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shortcomings of the modern gardening system. mossy fence- rails, were all which gave clear Doubtless, it is true that this system is one of evidence of former human possession, except the indices of civilization (as the horticultural that, close by the old well, some nameless perwriters will have you believe); but, really, do we son, years before, had planted a Lamarque rose, not occasionally trim, and water, and cultivate and this rose had made for itself a kingdom in through somewhat too many tribulations? The the waste and lonely place. It curved in an emgarden plot must be dug and fertilized when erald wave, crowned with white foam, shining the autumnal rains begin. Then comes the and beautiful, flowing softly over wall and pilseed-sowing of early annuals, the planting of lar, clinging to brown cliffs, and winding about spring bulbs, the endless repetition of weed - the silvery pines, until at last, by what secret art battles. As spring brightens into summer, the I know not, this ardent rose-vine Aung its white hosts of the insect world haunt and worry that banners to the breeze from the topmost tuft of hapless garden; and as summer ripens into its a giant cedar. There it climbs and blooms toroyal prime, the era of irrigation begins, and day, as much at home as is the manzanita on the ardent horticulturist drags lengths of hose the mountain slopes, and no garden of the lowto and fro, soils his best clothes, and has minor lands ever had fairer roses. I hate to think and unrecorded adventures with what a report that, perhaps, some of these days a lean, rester acquaintance calls the pluvial fluid. The less, practical fellow will come along and fix up perplexities of garden-lovers are so endless and the ruined shanty, clear out the old well, dig amazing, each month bringing its own burdens, up our wild rose vine to make room for his that it needeth all the first-born roses of May, onion-bed, and plant a vineyard on the shining the fragrant lilies of June, the regal asters of slope of the hills, where now the carnelian-hued August, to be sufficient compensation. Per- mountain lilies nod all summer long. If I ever haps, if we are wise, and study nature's ways, hear of such a thing, I shall take another road we shall gain some lessons which may help us when next climb the Sierra slopes, to find the toward simpler systems of gardening. Such a lovely blossoming nooks and the friendly homes result were well worth a long and earnest search. of healthy men. If all who love blossoms toil as they should, All this brings us slowly to the heart of our what shall be the similitude of the gardens of disquisition. California gardens, famous althe future California?
ready for what can be done with them, and wideNo one has yet made fairly visible to men ly known as of almost ideal beauty, are none the the best which lies concealed, yet potential, in less deserving of occasional censures-not for soil and atmosphere of this new land. Enough, what they have, but for what they have not. however, has been done in favored spots by the They are so much already that we are inevitapioneer floriculturists to warrant the fairest bly led to hope that they will not rest upon their hopes of the future, as flowers become more present laurels, but, sighing for new realms to a necessity of the daily lives of men. The possess, will develop into forms of as yet unimcomparative ease and rapidity with which flow-agined beauty. Our horticulturists must search ers can be grown here are the encouraging feat- for new plants, and they must study out new ures of the case. Our Eastern friends come ways in which to use them, for we cannot foland see our gardens, and begin to rhapsodize low blindly after the methods of other people. at once; they measure cream-tinted roses, and There are hundreds, and even thousands, of revel in masses of color from scarlet anemones species of herbaceous plants, bulbs, shrubs, and and blue larkspurs. The exuberance of our vines, not as yet seen in our gardens, though earlier summer is a continual surprise to them. they would add immeasurably to our floral treasOur vines, they tell us, grow more in one year ures, and would render many new effects possithan those of the East do in three. Pleasant ble. But, leaving for the present this side of praise, certainly; but do we really deserve it, the subject, and forbearing to give any lists of and have we as yet gained a full insight into the rarer garden plants, we simply desire to the uses of our climate? Once, I remember, 1 make a suggestion about a new kind of garden, in a decayed mining camp of the Sierra foot- which, if once fairly entered upon, would prove hills, I saw a pretty picture, which, if I describe the cheapest and most effective of methods for it here, may serve to illustrate my thought. suburban and rural homes. Where two small but musical streams united, Perhaps it is not generally known that a rethere was, under the brow of a pine-covered action against the geometric system of gardenmountain, a half