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He then proceeded quickly to another figure provided by North American Rockwell-that the company had 600 Negroes and Mexican-Americans earning more than $10,000 a year.

"What are the salaries of the 10 highest paid Anglos in the company?" he asked. The official, Elmer P. Wohl, vice president for administration, tired to parry the question. Several Negroes and Mexican-Americans in the audience hooted loudly.

Mr. Alexander insisted on an answer, and Mr. Wohl finally said that the top 10 salaries all paid to "Anglos"-ranged from about $35,000 to a high of $120,000. Summing up to the press after the hearing, Mr. Alexander said industry needed to reach into minority communities for employes as eagerly as it reaches into Anglo communities.

"The way it is done now, it is word of mouth," he said. "Word goes to the segregated church, to the segregated country club, to segregated friends. But word doesn't get out to the minorities."

[From the New York Times, Friday, Mar. 14, 1969]

(By Roy Reed)

LOS ANGELES, March 13-The Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission voted today to ask the Justice Department to bring lawsuits to bar racial discrimination in the nation's major motion picture companies and unions.

The commission acted after hearing testimony indicating widespread discrimination in the hiring of motion picture personnel, from actors and technicians to company officials.

The agency will discuss the possible suits with the Justice Department when it returns to Washington next week.

The department has filed more than 40 civil rights employment suits against individual companies, but this would be the first industrywide suit.

Clifford L. Alexander Jr., the commission chairman, said the suits, if filed, probably would be aimed primarily at the industry's "experience roster" system. It is largely through this system that companies and unions decide who can and cannot enter the industry.

Daniel Steiner, the commission's general counsel, said the roster system might violate the Taft Hartley Act by establishing a closed shop-one in which union membership is a requirement for being hired.


"The system is completely accepted by industry and the unions and we have heard no testimony that there is any intention to change the system," Mr. Steiner said.

A succession of motion picture officials and union people tried to explain today to an unimpressed commission why fewer than one in 10 employes of this key West Coast industry are members of minority groups, though Negroes and Mexican-Americans make up 20 per cent of the Los Angeles area population.

The commission, which lacks enforcement power of its own, is trying to publicize through hearings the reasons for low minority employment in three major California industries-motion pictures, network television and aerospace. After today's testimony, Mr. Steiner told the commission he thought there had been clear evidence of a pattern of discrimination in the movie industry in violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


Describing the roster system he said, "Before anyone can be hired who is not on a roster, all people on the roster must be employed or offered employment. But some experience rosters contain no Mexican-Americans or Negroes. It is not surprising that Mexican-Americans and Negroes cannot find employment."

Earlier, the commission heard an angry actor testify that the motion picture industry was racist and had destroyed the image of millions of persons through demeaning portrayals.

Ray Martell, who said he was of Mexican and Indian extraction and had never played any but minor movie roles because of that, charged that the movie industry was run by "bigoted and racist dogs."

"I'd like to ask the government to bring these dogs to justice," he told the commission.

Mr. Martell, a tall dark-haired man who speaks English with no trace of an accent, appears to exemplify the new political militancy that is growing among Mexican-Americans.


He told the two Negroes, two "Anglos" and one Mexican-American on the commission:

"I don't really believe the Government will do anything about it. I believe the only thing that will do any good is confrontation at the studios."

He said Mexican-Americans were determined to reform the movie industry "if we have to tear these studios down." Several in the hearing room applauded. Mr. Martell said most actors' agents were white "Anglos." It took him five years, he said, to find an agent who really tried to help him.

He said he had been told year after year, by agents and others in the industry, that he could expect nothing but limited parts-usually roles portraying Mexicans or Indians.

He said a producer once turned him down for a role as a Mexican soldier with the explanation, "You're not the type at all. I was looking for a greasy Mexican." The same attitude fills movies and cartoons, with Mexicans drawn as shiftless, lazy and dirty, he said.

Josef Bernay, international representative of the International Alliance of Theatrical and Stage Employes, confirmed under questioning that his union was laced through with restrictions that would hinder minorities from getting motion picture industry jobs.

For example, an application form for union membership ask such questions as, "What type of employment does your father or guardian do?" "Are you foreign born?" and "Who referred you to this local to seek employment?"

[From the Los Angeles Times, Friday, Mar. 14, 1969]



(By Jack Jones)

Citing "clear evidence of a pattern of discrimination," the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission decided Thursday to seek a Justice Department suit against virtually the entire motion picture and TV film industry and craft unions.

In the second day of hearings into minority hiring practices of various industries, commissioners were unconvinced with testimony of several film executives as well as a spokesman for the International Alliance of Theatrical and Stage Employes.

Much of their testimony dealt with the experience roster system, under which IATSE craft unions furnish needed workers to studios.

