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“Turned away the soul-sick stranger,
Traversed he the chamber high,
Chained his step and fixed his eye.
Through long years of after life
That remorseful face of strife.
In his hand the cup of gold,
Stood the Norman Baron bold.
“I heard the laughing wind behind
A-playing with my hair-
How cool and moist they were !
Its soft, enchanting strain,
And never shall again.
And sing them day by day,
Can sing a sweeter lay?
The simple, the divine;
As they have melted mine."
“High her cup the phantom lifted,
Flames within it seemed to roll;
Pledge me in thy feudal bowl.'
Saw the Baron drain the draught;
As the deadly bowl he quaffed;
As libation on his head,
From the cup of flames she shed.
This necessarily imperfect paper will be brought to a close by a glance at the genius of Mrs. Warfield. The life of this lady has not been that of the true poet; but, in spite of her surroundings, she has disclosed certain qualities of mind rare among writers of either sex. The author of such a story as “The Household of Bouverie," and such a poem as “The Legend of the Indian Chamber,” lifts herself by these productions to an honored place among the exponents of the tragic and the mysterious. Hers is a dangerous realm, but she travels it with steady step, and returns from her shadowy journeying unharmed, unwearied, and self-pos
“Then a shriek of smothered anguish
Rang the Indian chamber through,
From the waving arras blew.
And the portals open rung,
As if the ice were on it flung;
For a moment in the blast,
Leaving darkness o'er the past."
JOHN VANCE CHENEY.
PROTECTION OF ANIMALS USEFUL TO MAN.
Man has spread over the earth, and believes by affording protection to all organisms which himself lord of it; but by his consumption, and are useful to him, and also such as furnish food. still more by his waste, he has destroyed the Protection against climate and inorganic inbalance of nature, and is depopulating both fluences is an important part of this protection, land and sea. He is a thriftless lord, who, if but will not be treated of here, since man recog
con nue his present habits, will leave a nizes its necessity as regards his domestic anidiminished heritage to his descendants. Now mals, while he is comparatively powerless in that the laws which govern life are to a great this respect as regards undomesticated, though extent known, and the relations borne to each useful, species. other by plants and animals are understood, it Man's waste has lost the world many useful is in the power of mankind to check this loss species, and, if not stopped, may lose many more. A few examples will prove this. The The elephant-seal (Macrorhinus proboscirytina, a marine herbivorous mammal, similar deus) was once common along the coast of to the still existing manabee and dugong, the Upper and Lower California, and abounded in great auk, the dodo, and the solitaire, have many localities in the southern hemisphere, beall become extinct within comparatively recent tween 35° and 55° south latitude; but it was so times. The former, a native of Behring Sea, persistently hunted, for the sake of its oil, that reached a length of thirty-five feet, and, from it disappeared almost entirely from our coasts, its cumbrousness, fell a ready prey to its Rus- and became very rare even at Kerguelen Land, sian enemies, who slaughtered it so mercilessly Heard's Island, and the Crozets. So scarce that in less than a century what might have did it become that the chase was almost reafforded a permanent store of food, through all linquished, and the result of only five undistime to come in a region where food is scarce, turbed seasons was that in December, 1874, it disappeared entirely from existence. The three was, according to J. H. Kidder, “very numerothers, birds with imperfect wings, unable to ous" at the Crozet Islands. fly, but able to cope with their environment In 1879 a schooner from San Francisco found until the advent of man, were similarly hunted nineteen of these animals on the coast of Lower down by "those who go down to the sea in California. At once the crew killed all but ships,” and are now known only by pictures, seven of the youngest, and they think it probbones, and relics. The gigantic moa birds of able that the crew of another vessel killed the New Zealand have had a similar history, but remainder. in this case the Maori, instead of the Aryan, is The sea-elephant is the largest of the true responsible. Not only bones, but feathers and seals, the males equaling, or exceeeding, the eggs, of these gigantic birds, some of the largest almost equally unfortunate walrus in size. The of which attained a height of from twelve to facts given above tend to show that but a small fourteen feet, have been found, and the natives amount of intelligent forbearance would enable have traditions of the moa-hunts in which they this creature to again become abundant. used to engage, surrounding the poor birds, Even if the sheer waste of life indulged in by and, with loud yells, driving them into a lake, man for his whims, his pleasures, or his paswhere they could be killed from canoes without sions, were put an end to, and his destruction a chance to resist.