acre of rich soil, somewhat | ing is now in progress in Europe. This system rocky and sloping gently to the water's edge. depends upon massing flowers, and upon the A deserted house, slowly crumbling to utter copious use of foliage-plants. Ribbon beds are ruin, a few orchard trees, bits of stone wall, and its culmination. It appeals strongly to the love of order and of bright colors. For parks and poles, reflecting with faithful sensitiveness the extensive grounds this method will always find local agencies of winds and slopes, currents and defenders, and even admirers. But during the exposures, this mean temperature of sixty deprevalence of ribbon-gardening hundreds of grees has, on each continent, its peculiar flora; choice border-plants have dropped out of culti- and with proper care the horticulturist may acvation. Only brilliant plants which massed well climate in his chosen spot the beauties of the were desired. The present reaction against the whole world-wide belt of similar conditions. ribbon-bed system contemplates the revival of Here, in California, the widest range of ornaan interest in old-fashioned flowers, and the use mental plants known to any climate is possible, of them in new and peculiarly charming ways. and ought, in the near future, to be made a visTo be successful in this new and natural sys- ible fact. Let us, for instance, consider the retem of gardening requires a genuine knowledge sources at the command of sensible builders of of plants and a cultivated taste. The field rock-work, in which the highest art-feeling which which lies before the ardent floriculturist is wide moves the true landscape gardener may find full enough to occupy the enthusiasm of a lifetime, expression. Rock-work there is which has and to utilize the surplus means of the owners of been mathematically built up with angular and suburban homes from Del Norte to San Diego. polished fragments of stone, having, at set in
While we unfold the manner of these new- tervals, neat pockets of earth, for the torture of era gardens we desire as audience the thought- sickly plants, and the misery of unfortunate ful and plant-loving people of city and town, of artists, who pass by, look over the fence, and hillside and hollow. You are to be told what turn away sighing. But rock-ledges, and wild is meant by the modern “wild garden" of the mountain walls, artistically developed, clothed most artistic of living landscape gardeners. with clinging vines, brown wall-flowers, rosetteTruly it were worth while for us to realize the like echeverias, trailing sedums, thick-leaved course that scientific floriculture is taking. The mesembryanthemums, and undescribed quaintmain thing now arrived at appears to be this: ness everywhere, are hopeful guerdons of the that we shall try to make plants at home, grow- future landscapes of California. Such rocking as naturally as weeds, and, indeed, taking ledges we have seen in the Oakland hills, and the place of the latter. Near the house we may such, let us believe, do exist in many hidden have a “tame garden,” trim, neat, sedate, and nooks, by fair mountain streams, near the even geometrical, an it please you. But fur- homes of busy folk. But suppose— let us ask ther from the house, on the hillside of the sub- the gardening world of California -suppose urban homestead, you shall, according to the that we had a greater variety of rock-work new scheme, work on a different plan. Here, plants? Why not use, with artistic judgment, the greatest imaginable variety of trees, vines, the alpine plants of Carniola, Syria, the Caushrubs, bulbs, and herbaceous plants, winter, casus, the Alps, Pyrennees, and Apennines, the spring, summer, and autumn bloomers, shall be Grecian cliffs, the Himalayan hights, the Mexplanted and acclimatized as much as may be. ican Cordilleras, and the Bolivian Andes? Does We will grub out the poison oak, and plant any gardener in this State believe that our peoEnglish holly, American kalmias, and the new ple use a tithe of the treasures at their comHimalayan rhododendrons. Vines of the Mex- mand? Half an hour spent in reading the best ican and Peruvian highlands shall climb up the European catalogues will be sufficient evidence Australian trees, and hang in bright festoons of the floral wealth yet to be made our own in above the groups of gorgeous Chilian and Cape that fair future of which we have such abiding of Good Hope bulbs. Moreover, these plants, faith. The garden of the future in the coming which grow in a wild state without cultivation, California for those who truly love flowers will will, in a large measure, take care of themselves need for its development a varied surface of in our hypothetical “wild garden” of California. hill-slope and ravine, such as can easily be The scheme has the advantages of cheapness found in San Mateo, Marin, Alameda, Contra and simplicity. Once fairly entered upon, and Costa, or Sonoma. From five to twenty acres the charm of such gardens will be far beyond of such land will be required. Near the house those of the geometric sort.
