himself of the indignation the Sierra Blanca, and, asking for guides, procreated by this raid, so near home, he imme- posed to give a portion of his pack, consisting diately made preparations for his long contem- of pinole, panocha, trinkets, and such provisplated expedition, concealing his plans, how- ions as the Apaches most coveted, in return for ever, and all but the immediate particulars a guide to the copper mines, and the friendly necessary to its success. After examining with services of the tribe. To this tempting propocare the arms and ammunition of the Ameri- sition, Juan José consented, and the following cans, he prepared a small pack-train, loaded day was appointed for the distribution of the with supplies, a selection of suitable merchan supplies, and a suitable place was selected where dise, and a small howitzer, which he carefully Juan José proposed to assemble his followers, concealed amid one of the packs, and taking together with all the principal chiefs in the viwith him five of his bravest and most reliable cinity. The dreaded Apache Guero was aparrieros, he placed himself at the head of the pointed to superintend the division of the efparty, and started on his perilous expedition. fects. He struck the trail of the retreating Indians . The same evening Juan José partook of some about a week after their devastating raid upon supper with the friendly trappers, and forgetLa Noria, and followed them fearlessly toward ting, in an exceptionally social mood, the Indithe very heart of the Sierra Blanca of Arizona, an's habitual caution, he expatiated upon the the headquarters of that portion of the Apaches. cunning and valor of his principal chiefs, and At the Presidio Frontera, he called on Colonel pointed out with great pride to Johnson and his Narbona, a well known Mexican officer in com- companions the Apache Guero, the Apache Nemand, a renowned Indian fighter, who urgently gro, Marcelo, and others, relating at the same


time their principal deeds of strategy and prow- watched the movements of the Apaches until ess. Strangely enough, but very opportunely an accidental grouping offered him the opporas it happened, Johnson found among the Apa- tunity of firing among them with the most deadches, as prisoner, a young Mexican girl, made | ly effect. How many fell at the first discharge captive during one of the Apache raids. She is not known, but this, terrible as it must have was about twelve years of age, bright and in- been at such short range, was only the signal telligent, and remembered well the catastrophe for the still deadlier fire of the Kentucky rifles. which had left her the sole surviving member Each hunter had selected his Indian, every one of her family. Johnson took compassion on a chief or noted warrior, in accordance with a her, and at once purchased her from Juan José. plan previously agreed upon. Thus fell at the Scarcely had she joined the camp of the brave first fire Juan José himself, Apache Guero, Marfrontiersmen when she repaid her deliverers by celo, Apache Negro, and every brave of note of informing them of the plans laid by the Apaches the band. The surprise was too complete for for the destruction of the Johnson party, which them to think even of rallying. Not one of au she overheard. The Americans were to be per- thority sufficient to command them during such mitted to make the distribution of their effects an extremity remained. Their arms had been the following morning, as agreed upon, after left aside, with a few exceptions, the small numwhich the promised guide would be furnished ber of Americans having completely deceived to lead them-not to the copper mines, but to them, so that they had forgotten temporarily ambush and destruction-on the following day. their habitual distrust and jealous precautions. A party of three or four hundred Apaches, then Thus it happened that, despite their numbers, hunting in a suitable locality, had already been the panic was so great that Aight alone was advised by swift runners dispatched for that thought of. Immediately after the first fire, but purpose.

before they could get out of range, another The place selected for the distribution of the deadly volley followed them. Fifty-four were goods and trinkets was a pretty little valley in thus slain in a few minutes, and many more the foothills adjacent to the Sierra. Here there must have been wounded by the grape and canwas an opening, surrounded by a grove of oak ister from the concealed howitzer. timber and clusters of underbrush. Some large It was several years before the Apaches ralflat stones formed natural tables upon which lied from this terrible blow. Had it been folthe trinkets, etc., were artfully displayed by the lowed up with vigor by the Mexican Governhunters. In one of the clumps of underbrush, ment, the Indians might have been reduced to concealed by the pack-saddles, blankets, etc., the last extremity, and the country spared many lay the howitzer, loaded with double charges of of the terrible outrages which subsequently engrape and canister, and carefully trained so as sued. But no steps were taken on the part of to sweep with deadly effect the little opening the Government. The Mexican officers and solwithin which it was foreseen the Indians would diers were jealous that a mere handful of men be crowded during the distribution of the pack. should have put the utmost efforts of their com

mand to shame. But Johnson's principal obTotally unconscious and unsuspecting, or per- | ject, the prevention of the sale of fire-arms to haps thinking of the ambush prepared for the the Indians by the hunters and trappers, was little party of hunters on the morrow, and of most effectually accomplished, for the time, at the second and final distribution of their goods | least, as the Apaches were very careful therewhich would then take place, came the Apaches, after not to allow any of them to approach sufprominent among them, Juan José himself, ficiently near for the transaction of business of Apache Guero, Apache Negro, Marcelo, Tutige, any kind; and for several years the north-eastand other noted warriors. The Kentuckians, ern portion of Sonora enjoyed comparative imdisposed apparently accidently, had in reality munity from the dreaded foe. each selected his position with the utmost care, Autora, the young captive girl, returned with every trusty rifle loaded with the greatest pre- the Johnson party to Oposura, where she marcision, the powder-horn, extra bullets, and ready ried into the Ramirez family. She died at greased patches at hand; for the odds against Opata in 1879. them were fearful, and the slightest miscarriage The people of Sonora were grateful enough would inevitably cost every man his life. No to Johnson and his party, whatever may have accident, however, intervened to prevent the been the sentiments of the military or the Govcomplete success of the scheme. The Indians ernment. They celebrated the expedition in a soon became completely absorbed in the distri- sort of ballad, probably of Indian origin, which, bution of the effects. The artilleryman in his though destitute of poetic merit, may, perhaps, ambush silently uncovered the howitzer, and prove of interest to the curious or the antiquary.

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It is somewhat discouraging to find that our of the bay,” from ye, bay, and do, door. Still, children in the schools are acquiring misinfor- this name has not been used either officially or mation regarding a country so interesting and popularly in Japan since 1868. It is called Toso important as Japan. All our geographies kio (to, east; kio, capital). Tokei is the spelling and maps must be changed. They have all and pronunciation of those who affect Chinese fallen into the error, as have all our writers, learning. The name of the second city is without exception, of calling the main island Ozaka (accent on the first syllable). The name Niphon or Nippon. There is no island having of the old capital is Kioto, not Miako, miako such name. Dai Nippon, or Dai Nihon (Great being a common noun. Hokodadi should be Japan), is the name of the empire--the entire written Hokodaté, and Yesso, or Jesso, should Japanese Archipelago. The official name of be written Yezo. The sound or force of all the the largest island, which we have been taught vowels and consonants in the Japanese names, to call Niphon, or Nippon, is Hondo. The isl. as now written, is the Italian or European, the ands Liu Kiu, belonging to Japan, are marked same as in the modern or Continental method Loo Choo on our maps. Yeddo, the capital of pronouncing Latin. These corrections are ciiy, should be written Yedo. It means "door / given by Mr. William G. Griffis, late of the Im

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