limited to what is required for food, it is certain Many of the large quadrupeds now existing that, without protection, and, in some cases, asare destined, at the present rate of destruction, sistance, at the season of reproduction, many to complete disappearance, at least in their wild species required by him for food would not be state, in a few generations. If the disappear- able to keep up their numbers. Man recognizes ance were confined to the larger carnivores, this fact in the case of all such species of plants the loss could be endured. Mankind would and animals as are immediately under his care, probably prefer, on the whole, to view the lion, but usually ignores it in the case of undomestithe tiger, and the bear in the safe retreat of a cated species, however useful they may be to menagerie, rather than in their native wilds. him. But the extinction of the African elephant and He is careful not to slay the cow with calf, or the American bison will be a loss to mankind. the ewe with lamb, but takes the fish when full Ruthlessly killed wherever met with, partly for of spawn, and gives neither seal nor whale a the sheer pleasure of killing, partly for the sake fair chance to reproduce its kind. He appears, of tusks that were once his defense, specialized in many instances, to have actually a notion for his own use, the elephant stands no chance that God will keep up the supply for his benin the struggle unless man have mercy. The efit, in spite of his efforts to put an end to it. bison once ranged from 62° to 25° north lati- Yet the necessity for a "close time” for cer tude, or from Great Slave Lake, in the north, tain animals is beginning to be recognized. to the north-eastern provinces of Mexico; while Already it is decreed, and, to a certain extent, westward it extended to the Blue Mountains observed, in the case of such beasts and birds and the Sierra Nevada; and eastward it passed as are denominated "game," and also with one the Mississippi, and even the Alleghanies. Now of the most valuable kinds of food- fishes—the it is limited to two small areas-one in west- salmon. What is done is but the beginning of ern Kansas, north-western Texas, and the what will have to be done in this direction, if Indian Territory; the other about, and to the the supply is to be kept up. northward of, the sources of the Yellowstone. That portion of our food which is derived “At this present rate of decrease,” says Allen, from the land area of the globe is, in this re"it will certainly become wholly extinct during spect, far more favorably situated than that dethe next quarter of a century.”
rived from the water area. Although, unless care be taken to prevent it, such wild species watch for ova, and the little fishes get even of quadrupeds and birds as are useful to man with the large ones by devouring their spawn. are doomed to early extinction, yet at least he Even the parent fish will, in many cases, deretains within his hands a less varied supply in vour her own offspring. his domesticated animals and plants.
All this has been successfully remedied in But man's power over the water area is, and the case of salmon, trout, and a few other fishes, probably ever will be, more limited than over and can as well be remedied in other cases. the land. The depths of the ocean are beyond The ripe ova are gently pressed through the his sway. The most that he can do is to tra-oviduct of the female, which is then released. verse its surface with more or less safety, and to The ripe milt of the male is pressed out over extend his rule around its shores.
the ova, and carefully mixed, to insure fertilizanot enter in and dwell there. The waters di- tion. The ova are cared for in tanks, conrectly under his rule are only lakes, streams, structed to suit the habits of the species, and, and the borders of larger bodies of water. Yet after hatching, are placed in the water to take his power, even over the harvest of the ocean, their chance. In this way, out of about sixteen is, if intelligently directed, quite considerable. thousand eggs yielded by a salmon of twenty
As animal life in the ocean is under different pounds in weight, fifteen thousand may, acconditions from that of the land, depending for cording to our Fish Commissioners, be made respiration not upon the oxygen of the air, but to produce fish. upon that in the water, and for food almost en- Apply the same ratio to other fish, and we tirely upon other animals, since plant life does shall begin to see how much can be done tonot exist at great depths, man's efforts must be ward increasing the harvest of the waters, by principally directed to keeping up the stock of at the same time supplying fish and finny food animal food needed by the species upon which for fishes. Were this process followed methhe feeds. That is to say, while upon the land odically throughout the world with all the most he must keep up the supply of food-plants for useful species, the increase, if destructive agents the animals he feeds upon or requires, in the were kept down, would be limited only by the ocean his task is to keep up the supply of ani- power of the ocean to supply life. mal food required by species useful to him. The invertebrate habitants of the waters, To this end, a knowledge of the entire life-his- some useful directly to us, all useful as food for tory, food, habits, and distribution of all kinds fishes, can also be, to a great extent, protected. of marine organisms is needed, and this work is Though a "close time" can hardly be extended slowly, but surely, being carried on by unobtru- to them, the increase of the species can be sive workers scattered over the civilized world. cared for in the same way as is that of oysters When a full knowledge of these things is ob- - by beds, pounds, or preserves, within which tained, it will often be found quite feasible to they can multiply, free from enemies. protect any species in the reproduction of its The crustacea (crabs, lobsters, shrimps) need kind.
