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immediately to him. He himself will impart | my mother's room; she had opened the secret to you what is the point in question, and you drawer in which she keeps the letters of Count can be convinced that he will do everything to Morny, and I saw her read attentively in the settle this painful affair— which indeed seems papers." very intricate-a

-as kindly as possible; and will “If that be the case,” said the Emperor, “the do everything to keep, as much as he is able, accusation which is made against your mother at least from you, the consequences of your must be false. But why has she not told it? mother's behavior."

Why did she not show these papers? That “But what has happened? What is the mat- would have been the best proof that they canter?” cried the young Count.

not be in London." “Accompany me,” said Pietri, "and you will “The Countess Lehon," said Pietri, “does learn all."

not know what is here the point in question. I The young man tremblingly followed the Pre- have not thought it necessary to communicate fect into his carriage, and was driven to the anything to her, but have, first of all, only palace of the Emperor, where both were admit- made sure of her person in the most discreet ted into the cabinet.

way." Napoleon looked up, surprised, when he saw “Oh,” cried Count Lehon, “one must look the pale and excited young man enter his room after them. You will be convinced that the with Pietri.

papers are there, under the picture of Count “Sire,” said the Prefect, “Count Lehon is Morny, which is hanging in my mother's room. deeply moved at the measures which I have | You must press sharply upon the nail which been obliged to take against his mother, and he holds this picture. A cupboard in the wall, the wishes to assure your Majesty of his devotion. casing of which is exactly joined into the tapesI did not consider myself free, until here in your try, and which cannot be discovered by knockMajesty's presence, to impart to him that the ing, because a plastered wall covers it, will inCountess has delivered documents of impor- stantly be opened, and the papers will be found tance, relating to state affairs, into the hands of in it. Oh, sire, believe me that my mother, the banished Prince of Orleans—that is, to the also, in her most violent anger against the enemies of your Majesty and France."

Count, would never be able to betray your “O my God,” exclaimed the young Count Majesty." Lehon, “what a misfortune !” He covered his “You hear, Pietri?” said Napoleon. “I shall face with his hands and leaned against the door. be happy if it be so.”

“Then it is really true?” asked the Emperor, “It is so, your Majesty,” cried Count Lehon. with astonishment and alarm.

“One must convince one's self. I, myself, will “It is true," said Pietri, while at the same hasten to my mother, if your Majesty permit time, with a light shake of the head, he gave me.” the Emperor a sharp glance, “and your Majesty “The affair is too serious, sire," said Pietri, can conceive how painful this serious affair “to allow any intercourse with the Countess bemust be for Count Lehon, who is such a good fore she is freed from the suspicion that rests Frenchman, and such an admirer of your Maj- on her. I am Police-Prefect, sire. To me esty."

every one, even Count Lehon, must appear “It is high treason," said the Emperor, over under suspicion until the contrary is proved.” whose lips a fugitive smile passed, “which can- “You hear?” said Napoleon, kindly, to the not occur without severe punishment.”

young Count, who cast a glance full of terror on Count Lehon sighed deeply and painfully; the Police-Prefect. “He is as cold as ice. He then suddenly he arose, and stepped before the must be so. Well, I will keep you here, myEmperor, with joyful mein.

self, as hostage, till the matter is settled. Write, “No, sire, no," said he; “it is not true—it is here at my table, to your mother, and beg her a false accusation. It cannot be true, for until to settle the matter on your account, because this morning those papers were in our house. pride and anger might, perhaps, otherwise preI have seen them myself, and since then my vent her from doing so." mother cannot possibly have had the time to "Immediately, immediately,” exclaimed the send them to London.”

Count. “Oh, how gracious your Majesty is ! “The papers were there? You have seen How can I ever thank you for such considerathem yourself?" asked the Emperor, after list- tion?" ening with attention, while joyful triumph light- He went to the Emperor's writing desk, and ened up Pietri's features.

wrote a few lines, which he gave to the Police“Yes, yes,” exclaimed Count Lehon. “They Prefect, who then went away. Napoleon inwere there. I have seen them. I came into I vited the young man to take a place by his side, and, with captivating amiability, absorbed him herself, sobbing convulsively, upon her lounge. in a conversation, which made him almost for- The Police-Prefect returned to the Emperor. get the painful situation in which he found him- “That is it; that is it,” exclaimed the young self. M. Pietri drove back to the Hôtel Lehon. Count Lehon, when he perceived the strongThe Countess was lying on a lounge, reading, box in Pietri's hands. Your Majesty can well with apparent calmness and indifference, while see that my mother is innocent. All the pathe police officer was modestly seated near the pers must be in it.” door."