The commission's general counsel, Daniel Steiner, said:

"This system has as its foreseeable effect-and it in fact operates effectively— to exclude minorities from jobs in the motion picture industry."


Under union contracts, all persons on the rosters must be employed or offered jobs before studios can hire from the outside.

"But some experience rosters," Steiner pointed out, "contain no MexicanAmericans or Negroes."

Steiner added that the system gives minority workers little chance to gain enough experience to make the rosters, but "it is completely accepted by industry and the unions."

Hearing "no testimony that there is any intention to change the system," Steiner recommended "immediate discussion with the U.S. Department of Justice leading to institution of a suit under Section 707 of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964."

Four of the five commissioners immediately voted for the recommendation— naming "the Assn. of Motion Picture and TV Producers, the motion picture production companies, a good number of craft unions and the IATSE and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada.”


Steiner added that the system "raises serious questions concerning compliance with the National Labor Relations Act" in that it is in effect-a closed shop arrangement, "an exclusive referral service for union members."

Before the action, commissioners meeting in the Federal Office Building heard from executives of Universal City Studios, the IATSE, Warner Bros./Seven Arts, 20th Century-Fox, Walt Disney Productions and the Motion Picture Producers Assn.

All stressed their desires for programs to increase the number of minority group employes and to promote them into better jobs. But hard questioning inevitably led to what commissioners felt were abysmally low figures in this area.

At one point, Ray Martell, an actor, testified he cannot find decent parts because he is always considered as "a Mexican or an Indian" and never as an actor.


He called the entire industry "bigoted" and said:

"The impact the motion picture and TV industry has on the world is incalculable." Mexican-Americans and American Indians, he said, have been done "irreparable damage" because of the image projected in films.

In passing, he charged the EEOC itself with being "black-oriented," and this caused Chairman Clifford L. Alexander Jr. to "set the record straight" by detailing the ethnic mix of the commission's local staff.

Charles Boren, executive vice president of the Motion Picture Producers Assn., agreed that "objectivity" in films "sometimes is lost in chauvinism." But he said, the association has been urging film makers and writers to refrain from caricaturing Mexican-Americans and other racial groups.

Bonar Dyer, personnel vice president for Walt Disney Productions, came in for some of the most pointed quizzing after stating that the late cartoonist himself had insisted since 1928 "that race, color or creed were no barrier to creative talent."

He, like other executives, complained that hiring minority people through normal agencies had been unsuccessful. But he was asked by Alexander. "How many officials and managers do you have at your studio?"

"Two hundred and thirty-eight."

"How many are black?"


"And the late Walt Disney made his policy statement in 1928?"

It then developed that of 800 to 900 white collar employes at Disney, 26 are Mexican-Americans and nine are black . . . and that there are no black




Most of the black employes, Dyer said, are in the service and janitorial categories. But he explained that this is because hiring is done through the unions and the service union is largely black.

Frank Ferguson, 20th Century-Fox counsel, shared the opinion of other industry executives that many figures are misleading because reports required by EEOC are made during the December-January-February period when many studios reach a low production level.

But, like other studios, his has no written affirmative action plan to raise the number of minority employes in all categories, he said.

Asked by Commissioner Vicente T. Ximenes what the industry plans to do about accurate portrayals of Spanish-speaking people on the screen, Ferguson answered:

"I can't speak for the creative side. It's a matter of awareness. We probably haven't looked carefully enough at the face of America."


Anthony J. Frederick, vice president of Universal City Studios, came off a little better than other industry witnesses by showing that of 417 persons on the office and clerical staff, 142-or 34%-are minority group people.

But on the total payroll of 3,816, he said, there are only 83 Mexican-Americans, which did not please Ximenes much.

Arthur Schaefer, labor relations official for Warner Bros./Seven Arts, reiterated the difficulties of finding employes through minority area agencies. But he pointed out that Gordon Parks, a black photographer, was hired to produce a film, “The Learning Tree."

Alexander asked, "Is that the first time in the entire history of the motion picture industry to your knowledge?"

Schaefer said he didn't know of any others.

He drew some comments from the audience by pointing out that one of the studio's 81 department managers is black-the head of the janitor department. "Do you feel your industry has a responsibility to project what our country is?" Alexander asked after learning that 50% of the studio's revenue comes from overseas. "Are you in a position to do that?"

"It merits improvement," Schaefer replied.

Joseph Bernay, international representative for the IATSE and business representative for three craft unions under the IATSE umbrella, was questioned closely about the roster system and about application forms used by several craft unions for persons seeking jobs.

Commissioner William H. Brown III was particularly interested in why the form asked such questions as whether the applicant was foreign-born and what kind of work his father or guardian did.