no artificial fertilizing, since, as in birds and This protection can be exercised in two ways. mammals, the ova are fertilized before extruFirst, by ordaining a “close time,” during which sion, but they may advantageously be bred in it shall be unlawful to catch the protected spe- ponds. cies; second, by artificial breeding. Most mam- When those regions of the earth now held by mals and birds have a limited number of young, savage, barbarous, or semi-civilized tribes falls and, although it is possible to hatch the eggs of into the hands of nations which have among the latter artificially, yet, as the bird herself sits them a few who study the actual book of lifeupon the eggs, the advantage is doubtful. But and the time, judging by recent acquisitions, is with fishes the case is different. The eggs, or not very far distant- :-we may hope that the ova, laid may often be tens or even hundreds protection of a “close time," during which they of thousands in number, yet the species does may bear and suckle their young, will be exnot increase in numbers, even when man's hand tended to such mammals as the bison, the eledoes not tax it heavily. As the mass of ova is phant, the walrus, the elephant-seal, and the fertilized after it is laid, by the squeezing over whale, and that all birds, except such as are it of the milt of the male, a large proportion is notoriously injurious to man's interests, will be never fertilized at all. As the eggs are depos- granted a term in which they can hatch their ited upon the bottom of the stream or sea-bed, young in security. currents and storms, and the accidental pass- Although plant life in general is essential to ing of objects over the spot, cause many to be animal life, there are many plants which are washed away and destroyed. Still larger quan- deleterious in their nature, and more which are tities are eaten. Every predatory fish is on the I useless from man's point of view, since they do not furnish food for animals under his protec- | should largely increase; the larger beasts of tion, or crowd out more useful plants. The prey are driven to the recesses of forest or protection of useful plants against their rivals mountain, or are exterminated, while the smallis thus really the protection of animals against er are kept down with shot-guns and traps. It plants, because the prevalence of comparatively is not improbable that the only lions and tigers useless species is a check upon animal life. But of some future generation will be those bred in besides these indirectly injurious plants there captivity. are certain plants possessed of toxic qualities, But the most dangerous enemies of ourselves which, though no more inimical to rival plants and of our animals are not the vertebrata, but than others not possessed of such qualities, the myriad forms of insects, and those protean cannot safely be allowed to flourish where do- organisms, the internal worms. The insect has mestic cattle are kept. As an example may be things very much his own way in the world — çited the loco ( Astragalus Menziesii), by which he is victor over the vertebrate, though worstcattle in California are often poisoned.
ed individually, by sheer numbers, power of reThe class of fungi, so protean in its forms production, and ability to elude search. The and qualities, not only furnishes species which tsetse fly, which renders large portions of Afriare poisonous to animals, but it also contains ca impassable by horses, oxen, and dogs, but forms which live upon and often destroy animal does not attack man; gnats, fleas, lice, bugs, organisms. Insects and fishes are frequently mosquitos, black-flies, ox-flies, the Asilus crakilled by molds, which multiply within them broniformes, are so many free parasites, living to such an extent that they are forced to suc- upon the bodies of animals and men, and for cumb. The death of the former is often no the most part sucking their blood; the chigo, loss in itself, so far as mankind is concerned, free when young, is when adult parasitic on but the dead insects, filled with fungoid spores, man and on his animals; the ichneumon larvæ are themselves a source of danger.
feed upon those of the lepidoptera, and do not A glance in a fish tank will but too frequently spare the silk-worm because it is useful to man; reveal the ravages of fungi. Patches of mold the curious young of the blister-beetles, known may be seen upon the sides of the fishes-a as triungulins, cling to bees and other hymenminiature forest borne about with them as they opterous insects, and thus obtain access to their swim. These are mischievous enough, but be- nests and thrive on their honey; the gad-flies low them are still lower plants-agents of pu- pass their early stages within mammals. These trefaction—the vibrios, bacteria, and spirales, are but a few of the insects that exist upon those mysteriously appearing living particles, other animals. Among the arachnida the lowwhich have been the mainstay of the believers er forms ( Acarida) are both troublesome and in spontaneous generation. Many of these are dangerous. Most mammals have their peculthe sure accompaniments of certain fevers, and iar species of acari; the horse has two, which in some cases the origin of the disease has been give rise to skin affections; man has the itch traced to them. While some doctors still deny from another, bees are killed by another; ticks this, and others as strenuously maintain that (Ixodes) attack dogs, sheep, and other quadruall diseases are caused by parasitic living cells, peds, living free on the bushes until some mamthe germs of which are to be found in the air, mal passes; birds swarm with acari. The crusthe facts point to at least its partial truth, tend- tacea, insects of the water, do for fishes and ing to show that while some diseases are caused cetacea what the insects and arachnids do for by living agents, others are more probably birds and mammals, thus taking a sort of recaused by some alteration in the secretions of venge for the consumption of free crustacea by the body, induced by external causes.