Pietri opened the cover; the Emperor eager“Now," said the Countess, when M. Pietri ly seized the papers contained in the small box, entered, “the three hours have not yet elapsed. and glanced over them, one after another. Have you yet convinced yourself that it will be “Is it not so, your Majesty?” cried Count in vain, if you intended to compel me, by a Lehon. "Is it not true, people have maliciously kind of modern torture, to deliver up docu- accused my mother?” ments which are in secure keeping far from “It was a vile imputation of her enemies,” here?"

said M. Pietri, pressing the Count's hand. “No, madame,” said M. Pietri; “but I have “All the measures are again recalled. Your to bring you this note from your son, who, mother is again free. I feel sorry for what has moved by the kindness of the Emperor, be- happened, but I could not act otherwise, and I seeches you to put a stop to this unpleasant hope that nobody has become aware of it." affair."

The Emperor placed the strong-box, with a The Countess started up, frightened. Pietri contented smile, on his writing-desk. “Go, sir," gave her the paper.

said he to Count Lehon, “and carry your mother “Oh,” exclaimed she, with sparkling eyes, my excuses. I have been happy to talk a little "they have ensnared the weak child. They with you, and to convince myself how France think I shall yield to his demand. They think is justified in reposing hope in such an excelI shall forget myself, and sacrifice my revenge lent young man as yourself.” for the scrap of favor they have thrown to him. He gave the Count his hand, who, quite enNever, sir, never!"

chanted, left him, and hastened to his mother. “Well, then,” said M. Pietri, “so you have He found her still sobbing, almost suffocated to blame yourself alone if I use force, and take a thing which you refuse to give me.” “You have betrayed me," cried she to him.

Pietri then quickly stepped up to the cabi-“These demons have understood how to use net's wall, to where a picture of Count Morny, the child against his own mother, with their in a beautifully chased frame, was hanging. devilish cunning.” The next moment he had taken down this pict- “I betray you, my mother!” exclaimed the

A sharp pressure upon the nail that had young man, greatly surprised. “I have rescued held it, opened the panel in the wall. A small you. I have defended you against a false aciron-safe stood in the dark hollow, lined with cusation. I have proved to them that you were velvet. Like a tigress the Countess Lehon falsely accused.” jumped up; she seized M. Pietri's carefully ar- The Countess looked full of astonishment at ranged side-curls with a tight grasp, and utter- the gentle, smiling countenance of her son. ing an inarticulate cry of rage, she tore him

“You have bereft me of the weapon, my son,” away from the opening. In spite of this unfore. said she, at last, with emotion, “to punish that seen attack, M. Pietri had already seized the false, spiteful traitor, who forgets his oath, and strong-box, and thrown it to the officer, who gives up to a stranger the place which is due to had quickly approached.

“We have what we were looking for, mad- “Is not here the place for my mother?” said ame,” said he, removing her hand from his the Count, opening his arms, with radiant throat. “Every noise will be in vain, and will glances. “Can she find a place that is better compromise only yourself. I beg you, there and safer than the heart of her son?” fore, to submit to the unavoidable.”

The Countess, for a moment, pressed her “Ha, traitor!” cried the Countess, beside hands on her heart, but she could not resist the herself with rage, seizing a small Venetian dag- glance of her child; weeping, she sank into the ger lying among her knick-knacks. She was arms of the young man. about to rush upon the Prefect. But the officer quickly seized her arm, and pressed her wrists The marriage of Count Morny was celebrated together, until she dropped the dagger. M. with much splendor. He led his young wife to Pietri bowed to her very politely, and left the Paris, into the magnificent Hôtel Morny, and room with his companion. The Countess threw the first visit which both paid after his arrival

with anger.


your mother."

was to the Countess Lehon. The reception Count Lehon her hand, heartily. On the next was warm. The Countess received the young day the Moniteur announced that Count Lehon wife like a motherly friend. Then she called had been nominated a “Knight of the Legion for her son, and said:

of Honor." Soon afterward he entered the “Forget never, Count Morny, that this child State's service as Maitre des Requêtes; and has a right to your friendship."

again, a short time after this, he was, through Morny embraced the young man, while his the influence of Government, elected as Deputy, features expressed a tenderness of feeling which and appointed a President to the Conseil-généwas usually foreign to him. His wife gave | ral de l'Aix.