"I wouldn't know," Bernay said. "Maybe for background purposes."

Clearly, commissioners were convinced the application is part of a system to keep studio employment "in the family."

In the end, Bernay promised to go back to his office and tear up all such application forms.

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount executives did not testify because of time shortage, but submitted written statements.

M-G-M, in general, pointed out that its minority hiring efforts are restricted because of the union agreements to first exhaust the experience rosters.

[From Variety, Hollywood, Calif., Mar. 14, 1969]


(By A. D. Murphy)

In what shapes up as the biggest upheaval in the Hollywood film industry in decades, the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission yesterday branded hiring practices "a pattern or practice of discrimination."

The Dept. of Justice will be asked to file suit, under Section 707 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, against all film companies, the Assn. of Motion Picture and TV Producers, "a good number of craft unions," and the Intl. Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees.

The decision of the five-man EEOC, after a day of hearings, was unanimous, the first time an entire American industry has been accused of built-in discriminatory practices.

Primary basis for the action is the industry's experience-roster system, long the target of occasional complaints to National Labor Relations Board. The EEOC decision goes beyond the Civil Rights Act to suggest there are "serious questions" on the industry's hiring practices conforming with the Natl. Labor Relations Act.

31-987 0-6917

The startling announcement came after Hollywood studio management and— labor laid what could be the biggest egg in years. A parade of studio execs, mostly industrial relations chiefs, betrayed ignorance of active corporate programs required under the 1964 law. Walt Disney Prod., MCA-Universal, 20th-Fox and Warner Bros.-7 Arts were repped in person, Metro by a written submission. Paramount was there and ready, but was skipped over because of time. Charles Boren, exec veepee of AMPTP was the final witness, after which EEOC general counsel Daniel Steiner lowered the boom.

Speaking for IATSE was a coast International rep, who pleaded lack of knowledge on so many points that, by the time he finished testifying, he was becoming known as Josef ("I-wouldn't know") Bernay.


EEOC today concludes three-day public hearings into local industries: Aerospace companies appeared Wednesday, while banks-insurance companies plus all three tv networks are scheduled for today. Hearings are EEOC's second wave of public inquiries, first being early last year in N.Y.

In a press confab after the hearing yesterday, EEOC Chairman Clifford L. Alexander Jr., reported the "unanimous" commission decision to seek Dept. of Justice action on a civil suit. "The whole system"-meaning the seniority and experience rosters primarily is going to be attacked, Alexander said.

Directors Guild of America, not present at the hearing, is likely to be embraced in the ultimate paperwork, it is understood, because of its own roster mechanics for below-director job categories which parallel those in craft unions. General counsel Steiner, whose preliminary finding of discrimination from the hearing (text of his opinion in adjacent columns), stated at the press confab that the roster system appears to be a "closed-shop arrangement." It "has to be changed" to allow ethnic minorities a chance to get film work, he said, adding that "nepotistic practices" as well as "protection of jobs for union members" seem to be evident under the current system.


The EEOC has authority to start formal investigations with full power of subpoena. Besides chairman Alexander, other EEOC members all here for the local 0.0.-include vice chairman Luther Holcomb and commissioners Vicente T. Ximenes, William H. Brown III, and Elizabeth Kuck, Miss Kuck, sole femme member, is alert for discrimination against females, also now illegal.

Although the primary purpose of the hearings was to check for discrimination against Negroes, Mexican-Americans and women, the repeated references to the experience roster system, and the slashing attack that eventuated, indicates a full-scale attack on the entire hiring system as it affects everyone, regardless of ethnic or other considerations.

EEOC members had obviously done their homework; the studio and labor reps never had a chance, for their own statistics and forms were thrown back in their faces. It must be noted, however, that studios tended to send their industrial or labor relations department heads, all of whom stated that they could not speak for the "creative" side of production. But EEOC questions were of the calibre that demanded response by top-level execs, none of whom were in attendance.


Hearing was held in the Federal Office Bldg., with between 80 and 100, apparently minority-group members in attendance, who were giving the razzberry to several statements by witnesses.

It was an embarrassing day for Anthony J. Frederick (MCA), the first witness, who therefore didn't know what was awaiting him: ditto Arthur Schaefer of W7, from whom chairman Alexander extracted the concession that W7 employment opportunity programs were in "abysmal" condition; also 20th-Fox's Frank Ferguson; and Disney's Bonar Dyer. Boren, who only was present for the last hour or so, had no written statement to read, and was dismissed after seven minutes.

In addition, actor Ray Martel, in an emotional testimony, charged the entire industry with "overracism." Film industry, he said, is "motivated by money," and is full of "bigoted and racist dogs." Speaking for Mexican-Americans and In

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