larger animals. The isopoda live in the mouths In the words of Dr. Wythe: “Every agency and among the gills of fishes, taking toll from of nature outside of the bodily organism, and the food, while some penetrate the skin, and every activity of body and of mind within the others prefer to live beneath the carapace of living structure, is capable of becoming a cause of higher crustaceans; the female lerneans, of disease, as soon as it disturbs the normal | free when young, attach themselves by the current of life, so that the number of causes is mouth, when older, to the eyes, fins, or other practically unlimited.”
parts of fishes, lose their limbs, and become The protection of flocks, herds, and poultry swollen masses ending in two ovisacs, bearing from quadrupeds and ravenous birds is toler- upon their bodies the minute males, who retain ably well effected by mankind, at least in civ. their limbs and senses; while barnacles fix ilized countries. The problem has to a great themselves on whales. extent been solved, as it will have to be solved The internal worms are almost endless in over the entire face of the globe, if population their forms and in their metamorphoses. The filariæ, free when young, are introduced with Now that the life-history of most of these food-or, more often, water-into the bodies of dreaded parasites is known, it is possible to molluscs, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mam- avoid their presence, and to this end the eating mals, where they multiply exceedingly; and of uncooked or partially cooked food, and the trematode-worms (flukes-Monostomum and drinking of water that has not been boiled, Distomum), pass their entire lives as parasites, must alike be avoided. Heat kills the young changing their hosts and changing their shape, of worms, as it does germs of all kinds; and, and frequenting fishes, mammals, birds, and when we consider how abundant the ova of other animals. The whale, the sturgeon, the these parasites are, we may doubt whether man herring, the seal, the sheep, all are troubled does not, to a great extent, owe his supremacy with distomes in the liver, and man is far from and increase of numbers to the fact that he being free from their presence.
alone, of all animals, subjects his food to heat. Tape-worms abound in the digestive organs Good cookery, therefore, is, even from this of almost every class in the animal kingdom, point of view alone, a large part of the science and their immature forms traverse the tissues, of life. and become what are known as “cestoid” worms The carnivores of the ocean, the sharks and within such organs as the brain, the liver, the rays, and the toothed cetacea, play havoc among kidney, or the eye. The tape-worms of herbiv- our food-fishes, and need to be checked in their orous animals pass their young stages in the increase. This can be best done by utilizing water or on plants; those of carnivores inhabit them. Sharks furnish oil-one species is taken their prey, and only become adult tape-worms for its oil on the coast of California. Sharks' when eaten by proper species. These various fins are a delicacy in China, and white races parasites, and many other forms, do not always eat some of the rays. The flesh of sharks and kill. On the contrary, a healthy animal will rays would furnish good and cheap food for the often carry about many of them. Yet we have poor. but to mention the dreaded trichina (a nema- When man needs any animal for food or in tode, or round worm), and the tape - worm, to the arts, its numbers soon decrease unless he prove that they have the power to injure man. takes steps to prevent it, and, in the case of the There can be no doubt that an excess of even sharks and rays, as well as of the dolphins, the the comparatively innocent kinds injures the decrease is a benefit to man, permitting more host, or that a weakly organism may fail be- useful species to increase. neath its internal burden.
W. N. LOCKINGTON.
FRITZ REUTER'S LIFE AND WORKS.
"Qui vir,.et dialectum patriam et sensus animi patrios callet; quem eundem Gratiæ ipsæ Musis conjunctæ jocis miscere seria docuerunt; cujus scriptoris quum alia opera tum etiam librum aureolum huncce OLLE CAMELLEN, Germania laudat universa."
A friendly Kiel critic of my first article (upon | with Americans, leave an incorrect impression Groth, Ditmarsch, and Plattdeutsch, in the Feb- as to the social status of the less cultivated ruary number of THE CALIFORNIAN) seems to tongue, not so much in the facts they offer, as think that there is a thread of half apology run- in the impression left, to be derived from those ning through it in behalf of the Low German, facts. There is still another class, who (not and ascribes it, in a charitable spirit, to my being quite at ease as to their own educational wish to overcome the supercilious "pride of the ground) fancy that any suspicion of the platt English race," toward a kindred but humbler in their language would be a social blot tongue-a poor cousin, as it were. It may be proof of vulgarity. Of this order was that that there was such a tinge unconsciously given lady, introduced in a modern German novel, to the essay; but if any prejudice exists in who assumed to
culture by reathe American mind as to Low German (a son of being the daughter of a professor, and premise I do not wish to concede), it has as- who reproved her docile husband for saying suredly sprung from exotic seeds planted there hippodrom, instead of hippotraum, “because by fastidious High Germans. There is a class drom was so platt!” No language or dialect of Germans who, in discussing Plattdeutsch is in itself mean; nor can any dialect beget