THE CALIFORNIAN has now been running three- is enormous. These range over the entire field of scienquarters of a year. From the issuance of the January tific, artistic, and literary thought. It is a greater misnumber to the present time it has been met with words take to presuppose an absence of literary talent here. of encouragement and approval alone. Personal in- The people are strong original thinkers. They wear terviews, private letters, and the expressions of the pub- no intellectual shackles. To an extent their isolated lic press have all bid us God-speed. The reception position exempts them from the mental impediments, which the magazine has met proves that a field is open the grooves and molds which inevitably prevent the for it on this coast, and a glance at the pages of the freest expansion in an older community. Not to be various numbers reveals the existence of a local talent vainglorious, the articles that have appeared so far in which, to many, was unsuspected. But it has been THE CALIFORNIAN illustrate this. Many of them evident for some time past to those interested in the have attracted attention in the East and abroad for the enterprise that, in disregarding the experience of all terseness of their style and the vigor of their thought. other publications, by fixing the price so far below that All that such a people require is a medium which shall of other monthlies, a mistake had been made which, not only reflect, but be a part of, the vigorous life which sooner or later, would have to be corrected. The large surrounds it- not in a feverish, sensational sense, but sums which have to be expended for paper, composi- in that broad and comprehensive sense, which includes tion, press work, and the innumerable expenses of the whole gamut of human thoughts, impulses, inspiraprinting, issuing, and circulating a monthly magazine, tions. No man who wrote in deep sincerity the life of which have, of late, been higher than for many years his age ever failed of recognition ; and no magazine before, prevent the possibility of placing the publica- which truly embodies that which is best in a great peotion on that high plane of literary and typographical ple will ever fail of success. excellence which its proprietors desire, without a change in the present price. The only alternative was one which the owners would not for a moment consider, that of deteriorating the quality and diminishing the

THE EDUCATED MAN IN POLITICS is an individual quantity supplied at the existing rates. For some time,

much sneered at by the politician and much longed for therefore, the only question has been, when shall this

by the citizen. There is no more urgent need in any change be effected, and it has been decided, after con

popular government than that its best citizens, the repsultation, that the sooner it is done the better. Com

resentatives of its highest thought, culture, and conservmencing, therefore, with the first day of October, the

ative progress, should be brought to the front. The price of the magazine will be advanced to thirty-five spectacle of an official devoid alike of education and cents for a single number, and to $4.00 for the yearly

native ability is not, unfortunately, rare. And, in a subscription, the usual price for first-class monthlies.

measure, the educated classes are to blame for it. One In order that there may be no dissatisfaction among

would suppose that those who, by their property or pothose of our patrons who have not, as yet, subscribed

sition, had the most at stake in the government of the by the year, THE CALIFORNIAN will receive yearly sub

county, State, or nation, would manifest the most interscriptions at the old rate ($3.00) until the date fixed for

est in securing the purity of the same. But, as a fact, the change in the price (October 1, 1880). No one,

no class is so apathetic. It is next to impossible to therefore, needs be affected by the change for the

rouse them to any interest in that which concerns them present year. With this change we expect to redouble

most of all. And, even if their interest be once aroused our efforts to make the magazine worthy of the high

and they be induced to enter the arena, it is too frefavor with which it has been received, and are able quently with an affectation of superiority, a disdain,

Coriolanus like, of the people.
already to promise new features which will make it more
attractive than ever before.

His nature is too noble for the world;
He would not flatter Neptune for his trident,
Or Jove for his power to thunder."

IT IS A GREAT MISTAKE to suppose that the people Now, if there is one thing which the average American of the Pacific coast are not a reading population. The citizen will not do, it is to hold a wax candle while some number of books, periodicals, and papers annually sold other citizen poses in the role of Virtue. And-right

But great

here—very many men mistake iciness for virtue. There sciences tend to "abstract" men, to make them incais nothing that will thaw under the temptation of a little pable of appreciating such things as prejudice and paswarmth so soon as ice. What we need is men of broad sion. That result is an incident not to the scientific sympathies, discerning minds, quick purposes, and un- method, but to the matter studied. The facts of physifaltering wills. I can count a dozen men in my imme- cal science are unvarying, rigid, unresponsive, unsymdiate neighborhood who ought to be governors, con- pathetic. In many departments the disturbing elegressmen, senators. They are business men of ability, ments are few; and even these, by further investigation, integrity, and success. They are appreciated by all who may be classified or predicted. There is no humanity, come in contact with them. Their opinions are listened nothing individual, about physical science. The interto with respect, and any one of them in politics would est is purely intellectual, and it is for this reason that be welcomed as a godsend. There are enough of them poets, who deal with the emotions, have so far given us in the State to compel, by concerted action, honesty and more accurate ideas of our fellows than the men of genuine reform in their respective parties.