there might be a trim garden, and perhaps The primal law upon which the idea of a a small conservatory, but over the rest of the wild garden is based is that all the plants of any territory mountain plants of every land are to given isothermal zone could be made to thrive be coaxed into a sense of possession and securat any point of that zone. Take, for instance, ity. The growth of our handsomest native the mean temperature, summer and winter, of shrubs, annuals and herbaceous perennials, sixty degrees. High up, on tropic mountains, should also be encouraged. There will be a and descending lower and lower toward the constant succession of bloom upon such a homestead. Early bulbs and shrubs will begin first Although, as we have hinted, a tract of varied upon the warmer slopes, and, as summer ad- surface, embracing about twenty acres, is best vances, the northern ridges and the deep ra- adapted to this sort of a wild garden, yet the vines will have their turn. In the whole year happy possessor of a half acre need not utterly no day will be without its own peculiar charm; despair, for he can use the same principles in a each hour, almost, will witness some new flow- | lesser degree, and graceful Nature will come to ers unfolding. Many of the best shrubs, which, his aid with her benign and gentle friendship. in less favored climates, need constant atten- He may plant vines along the fences, and make tion and expensive greenhouse treatment, can piles of rock which shall seem to have a reason here be grown almost as readily as apple trees. for their existence. He may choose only those Then, too, the immense variety of hardy bulbs plants which are at home in that region, and now within the reach of the ordinary purse is give them such care that they will take sturdy an endless source of enjoyment. Crocuses, possession, in a liberal mood, even as they do tulips, lilies, jonquils, daffodils, and gladioli, on the hillsides. With such surroundings, the are only a beginning. One might have over roots of the home itself run deeper, and bind twenty different species of the lovely anemones, more firmly, year after year. And, in all simand in dozens of distinct shades and colors. plicity, it is fair and pure homes that CaliforThe ranunculus does well here, and the bulbsnia, or, indeed, any land worth the loving, needs of Peru and Chilé are perfectly at home on our now, and will forever need. hillsides.
CHARLES H. SHINN.
Jack Trevers is a “sure enough” man, as but for his dirty, neglected appearance; and Two-shoes says. “Nobody didn't made him the mother whose loving pride would have recout of a nink-stand and put him in a book;" tified this was far away in the distant sky. he is a veritable citizen of Lake County. It was Now, these three children were in a great a long time ago that he came here from some- measure cut off from all social intercourse by where, with three baby boys and no mother for reason of their having no mother. No one them. He built himself a cabin on an visited the house. Jack taught the oldest one claimed piece of land, about three miles from to read a little, and bought him a few books. the village, and then tried to get work. At first, He was an industrious scholar, and when he he would work only near home, so that he could could master a newspaper paragraph was firmsee his children every night; but when Johnny ly convinced that he knew a great deal. The got to be four years old, and Tom had reached fact of his being cut off from all other boys with the mature age of nine, he got a job of team- whom he could measure his attainments led ing, that kept him away all the time, except two him into this very common error; but it had nights out of the week and Sunday. By this one good result—he placed great value on his time, Tom had learned to cook a little, and to learning, and felt the necessity of imparting it assume the responsibility of the household. to the other boys. So he kept school for two Willie, the second child, was a nervous, active hours each day, and in this way they all learned fellow, and so wide awake and full of mischief to read. When Jack was at home, he encourhe kept the whole family in an uproar. Johnny, aged them in their studies, and began to teach the baby, was an unfathomable looking boy, fat them something of arithmetic and writing. as butter, fair as alabaster, and the laziest little It was the desire of their lives to possess a mortal living. The nearest approach he everclock, and great was their delight one evening made toward playing was to lie on his back when Jack brought one home. They set it up and laugh while watching his brothers play. according to directions, and it started all right. His laugh was the most spontaneous and irre. They were much pleased with its tone in striksistible upheaval of merriment ever listened to; ing, and as Jack showed them the way to make it bubbled up like creamy lager, and overflowed it strike, the presumption is that they kept it through its inherent effervescence. Indeed, if striking pretty much all the time he was off on it had required effort on Johnny's part, it never his next trip. Be that as it may, when he rewould have been. He was a beautiful child, I turned, the clock wouldn't strike at all. He questioned them, but their answers bewildered of hides you will find there; leave the quickand finally threw him off the scent. He came silver until your next trip.” to the conclusion that Johnny was right in think- “All right, sir." And he swung his team ing it was tired. If this was the case, it did | around in front of Cohen's store. not require much time to rest, and in resting it “'Ust you trive rount pehint te shdore, unt acquired the most unprecedented vigor; for, not geep your tam pucking mules in te vay of when he returned again, it would strike the mine gusdomers," Cohen roared, in a voice hours, the half hours, and almost the minutes quite different from that in which he addressed and seconds. It would strike a hundred times a man with money in his pocket. without stopping, and encore without being “You come and put me around, won't you?” asked.
