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to boil the whole two hours longer, and after seasoning with salt and pepper, it will be fit for use. The bread should be cut into small pieces, and added last; and the harder and drier it is, the better.
There will be at least when done, 13 gallons, or 104 pints of good soup: an allowance of three pints a day, for five persons for a week ; and the whole, exclusive of the expense of cooking, will have cost but 30 cents. This would only be equal to two glasses of grog, or two papers of tobacco for each individual.
The quantity here mentioned is too great to be made at one time for a single family, but as soup is rather improved than injured by warming a second or third time, and as fuel may be saved by making a supply for several days at a boiling, one quarter, or one half of the quantity above stated, may be advantageously prepared at a time.
To prepare from the same, or similar ingredients, another kind of food, in addition to the soup, take the legs, or hocks of a beef, and instead of chopping and frying them, boil them with the vegetables ; and after boiling one hour, take them out and cut off the meats Break or split the bones, and again boil them in the soup. 'The meat may be eaten before it is cold, or afterwards be chopped with potatoes, or other vegetables, and fried. This when seasoned, with salt and pepper, is a highly nutritious and sa
Parsnips, carrots, beets and turnips, are all useful in these preparations, but they contain vastly less nourishment than an equal quantity of any of the
vegetables before mentioned. One pound of indian meal, is equal to twenty pounds of turnips.
Onions are useful to season the soup, rather than to give nourishment to it. Salt should be used very sparingly. When taken too freely, it causes heat and thirst, and hinders digestion. Pepper, mustard, and spices should also, if used, be in very small quantities. They frequently, when taken to excess, destroy the appetite for plain but nourishing food, injure digestion, and what is still worse, create an unconquerable desire for stimulating drinks. I never knew a man who drank no spirits, fond of high seasoned food ; and seldom a tippler, who was not the contrary. If
you would be able to purchase by the bushel, beware of buying by the quart, for every measure must make its profit, and he who buys second-handed is supporting both himself and the seller. On this subject a little thought will save a great deal of labour. Wisdom to day, is wealth to morrow. He who has no care but to supply present wants, bas no right to expect that he will always be able to do that.
Be economical in cooking as well as in buying. Boiling and stewing should be conducted in covered vessels. Boiling should be continued constantly, but moderately, for water that boils can ordinarily be made no botter. There is a great waste of fuel, and sometimes of the flavour of the food by boiling too rapidly. On the other hand, the nourishment of many articles is ordinarily half lost, because they are but balf cooked. Among these, are pease, beans, and
particularly indian meal. A pint of indian meal boiled two hours, affords more nourishment than a quart that is boiled but half an hour.
Victuals should not only be well cooked, but should be well chewed ; food that is not digested affords no nourishment, and frequently is highly injurious. Digestion should begin in the mouth, for the stomach, that is compelled to perform the office of the teeth, will not continue long to do double duty without complaining.
If your stomach is already weak, so that it gives you pain to digest your food, avoid the use of warm bread, particularly unleavened bread; of pudding, and of all kinds of pastry; of fat meats, of fried meats of all kinds; of cabbage, and of cellery. Let your soup or broth stand till cold, skim the fat off, and then warm it for use. You may eat lean beef, veal, and mutton, and they are most easily digested when boiled. The best bread is that which is old, or ship bread, and biscuit in which there is no fat or butter.
If you are taken suddenly ill, whatever may be your disease, there will be safety in fasting. We have been taught by an old maxim, to “ feed a cold, and starve a fever ;" but this direction is inconsist. ent, and has often done great injury ; for every one that is sick with a cold, has a fever. not believe, because he more frequently feels chilly, or cold, than uncomfortably hot; but if he takes meats of any kind to eat, or strong liquor to drink, he will soon find his disease increasing. If then, you would cure a cold without medicine, eat and
This he may
drink nothing stimulating, but drink very freely of warm boneset, catnip, flax-seed, or bran tea; and if you require nourishment, barley-water, or toast-water, or water-gruel. These if taken in large quantities, will produce perspiration, which cools a fever, and if kept up for two or three days, will in most cases, cure a cold.
Coffee and tea, are articles in general use, and doubtless will continue to be; and as there are various kinds, and little or no nourishment in any of them, the poor ought to be economical in making their selection. These articles are sometimes injurious, but much less so than any kind of spirits. They are seldom or never essential to health; for a great proportion of mankind live without them. When drunk warm, and with sugar and milk, they are nutritious, because sugar and milk are so, and all kinds of food are more nourishing when warm, than when cold. Those who feel no immediate effects from drinking tea and coffee, are probably not injured by them; but, whoever is made wakeful or is enlivened by them, may be sure that they are doing him harm, and that sooner or later he will discover it. The great and learned Doctor Cullen, used to say, “I have a stomach very sensible, which I found to be hurt by tea. I attributed it to the warm water, but, having used instead of tea, some other plants, with the same heat of water, I found no harm to ensue; and this I have repeated about fifty times.” He remarked also, “ I think we may conclude that coffee, and tea, weaken the strength of the system, and diminish the force of the nervous power."
The black teas as they are called, that is, boheag and suchong, are not only the least expensive, but least injurious, and when they are not made too strong, and are drunk with milk, they are not often unwholesome; these, therefore, should be preferred. Many articles may be advantageously used instead of coffee, or at least, mixed with it. Take rye, and soak it in warm water till it is swelled, and then dry it; roast it, and grind it, as you do coffee, and when boiled, it will be more wholesome, and to many persons equally palatable. If one third, or at most one half of coffee be mixed with the rye, few persons can distinguish it by the taste from coffee alone. The crust of rye or wheat bread roasted brown, and prepared in the same way, is also an excellent substitute for coffee ; and nothing can be drunk which is more wholesome.
Water is the nalural drink for man, and a certain quantity is necessary to health and comfort. Every one knows, that when very thirsty, he wants water, and nothing else. It is only when he is not thirsty, that he wants grog, which proves that nature requires nothing but water. When we drink strong liquor, porter, or cider, all that is useful in them, is the water they contain. They may be compared to bighly seasoned food ; pepper, mustard, and spices, make beef more stimulating and palatable, but they do not make it more nourishing.
Strong driuks therefore, should not be used to quench thirst. Nor do they increase strength, preserve health, or enable persons to bear the effects of heat and cold. Who ever gave rum or whiskey to his horse, or his ox, to increase his strength ? and as