science. There is more sociology in Robert Burns than numbers of them will not even go to the polls, and in all the scientific books ever written. It is better that hardly any of them will take an active part in seeing the science which investigates a rock should be as cold that a proper ticket is nominated even in their own city as its subject. But the science which investigates men or county. The results of such indifference are inevi- must be warm. If it be not, the very difference betable—the politician, the machine. Upon the indiffer- tween man and the rock may be overlooked. We must ence of the community the demagogue thrives. Who not hope to find our social scientific investigator among is to blame if the government suffers?—if incapable or our scientists. He must be specially reared for his. unreliable men are chosen? The confusion of republi- | work. We cannot expect one whose training has beer, can institutions has often been predicted -- most elo- | purely intellectual to accomplish it. What would be the quently of all by Macaulay-at the hands of the rab- value of John Stuart Mill's dissection of the French ble. But in any fair contest between intelligence and

Revolution? Neither can we expect accurate generaliignorance, the latter must ultimately give way. Mind

zations from minds untrained to generalize. It is only always controls force. If ever Macaulay's prophecy be very lately that men have commenced to study themrealized, it will be not so much from the inability of the

selves. It is not wonderful that little has been accombetter elements of society to prevail, as from the imper- | plished. When specialists have devoted years to this turbable complacency and criminal neglect with which field, we may hope that some man of acute sympathies, the ship of state is abandoned to whatever fate the winds keen observation, and broad intellect may tell us what and the currents may chance to bestow.

manner of men we are and how we can conserve our own highest and best interests.

NOT ONLY do we require the active participation of

A JUST CRITICISM upon a man of genius is a difficult educated men in our public affairs, but we need obsery

and perhaps impossible accomplishment. Criticism obers, scientific investigators. Mr. Henry George, in a

serves rules, is conservative, is guided by experience, recently published article, invokes with great force the

and forms its estimate by comparison with acknowlassistance of the scientific method in inquiries into the

edged criterions. Genius, on the contrary, breaks labor agitation and kindred topics. This method should

through all barriers, disregards all experiences, is enbe applied to all social problems. Certain it is that de

tirely radical, and disarranges the most approved standnunciation and declamation effect little. No man can

ards. Criticism runs in grooves, like the river ; genius investigate who has prejudged. But a scientist, taking is comprehensive and illimitable, like the ocean. The a deep interest in public questions, yet standing aloof former is forever fearful of overreaching its banks; the from partisan activity, might discover many things which

latter is impatient of restraint, and dashes impetuously the combatants had overlooked, might trace causes

against its rocky shore. Criticism points out the neceswhere they saw only results, might find a remedy while

sity of unities and combinations; genius violates them, they lamented over an evil. But such an observer must

and brings to view new beauties. Even while criticism not be a mere theorist. He must see the world as it is,

protests, genius reaches down into some lowly place, not as it might be. No man shall be our social physi

and from out the poverty, and degradation, and, it may cian who studies our organism from a chart. Society is

be, crime, brings such creations as “ Little Nell," unsulthe sum of men's prejudices, and one cannot be a re

lied and pure, to the light. Criticism is stationary; genformer who fails to appreciate this. No reasoning will

ius is progressive. The face of the former is turned tobe so wide of the mark as that which proceeds from

ward the past but the latter throbs with the life of the ideal premises. The scientific investigator, therefore,

present. Criticism says, “It has never been ;" genius must possess a rare combination of qualities. He must

speaks and it is! The former, therefore, can never be of the people and yet not of them. He must sympa

grasp the latter. It may recognize genius, and thus be thize with their prejudices- for without sympathy no

of benefit in exposing the spurious and detecting the one can understand the truth which is in any idea-and

genuine. But recognition was never analysis, and never yet he must not be influenced thereby. He must be

can be. able not only to observe, but to generalize. His mind must be both analytical and creative, radical and conservative, iconoclastic and protective. None other can THE OCTOBER NUMBER OF THE CALIFORNIAN will interpret human nature, and none other can harmonize be one of the most attractive ever issued. The editor it. We believe that such an expounder will yet come. has been able to secure several articles of unusual inIt is not conclusive against such belief that the physical

Vol. II.-- 18.