said Jack, as two red spots slowly gathered in “Now, boys," said Jack, “I know you've been his cheeks. foolin' with that clock.”
“Do it yourself, unt be hangt mit you.” They all protested. Their faces were inno- “Not much, Mary Ann,” drawled Jack, lookcent as could be.
ing at him out of the corner of his eye, and leis“That's strange," said he; "it must have | urely swinging himself to the ground. “I'm as been out of kelter when I bought it. Cohen much of a man as you are. Do you want to swindled me on it. By hokey, I never touch try it on?” that Jew that I don't get salted. Hang me if I “You're a tam peggar, mitout a tollar to your don't go for him the next time I see him.” bocket.”
“You punch him good, Jack," said Willie “Don't say too much, Cohen, unless you've (they all called him Jack); "if he don't need it got the sand to try it on.” for the clock, he does for lots of other things. “I vish dere vas a law to hang such insolent Tom's coat, you paid eight dollars for, was peggars." shoddy, and fell to pieces as soon as it got wet; Jack was doing something to his harnessand that ten pounds of sugar you brought home buckling and unbuckling straps, and making last time only weighed seven-we weighed it; changes generally-casting sidelong glances at and Johnny's new boots are only just pasted to- the merchant meantime. When he was through, gether, and are all apart a'ready. You just give he reached him in one bound. him fits. I wish I could be there to see you “You black scoundrel,” he said, "you have do it."
swindled me out of hundreds of dollars since I Jack was a good-natured man, but feeling came to this country-every dollar earned by that it was his duty to resent such an accumu- hard work. Not only that, but you've cheated lation of injuries, he tried to nurse his wrath to poorer men than I am; and you've robbed widkeep it warm. And the boys helped him; they ows and orphans. You suck up every cent set told him so many instances of Cohen's rascali- afloat in this community. You're a thief, by ty in their own small dealings, and abused him hokey. You'd go on the highway if you were so roundly, that in the morning, when he left not too cowardly. There's nobody you wouldn't home, he was as nearly angry as he had ever rob; you'd steal acorns from a blind hog. But been. Now, the merchant was an unprincipled talk's cheap-- I've got something better than villain, who had grown rich out of the necessi- talk.” And with that came the first blow, and ties of the wretchedly poor community around Jack administered it; the price of it was ten him; and his extortions were crying aloud for dollars. The first blow was all that cost anyredress. Alas for justice! Jack forgot his an- thing, and that being over with, Jack limbered ger before he reached town. The day was so himself to his work in the most energetic style. beautiful, the roads were so good, and his off The bystanders forbore to interfere, though the wheel-mule, “Beck,” never once thought to kick merchant called on them most piteously. When herself out of the traces for the entire three Jack had satisfied himself of the thoroughness miles, something she had not omitted before of the job, he picked him up, as one does a pupwithin the memory of man. The lovely influ- py, and pitched him into the street, and then ence of all these things conspired to bring on walked into the store after the hides. He his softest and most dreamy mood; and he fell brought out his arms full, and met Cohen in to thinking of the Widow Cramer, on the old the door, who dodged round to the back porch, Harbin Road, and to wondering if she really where he petted his bruises, among the jeers of smiled upon all men as she smiled on him; and a dozen heartless little street cubs, until his adif, and if-ad infinitum, for the subject was an versary had loaded up and departed. inexhaustible one. He was roused out of Eden Now, Jack's boys, being alone and seeing no by hearing his “boss” speak to him: “Go to one, heard nothing of the fight over which the Cohen's this morning, Jack, and take up a load community was rejoicing, until he returned from
his trip to spend Sunday. Indeed, they had for
but that clock's no good to keep time. gotten the matter, and so had he until he heard She's bully on the strike, Jack, bet your boots; that irrepressible clock, hammering distraction but when it comes to keepin' time she won't pin into everybody that heard it-children excepted. herself down to it. You'll have to let her make
“She do beat natur' all holler, Jack," said the music, and buy another one to keep time.” Johnny; "and her never lets up, only to draw “But if I buy the hogs, and spotted hogs at her breath sometimes. That clock's worth a that, I'll have no money to buy another clock.” million dollars."
“Well, now, maybe you can fix our clock so “Has she been going that way ever since I she can keep time; maybe you can." left ?"
“It might be done,” said Jack, reflectively. “Bet yer boots. And her can keep it up for “What did you fellers do to her when you took never and never, amen.”
her to pieces?" "Jack," said Willie, "did you see Cohen?" “Well, Jack, I'll tell you." Here he put one “Yes, and I whaled him like blazes, too." grimy fist in his pocket, and, after a few mo
“WHAT!" came from all the boys, in the ments of serious and reflective fumbling, prolargest sized capitals.
duced, among a handful of dirt, strings, pins, Jack thought he detected something like con- and buttons, three little tarnished brass cogsternation in this simultaneous explosion, and wheels. made up his mind to "lie low and keep shady" “You see we got her together all right, only until he could find out more. Presently Tom there was five more of these than she needed; and Willie stole off together, and in a few min- so at first Tom and Bill took two apiece, and utes one of them called Johnny. Jack stepped only give me one. But when you told us you to a chink-hole and peeped out, smiling. had pitched into old Cohen the boys called me
“I've got the deadwood on you fellers now," out and 'vided up better for fear I'd tell you, he said. But his smile disappeared as he noted and that's how I got three.” their performances.
"Well, well, Johnny, you nearly ruined the “Why, they are only trading with each other clock, though." -swapping knives, or buttons, or trinkets.” So “Not much; bet your boots, we made her he withdrew, and began to get supper.
strike, Jack.” The next day Jack spent in the woods with “Well, well, well,” said Jack, smiling more his axe; he was getting fuel enough to last the and more as he recalled, with fatherly pride, all children a week. Of course they were with the methods the boys had used for his decephim— Tom and Willie playing, and Johnny on tion. “Well, well, well, if you fellers just keep his back down in the grass near his father. on you'll make first-class lyars after a while.” Presently the big boys were out of hearing, He meant lawyers, but would have sworn he and Jack sat down by Johnny, in a comforta- could not see the difference even if one had corble manner, and opened conversation in a free-rected him. and-easy, half confidential style.
Jack was often troubled in his mind about “I've a notion," said he, “to buy me some Johnny's laziness, and sometimes rallied him hogs to fatten, so I can make my own meat. on the subject. What do you say to it?"
“I'm afraid you don't like work, Johnny," he “All right,” said Johnny, bringing himself to a sitting posture. “You get some, Jack, and “Bet your boots." I'll feed 'em for you.”
“What! don't like work?” The idea of Johnny volunteering to do any. “I 'spise it.” thing was a surprise; and Jack determined to “How are you going to live without work?” buy them immediately.
“What you got to do, you can't work for me?" “What kind of hogs do you want, Johnny?” "Of course, I can work for you, now you are
“Well, you see, Jack, I want spotted ones, and small, but after while you will be a man, and not too big. If they're big they'll eat so-0-0 get married, and have children; what'll you do much; and a feller can't be always workin' to then?" fill up horgs even if they is spotted.”
“Why, Jack, I'll keep you right along. I “Well, I'll get little ones; at least, not very won't throw off on you, 'cos you're old. I guess big," said Jack. “I'll get 'em, sure; and don't you can work after you get old, can't you? Some you tell the boys anything about it. Won't mans does." they be surprised, though? And I'll get you a “Yes; but suppose I take a notion to get marlittle tin bucket to carry barley and water to ried myself, and have some more children to 'em, and you can feed 'em three times a day by support; then you'd have to make your own the clock."