raised, these molecular movements increase in rapid

ity and extent of motion, until the mass becomes liquid. Science has already relegated to the domain of "mo- Then we have the second state of matter. A still further tion" all such possibilities of sensation as light, heat, increase of temperature converts the liquid into a gaseelectricity, etc., which were formerly defined as impon- ous form, in which the molecules fly about still more derable matter; and now comes Professor Crooks with freely, and we have the third state of matter. The gashis alleged "fourth state of matter," involving condi- eous condition is one preeminently of molecular disturbtions which seem make it quite clear that not only ance, attended with constant collisions with each other gases, but even the most solid bodies with which we and with the sides of the containing vessels. Now, if a are acquainted, such as wood, stone, metals, etc., must gas is so rarified by an approximate vacuum that the also share the same fate, and be considered merely as collisions of the molecules in their flight are few as different modes of motion. The Professor holds that compared with the misses, the molecules will obey their a solid is simply an aggregation of molecules, "sepa- natural laws, and move in rectilinear lines, like a flight rated from each other by a space which is relatively of cannon balls directed to a distant object. This is large-possibly enormous—in comparison with the cen- called by Professor Crooks the fourth state of matter. tral nuclei we call molecules. These molecules, them- The logical inference from which is that what we call selves built up of atoms, are governed by certain forces''

matter, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, is nothing - the chief of which are attraction and motion. Dis- more than the effect which the movement of the mass of tant attraction is gravitation, but molecular attraction is molecules exerts upon our senses, as in heat or light. cohesion. Both are independent of absolute tempera- If we take up a drop of water, the movements of its ture, but "the mass must be able to bear a reduction molecules conveys to our mind the sensation of moistof temperature of nearly three hundred degrees before ure. If we pick up a coin at ordinary temperature, the the amplitude of the molecular movements would cease." different motion of its molecules produces upon us an What would result from the arrest of these movements, effect which we term metallic, and so on. If the temand the actual contact of the molecules, is beyond our perature of the coin is raised, a corresponding effect is conception. All we know of matter is based wholly produced by the change of molecular movement. The upon our experience of molecular movements. The Professor holds that the molecule, itself "intangible, atomic theory of matter was first announced by Bos- invisible, and hard to be conceived, is the only true covitch more than a century ago, and the idea that par- matter;" that the space covered by the motion of the ticles of matter are endowed with both attraction and molecules, which is the mass that we call matter, whether repulsion, which is involved in that theory, has been gaseous, fluid, or solid, "has no more right to be called held by scientific men in general until quite recently. matter than the air traversed by a rifle bullet can be When atoms “are said to touch each other they are by no called lead. ...... From this point of view, then, matmeans in actual contact, but separated by an insupera- ter is but a mode of motion." ble repulsive force." This interval of separation may be the five-thousandth part of an inch, more or less. Within this interval, according to Boscovitch, if two

PROGRESS OF ENGINEERING IN AMERICA. atoms are brought a little nearer together they will attract each other; if still nearer, they will repel; "but no Until the close of the last century, natural power had force, however great, can bring them into mathematical ever been employed in its most primitive forms. Wind contact." The fundamental assumption was that mat- and water were the only motive powers called in to aid ter does not continuously fill space. Faraday held that man in his labors; and the appliances to utilize them in regard to atoms and the intervening space, space were of the simplest possible character. It is true, some alone is continuous. He further asked, Why assume the great engineering works were undertaken and completexistence of matter independent of force?-and substi- ed; but only at large expenditure of mere labor and tuted the term, “center of force," for atom. Thus mat- muscle. But with the introduction of steam, in 1778, ter, in the ordinary acceptation of the term, disappeared a new and wide field was opened up for the exercise of entirely, to make room for the emanations of force, the genius of the engineer and mechanic. The invenwhich fill the universe, and atoms to points of force-con- tion of Watts was a triumph which set men to thinking, vergence. Of late the hypothesis of molecules and atoms and its successful application contributed more to the has been greatly developed, and their size and motions prosperity and welfare of nations, and the advancement mathematically measured. This need not be disputed of science and mechanism, in the next succeeding cenwhen instruments have been devised by which one tury, than had been achieved by the united efforts of all million lines can be drawn in the width of an inch, and previous time. Perhaps in no part of the world has it each line distinctly seen by a microscope. In Bosco- given birth to greater activity, or accomplished greater vitch's theory there was no contact of atoms. By the triumphs, than in the United States. At a late meeting theories of to-day they are constantly coming into con

of civil engineers in St. Louis, a very interesting paper tact and violent collision. What we call a solid is the was read by Mr. O. Chanute, summarizing the progress first state of matter, and its molecules are in a constant and wonderful growth which engineering has made in state of activity. When the temperature of a solid is this country, and alluding to the high position which

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